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Finance and Development. 2007 Jun; 44(2): p.When leaders in developed and developing countries alike ponder ways to boost growth, reduce inequality, and improve living standards, the enduring battle of the sexes is most likely the last thing on their minds. But they might want to think again. Gender differences have long been incorporated into economic analysis at the microeconomic level in such fields as public finance, labor, and development economics. For instance, different migration patterns for men and women in developing countries from rural to urban areas have long been a staple of models in development economics and contribute to our understanding of the overall development process. But more recently, the focus has turned to the potential macroeconomic implications of gender differences in behavior-both for understanding economic developments and for formulating sensible policies. Gender differences in behavior that are the outcome of private decisions or reflect the influence of public policies may lead to different outcomes in the macroeconomy, with implications for aggregate consumption, investment, and government spending and, hence, national output. Yet fiscal policies are rarely formulated to take account of gender. (excerpt)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):91-110.This paper will deal with some of the issues that create demographic uncertainty and some of the trends which are likely to shape demographics in the future. World population has dramatically swelled to over 6 billion people today, more than double the number in 1950, when it was about 2.5 billion people. But population growth has not been linear over time. During the last half of the XX century, the annual growth rate of world population has been at first increasing to the value of almost 2% around the end of the 1950s, then decreasing until the beginning of the 1960s. It reached the pick of 2.19% in 1963. Afterwards it started an endless downward trend. In 2004 it was estimated to be 1.4%. World population is likely to keep on increasing through the first decades of the XXI century, although at a less rapid pace. The United Nations Population Division has acknowledged the lack of continuity in the population growth rate since the mid-1990s by periodically adjusting its estimates of population growth to 2050. Why the uncertainty? This paper will first quickly consider some of the reasons which cause the demographic uncertainty - economic and political changes, consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and of the improvements in girls' education levels. Second it will tackle some of the issues we should watch for in relation to population - aging populations, growing youth bulges in many countries, increasing urbanization in the developing world, spreading infectious diseases and rising consