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  1. 1

    ICPD issues and us -- some reflections.

    Shiva M

    Health for the Millions. 2004 Aug-Nov; 10-15.

    It was not just the emergency period that gave family planning a bad name, but it was the way the F.P. Programme had been planned with setting of 'targets’ number wise and gender wise. Dr Ashish Bose had called this "Targetitis". During the emergency as a post graduate in CMC, Ludhiana I heard from my senior doctor and teacher how on his way back from Delhi to Ludhiana, he had been stopped and marched to a F.P. camp for forced sterilization - and how he had escaped by the skin of his teeth when he demanded to talk to the collector whom he said he knew. If this could happen to a senior doctor, what would have been the fate of lesser mortals, many of whom were not even married nor had a living child. It was cruel. Equally cruel was the putting of IUCD/Copper T in women, even with blatant infection. Women complained of white discharge and all those involved in women's health were well aware of it. How could trained doctors and health personnel putting in IUCDs, in the numerous family planning camps not feel the need to address the other gynecological problems? (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Population perspectives and sustainable development.

    Rajeswar J

    Sustainable Development. 2000; 8(3):135-141.

    Neo-Malthusianism advocates 'population control' as the solution to all major global problems. While overpopulation is a serious problem, blaming the population growth in the South as the prime cause for the destruction of the environment is hypocritical. Rather than the 'bottom billion', it is the 'top billion' population from the 'affluent' West - and their 'effluence' - that is inflicting greater environmental injury to the earth. In the patriarchal system of free-market economy, aborigines and women are marked inferior. Given the strong preference for male children in many Third World countries, the statistics on 'missing girls' explain the sad situation of female infanticide and underreporting of female births. Most contraceptive research is aimed at women only. Furthermore, newly developed contraceptives would be first tested on poor women of colour, often without their knowledge or consent. However, after the 1994 Cairo Population Conference, reproductive rights and empowerment of women are recognized as key issues in controlling population growth. There must be a radical change and paradigm shift in policy-making at every level from subjugation and subordination to partnership in order to solve most of the world's problems. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Policy statement on population and the environment.

    Social Science Research Council [SSRC]; International Social Science Council [ISSC]; Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era [DAWN]

    FOCUS ON GENDER. 1993 Feb; 1(1):22-3.

    Inequalities in distribution of wealth, uneven use and distribution of resources, and human settlement patterns contribute more to environmental degradation than does population size. Current global economic strategies and policy decisions affect population and the natural environment. Large-scale technology and communications, the globalization of capital, subordination within world markets, and increasing consumption levels have broken down livelihoods and the environment. Therefore, contrary to popular opinion, population growth is not the key variable in environmental degradation. The erosion of livelihoods really affect women, especially poor women. Legal and political rights, women's economic independence, education, health, access to reproductive health services, and improved child survival greatly influence fertility decline. The disintegration of women's livelihoods restricts their access to health services and education. We cannot depend on capitalism to protect our livelihoods or the health of the environment. So nongovernmental organizations, international agencies, and national and local governments must do so. Assessments of intensive agriculture, industries destroying the social and physical environment, and military activities are critically needed. We need to reassess the macroeconomic forces affecting the natural environment and livelihoods of the poor. Communities should influence and demand policies and regulations preserving their access to resources. Women must participate more intensely in decision making. They should have access to key services. Citizens should have more access to information on environmental damage of industrialized products and processes. All of us need to advocate for more environmentally sound and sustainable forms of development and technology. People at the local, national, and global levels must work to change values that have caused overconsumption, thereby promoting a new ethic centering on caring for people and the environment.
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  4. 4

    Trends and opportunities abroad, 1987: an annual special publication of International Demographics.

    American Demographics

    INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS. 1986 Dec; 5(12):i-x, 1-217.

    To facilitate understanding of the consumer market potential of today's world, "International Demographics" clusters the world's 150 largest countries based on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The names of the 5 clusters--The Dependents, The Seekers, The Climbers, The Ultimate Consumers, and The Rocking Chairs--help identify the kind of consumer markets the countries represent. The 150 countries included in this 1987 volume are considered potential markets and are organized by cluster. All data cited are the most current numbers available, and all population estimates are the latest projections by the Center for International Research, US Census Bureau. Population trends of the next 14 years will change existing markets, and open new markets. However, due to rapid population growth in the poorest of the world economy, the Dependent countries, only intensified efforts on the part of the countries themselves and increased assistance from the international development community can pull these countries up. The sheer size of the market in Seeker and Climber countries is sufficient to indicate increased consumer demand. Add to that increasing income, the predominance of youth, and the ongoing rural-to-urban shift, and it is clear that demand will center on consumer durables for beginning families as the large proportions of youth will center on consumer durables for beginning families as the large proportions of youth enter their prime spending years of 15-64. Construction, sanitation, power, telecommunications, and transport are expected to boom as youth add pressure to urban job markets and housing. Slowed or stagnated growth in the rapidly aging Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries tells a different story. Some Rocking Chair countries such as West Germany already are experiencing natural decrease. Market growth in the Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries is geared to the increasingly sophisticated tastes and needs of the elderly rather than to an increase in numbers. 4 demographic factors help identify market potential--the average annual population growth rate, the average number of lifetime births per woman, the status of women, and urbanization. Countries not currently considered good potential markets are growing very rapidly at an average population growth rate of 2.5% or more and will continue to do so. The status of women is low, and the urban population is concentrated in 1 city. countries with good market potential are growing more slowly, at a rate of 1.5-2.5% a year. Fertility is under control, the status of women is improving, and urbanization is spread throughout the country.
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  5. 5

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  6. 6

    Population, Consumption and Ecology project enters publication and dissemination phase.

    Coward H


    In 1993, an article in the "Atlantic Monthly" summarized population perspectives from a variety of disciplines but never mentioned religion. By 1994, the views of Muslims and Catholics were particularly evident at the 1994 Cairo UN Conference on Population and Development. Religious views affected draft documents of the conference, conference discussions, and the final Program of Action. The Cairo meetings were the first UN summits that allowed the contributions of nongovernmental organizations, including religious groups, at three preparatory meetings, the Cairo conference itself, and subsequent UN meetings in Copenhagen and Beijing. The Cairo conference evolved into a discussion of environmental degradation, population pressure, and excessive consumption, a departure from its original focus on the population problem and development. Current challenges are the trends in reproduction and consumption that threaten future generations and the ecology of the earth. World solutions will now engage religions and others knowledgeable about natural and human sciences. The Religious Consultation project is producing its publication on the wisdom of religions on population pressure, excessive consumption, and ecological degradation. The Project participants include US scholars from Kent State in Ohio (Islam), University of Wisconsin-Saint Clair (Buddhism), Drew University (Christianity), Colombia (Christianity), University of Florida-Gainsville (Hinduism), Rutgers University (Chinese religions), UCLA (Judaism), University of California-Santa Barbara (North American aboriginal religions), and a Japanese scholar from Bunkyo University (Buddism). The publications will include a formal one, a popular edition, and a theme issue in the Journal of the American Academy of Religion in the summer of 1997.
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  7. 7

    Population and social development. World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 6-12 March 1995.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 1994 Aug. 5 p. (Backgrounder 4)

    The 1994 Human Development Report states that world peace hinges on whether people have security in their daily lives. This articles discusses some implications of unbalanced population growth for limiting human development. This background paper refers to reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. The proposed people-centered approach would emphasize reducing poverty, building solidarity, and creating more jobs in developing countries in the context of sustainable development. Recent world conferences served as an interim impetus for securing the commitment of all countries to a human development agenda. The underlying assumption was that human development would fuel economic growth in sustainable ways. Demographic factors have exacerbated the problems of poverty, social conflict, and gender inequity. The UN's Plan of Action called for integrating population issues into all aspects of development planning. A concern is whether humans can adjust to the projected massive numbers of people without increasing scarcity, conflict, and social disintegration. The key to human progress has been recognized by some as the empowerment of women. It is proposed that population growth will be stabilized and poverty will be alleviated by provision of family planning services for women with an unmet need. The threat to human survival is recognized as threats to sufficient resources and inequitable access to resources at all levels. Structural adjustment development policies are recognized as remedies for serious economic imbalances at the expense of human needs. Natural resource depletion and environmental pollution are recognized as emanating from unsustainable production and consumption patterns in industrialized countries. Developing countries need jobs. The world's age distribution of population is demographically lopsided.
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  8. 8

    What it will take.

    Ehrlich PR; Ehrlich AH; Daily GC

    MOTHER JONES. 1995 Sep-Oct; 52-5.

    As world population continues to grow, the UN has made high, midrange, and low projections for population. The high projection, which shows population passing 28 billion in 2150 and continuing to climb, is entirely unrealistic because plague, famine, and/or war would occur if the population reached those levels. The low projection shows population peaking at 8 billion in 2050 and then dropping to below 5 billion by 2150. This below replacement level fertility seems possible with concerted international effort because the industrialized world is well below replacement level and China is rapidly approaching it. Understanding of how such a concerted international effort should be framed has grown from the realization that family size diminishes as child mortality declines to the identification of the specific aspects of development that result in smaller families: improving basic health, providing old-age security, educating women, and helping women become economically independent. An example of this sort of development at work is presented by Kerala state in India where women are treated equitably and are literate and where family size has fallen to 1.8 despite the prevailing poverty. The benefits of educating women, in fact, extend to all aspects of society. Effective family planning programs also help reduce fertility, especially when they are coupled with extensive education and promotion efforts. A large unmet need for contraception remains, however, and annual spending on reproductive health must increase significantly in developing countries. The life-support systems of the planet are also strained by the materialistic life-style embraced by industrialized nations. Rich nations perpetuate poverty in the developing world, and increasing socioeconomic equity would go far toward improving the human condition.
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  9. 9

    1989 report on the world social situation.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 126 p. (ST/ESA/213; E/CN.5/1989/2)

    The introductory section of this report on the world social situation describes the existing setting for social development, slow economic growth and scarce resources worldwide during the 1980s, and principal themes. The report was prepared by the Office for Development Research and Policy Analysis of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat, with contributions from the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the UN Office in Vienna. It explores the changing structure of the family; the advancement of women; food consumption and supply; inequality and poverty; new technologies and their social impact; threats to the environment; social development, security, and disarmament; international cooperation against drug abuse, international terrorism, and AIDS; migrants and refugees; and changing perceptions regarding social development issues. An annex considers the changing social situation in Africa.
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  10. 10

    Address before the Second Committee of the General Assembly at its 48th Session on agenda item 96: International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mahran M

    [Unpublished] 1993. 4 p.

    This speech by Dr. Maher Mahran, Egyptian Minister for population and family welfare, before the 48th UN general assembly on November 4, 1993, pertained to his remarks on the Annotated Outline for the UN Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994. Brief comments were made about conference preparations and conference facilities progress. The following recommendations were made to strengthen wording on the link between development and population and to use this link as a major thematic area. 1) The analysis of the impact of consumption patterns on economic growth and sustainable development should be expanded to addressed whether degradation of the environment and depletion of resources is due to the consumption patterns of the rich or to greater population numbers. The goal should be to attain reasonable consumption patterns for developed and developing nations. 2) The link between structural adjustment and poverty reduction needs to be included in the draft document; national reports should document the effects of structural adjustment on their economies. 3) The link between rural development and sustained economic growth should be made in the final document. 4) Male responsibilities and participation in population programs must be detailed in a separate chapter, not just in paragraph 17. More research and resource allocation needs to be directed to this area. 5) The active participation of the private sector and local communities should be secured; a definition of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is needed. 6) Chapter IV, subchapter A with Chapter XI should be combined with chapter IV, subchapter B as a separate entity; and chapter IV, subchapter C should be merged with chapter V. Chapters V and VI, chapters VII and VIII, chapters IX and X, and chapters XI and XII should be combined. 7) Greater emphasis needs to be placed on closing the gender gap and on implementing Safe Motherhood education programs, programs increasing women's status, programs linking ethics and population, programs for the elderly, and education in environmental protection and population. Finances, sovereignty, and NGO's freedom to experiment are other important issues. Egypt provides the example of a success story.
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  11. 11

    Brundtland: "intractable crisis".

    POPULI. 1993 Nov; 20(10):5-6.

    Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland delivered the 5th Rafael M. Salas lecture at the United Nations in September 1993. The most serious, predictable, and intractable crisis facing us is population growth. If we do not recognize this threat, we will not be able to circumvent it. We must look at population policies in the wider framework of global burden sharing. We must all equally share bills for peace-keeping, peace-building, reducing poverty and famine, preventing environmental threats, and checking population growth. Areas requiring our attention include a need for industrialized nations to change production and consumption patterns, reduction of poverty, meeting basic human needs, a need for developing countries to protect the environment, and curbing population growth to help realize sustainable development. Industrialized nations need to realize the reducing consumption of natural resources does not denote a reduction in the standard of living. Consumption of renewable and abundant resources need not be reduced, however. Structural adjustment programs and external debt prevent developing countries from increasing their health budgets. Military budgets remain unreasonably high in many countries and those that have military budgets greater than a certain level are uncreditworthy. We should be educating a healthy population not arming them. Signs of hope in reference to population growth include: a consistent, overall decline in fertility which is especially sharp in developing countries; and socioeconomic development centering on enhancing human resources overcoming traditional religious and cultural obstacles to fertility decline. The success of family planning programs depends on improving women's status. Men need to become responsible for their sexual behavior, fertility, health, and children. We know what needs to be done to achieve sustainable development, but we mobilize everyone, especially political leaders and the mass media.
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  12. 12

    ICPD: in whose interest?

    Shiva M

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1994 Jun; 2(3):4-7.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing countries and of women of color must be controlled.
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  13. 13

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  14. 14

    Work, consumption and authority within the household: a Moroccan case.

    Maher V

    In: Of marriage and the market: women's subordination internationally and its lessons. 2nd ed., edited by Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz, and Roslyn McCullagh. London, England, Routledge, 1984. 117-35.

    The organization of work and consumption patterns of men and women was explored within the household among Berber-speaking people of the Middle Atlas region using data from a study of a cluster of hamlets which are attached to a small (11,000) Arabic-speaking town. The town's population consists of administrators, teachers, traders, and two battalions of soldiers. Approximately 2/3 of the hamlet populations is engaged in agriculture. There is a sexual division of labor in the hamlets between adult men and women. Women's work consists of the care of animals; the cultivation of subsistence crops; the processing and cooking of agricultural products; and the care of the house and its children, the aged and the sick. Women do not have access to money, so they are confined to qualitatively differentiated social roles. Women do not even control the income from their agricultural work. Female inheritance constitutes a threat for the patrilineal males. The husband becomes full guardian of his wife by paying bridewealth and may control her social contacts and her relations with her family of origin. In this survey, 52% of hamlet marriages ended in divorce compared with 28% of the town bridewealth-paying unions. At the time of divorce, a woman a claim only her personal belongings and half of that year's wheat crop. According to the etiquette followed when there are guests, and as a family routine, men and women eat separately. The neglect of children's special needs means that 70% of all deaths occur among children <14 years old. The marriage contract stipulates that a wife has a right to food, lodging, and a given sum of money for clothes. Anything else, such as medical expenses, are paid for by the woman's family of origin. In the province, only 10% of the girls of school age went to school. Since women are separated from money, their position worsens as household cash income increases, because of the diffusion of wage-earning and the more frequent sale of agricultural products. Women work more, consume relatively less, and are increasingly controlled by men.
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  15. 15

    Children, women and the environment.


    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 15 p.

    The relationship among children, women, and the environment is approached within the framework of UNICEF. The impact of environmental degradation on children is greater and has longterm effects. An approach to the problem of environmental degradation is to focus on the well being of children and their mothers. Activities to improve well being involve household food security (techniques for improved and sustained crop yields and better food processing and storage), water and sanitation activities, household fuel security (agroforestry and fuel efficient stoves), and promotion and/or facilitation of breast feeding. The aforementioned "doable" activities alleviate the workload and contribute to better health for children. Other "doable" activities which contribute to well-being are formal and informal educational and advocacy, reduction of child mortality, and other health improvements (oral rehydration, immunization). The strategy is to provide interventions to improve conditions at the household and community levels along with social mobilization and encouragement of longterm self-reliance. The assumption is that high impact, low cost techniques with achievable actions can stimulate other local and national initiatives and empower communities. Underlying causes must be considered: poverty, consumption patterns. Discussion focuses on the underlying causes and conditions that need improvement and are "doable". Sustainability is augmented by social mobilization and advocacy. It is underscored that those without means for providing the basic necessities of life cannot be placed in the position of directly caring for the environment, because survival is at stake. Mobilization of governments, national and international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations and communities is needed. Solutions are complex so that even partial "doable" solutions demand immediate attention. Production techniques must be environmentally sustainable and sound for all countries. Integrated health and family planning are necessary for lowering birth and death rates and reducing pressure on limited resources. The goals must be perceived by local populations as a benefit because of a better standard.
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  16. 16

    Beyond "vasectomies for groceries": a rejoinder to Joseph Fletcher.

    Bello W

    FOCUS. 1993; 3(2):43, 47-50.

    Rebuttal is made to a theory that developed countries should not provide famine relief to countries whose population size has exceeded their carrying capacity and that developing countries must also accept contraceptives and encourage vasectomies to receive development aid. This view is based on assumptions and arguments that more than 10 years of research, analysis, and informed debate have made anachronistic. 20% of the world's population who live in developed countries consume 80% of the Earth's resources. At present levels of consumption and waste, the 57 million people born in developed countries in the 1990s. Japan has few natural resources and limited agricultural capacity and, thus, has already exceed its carrying capacity. Still it has one of the world's highest standards of living and a high degree of ecological stability. Japan has displaced its resources and environment costs to less wealthy and less powerful countries. Japan's demand for tropical woods, for example, is responsible for rapid deforestation in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Laos. It exports its industrial pollution to developing countries, largely by relocating pollution intensive heavy and chemical industries to other Asian countries. Population growth is not the leading reason for the famines in the Sahel. Global climactic change, conflict between the superpowers in the Horn of Africa, and export agriculture (e.g. during the 1984-1985 famine, Ethiopia exported green beans to England) contributed greatly to these famines. To reduce fertility rates, society must work to raise living standards, cultivate equality, and people's control over their lives, and improve women's status. Sri Lanka, China, and the Indian state of Kerala are examples of how political commitment to social welfare, including a commitment to increasing women's status, contributed to sizable reductions in population growth despite only moderate levels of per capita income.
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  17. 17

    Living in a sustainable world.

    Rowley J; Holmberg J

    In: Making development sustainable: redefining institutions, policy, and economics, edited by Johan Holmberg. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 321-46.

    This essay reviews life in a sustainable world from the perspectives of population policy in the South and patterns of consumption in the North. It is held to be essential that the rate of population growth and consumption decrease in a full world scenario. Examples are cited which show that primary environmental care, with the added focus on empowerment of women, can be a successful approach to promote family planning. The development of a new ethic or morality of consumption to change consumption patterns in the North is suggested. This process could be encouraged by governments helping to make prices reflect full environmental costs and providing increased incentives for the development of environmentally benign technologies.
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  18. 18

    The third revolution: environment, population and a sustainable world.

    Harrison P

    London, England, I.B. Tauris, 1992. xi, 359 p.

    Crisis sometimes spurs revolutions. The revolution that needs impetus is sustainable development. The issues of rapid population growth, consumption and technology, and environmental destruction are complex. Overstating the importance of population growth is no better than ignoring it as an important factor. Five village case studies reflect empirical evidence of the nature of the problems: Musoh, Malaysia; Ranomafana, Madagascar; Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Kalsaka, Burkina Faso; and Hatia Island, Bangladesh. The example in Malaysia reflects the myth that forest people do not put pressure on the environment, which is only true when population density and consumption are low and technology is limited to sticks and blowpipes. Various theses about population are traced from Robert Wallace, William Godwin, and Thomas Malthus through critics such as William Hazlitt, Karl Marx, Henry George, and into the modern period of Ester Boserup, Paul Ehrlich, Dennis Meadows, and Paul Simon. The result is ideological chaos. The author reflects on the growth of the environmental crisis, the shortages of food, fertile land, energy, and minerals, and the state of biological diversity. The Madagascar example, illustrates past creative processes and present destructive ones. Deforestation, forest adjustments, land degradation, marginal people and areas are considered. Burkina Faso exemplifies how soil erosion can be stopped with appropriate use of technology on marginal slopes, but the balance between population and resources is lacking. In the Cote d'Ivoire example, author reflects on the growth of nonagricultural work, urbanization, the environmental impact of cities, solid waste generation and disposal, polluted waters, and atmospheric pollution. On Hatia Island population density, harsh environmental conditions, and cultural patterns which place women in inferior positions show the nature of poverty and interaction with population growth, which is exacerbated by natural disaster. A general theory of impacts is proposed based on Barry Commoner's concepts and charted. The options for action are identified. Shakespeare's Hamlet syndrome is referred to in the hope that action is not delayed until almost too late.
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  19. 19

    The case that the world has reached limits.

    Goodland R

    In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 3-22.

    Population multiplied by per capita resource consumption denotes the total flow (throughput) of resources from the ecosystem to the economic subsystem, then return to the ecosystem as waste. The global ecosystem's source and dump uses have a finite capacity to support the economic subsystem, so throughput growth does not lead to sustainability. The major limit to throughput growth is fossil energy use. The human economy now uses around 40% of the net primary product of photosynthesis and with a doubling of the world's population that figure rises to 80%. The 2nd evidence of limits is global warming resulting from carbon dioxide buildup caused by burning fossil fuels (beginning with the Industrial Revolution) and by deforestation. The hole in the ozone layer is evidence of the planet's limits to absorb chlorofluorocarbon pollution. Ultraviolet B radiation enters through this hole posing an increased risk of depressed immune systems, skin cancer, and declining crop yields and marine fisheries. Decreased productivity of the land caused by soil erosion, salination, and desertification is the 4th evidence of limits. Population growth and activity have already decreased the earth's biodiversity. Developing countries exceed limits because their populations are so large (77% of the world's total) and continue to grow faster than they can provide for themselves (90% of world's population growth). Yet developed countries consume more than 70% of the world's commercial energy. Reducing poverty, educating girls, improving women's status, and meeting the unmet demand for family planning would curb population growth. Qualitative development must replace quantitative throughput growth to achieve sustainability. We can do so by accelerating technical improvements in resource productivity (producing more with less), reducing population growth, and redistributing resources (e.g., technology transfer) and wealth from developed to developing countries.
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  20. 20

    Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)

    The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
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  21. 21

    Trends and opportunities abroad, 1988.

    Rusoff D

    Ithaca, New York, American Demographics, Inc., 1988. xvi, 217 p.

    To better understand consumer markets in today's world, this annual volume clusters the world's 150 largest countries according to their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The 5 clusters--the Dependents, the Seekers, the Climbers, the Ultimate Consumers, and the Rocking Chairs--help identify the kind of consumer markets the countries represent. The clusters give market researchers a quick way of targeting potential world markets for further research effort. Population trends are powerful movers and shakers. For Seeker and Climber countries, current and anticipated growth in populations and income mean expanding markets far into the future. For Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries, increasingly sophisticated tastes and the needs of the aging will fuel the market. For Dependent countries--the poorest part of the world economy--only intensified efforts by the countries themselves and greater assistance from the international development community can pull these countries up in the face of relentless demographic pressure. The sheer size of the market in Seeker and Climber countries is enough to indicate increasing consumer demand. 4 demographic factors help identify market potential: 1) the average annual population growth rate, 2) the average number of lifetime births per woman, 3) the status of women, and 4) urbanization. Dependent countries rely primarily on others for food supplies, for professional assistance in building infrastructure, and for educating their youth. Concerted efforts are being made in Seeker countries to improve health and education, slow population growth, upgrade the status of women by encouraging them to participate in higher education and the labor force, and increase access to family planning. Climber countries are demographically the most important expanding markets in the world today. Change lies ahead in the purchasing behavior of mature households in Ultimate Consumer countries as the more educated, more moneyed middle-aged people enter the ranks of the elderly.
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  22. 22

    Implications of changing age structure for current and future development planning.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1987. 10 p. (Population Research Leads No. 25)

    The Asian and Pacific region's decline in fertility and mortality over the past 2 decades has resulted in large shifts in the age composition of national populations, which affects planning in nearly every social and economic sector. For the region as a whole, the crude birthrate is estimated to have remained at 40/1000 population until about 1970, declining to 27/1000 in the 1980-85 period. This rapid decline in fertility has complicated population policy formulation and the integration of population factors into development planning. The demonstration that government programs could alter demographic trends meant that population no longer could be treated simply as an exogenous variable in development planning. The combination of previously high fertility and declining mortality, which particularly affected the survival rates of infants and children, resulted in a small increase in the proportion of the population of the region below age 15, from 37% in 1950 to 41% in 1970. By 1985, the latter proportion dropped to 35% because of declining fertility. Due to the previously high fertility and more recent declines, the proportion of the population in working-age groups increased from 56% in 1975 to 61% in 1985 and is projected to reach 65% by 2000. Providing employment for this rapidly increasing population of labor-force age is a major challenge for countries of the region over the next several decades. For those few countries in the Asian and Pacific regions who had low birth and death rates by 1960, the current issue is demographic aging. As the rate of population growth per se decreases in importance as a planning goal, other aspects of population, such as spatial distribution, take on more significance. The rising marriage age and organized family planning programs were the primary causes of fertility decline in the region, although the decline was limited in South Asia where large pockets of high fertility (a total fertility rate in the range of 5-7) remain. The contribution of rising marriage age to further fertility decline is approaching the limit, except in the countries of South Asia where the marriage age continues to be below 20 years. In most of the countries of the region, the potential also exists for a 2nd generation "baby boom" resulting from a changing age structure. This would in turn slow down the pace of fertility decline unless compensated by a rapid fall in fertility of younger married women caused by successful implementation of family planning programs and other associated socioeconomic changes. Aside from the straightforward implications of demographic change, changes in age structure also imply changes in consumption patterns. Thus, planning for production, consumption, investment, and distribution always should incorporate changes in age structure.
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  23. 23

    Trends and opportunities abroad, 1987.

    Rusoff D; Walsh D

    Ithaca, New York, International Demographics, 1986. x, 217 p.

    This volume contains descriptions of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and basic statistics on social indicators, the status of women, urbanization, and economic indicators for 50 countries grouped into 5 clusters--the Dependents, the Seekers, the Climbers, the Ultimate Consumers, and the Rocking Chairs--to help identify the kind of consumer markets the countries represent. The clusters give market researchers a quick way of targeting potential world markets for further research effort. Population trends are powerful movers and shakers. For Seeker and Climber countries, current and anticipated growth in populations and income mean expanding markets far into the future. For Ultimate Consumer and Rocking Chair countries, increasingly sophisticated tastes and the needs of the aging will fuel the market. For Dependent countries--the poorest part of the world economy--only intensified efforts by the countries themselves and greater assistance from the international development community can pull these countries up in the face of relentless demographic pressure. The sheer size of the market in Seeker and Climber countries is enough to indicate increasing consumer demand. 4 demographic factors help identify market potential; 1) the average annual population growth rate, 2) the average number of lifetime births per woman, 3) the status of women, and 4) urbanization. Dependent countries rely primarily on others for food supplies, for professional assistance in building infrastructure, and for educating their youth. Concerted efforts are being made in Seeker countries to improve health and education, slow population growth, upgrade the status of women by encouraging them to participate in higher education and the labor force, and increase access to family planning. Climber countries are demographically the most important expanding markets in the world today. Change lies ahead in the purchasing behavior of mature households in Ultimate Consumer countries as the more educated, more moneyed middle-aged people enter the ranks of the elderly.
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  24. 24

    The family that does not reproduce itself.

    Keyfitz N


    Mean family size in the industrial nations is less than the 2.1 children per couple needed for the population to remain constant over the long run. The countries of Western Europe have a mean family size of about 1.61 children per couple, with West Germany as low as 1.42, Japan at 1.71, Europe as a whole at 1.9, and the US at 1.85. The decline of births is related to 1) contraception, for the 1st time controlled by women; 2) women's employment outside the home; and 3) the democratization of decision making within couples. Work opportunities for women lower the birth rate, but they do so by freeing women from the dictatorship of men. The activity of child rearing is compared with other uncompensated activities that occupy people's leisure on the one hand, and with paid work in the other hand. Clerical work, women's current alternative to the 19th century factory, has agreeable social elements combined with tolerable and limited duties. Staying home with children can be lonely 7 days a week; it lacks crisp challenges and interpersonal relations. If parents do not spend their money and time producing children, they can apply both money and time to the purchase and use of dazzling array of other goods. Children are no longer investments in the traditional sense because 1) children are in large part no longer formed by parents but by television, schools, and peer groups; and 2) parents rely on their own savings and the state to provide for their old age. A feature of earlier high fertility was the inculcation of differentiated gender roles starting long before marriage. Women has few choices beyond raising children. The spread of high-fertility cultures did not need to be planned by anyone; sheer aithmetic worked at 2nd remove to make male dominance universal. This article argues that under modern conditions there will be few children.
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  25. 25

    Two-income families.

    Thomas WV

    In: The women's movement: agenda for the '80s. Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 1981. 61-80.

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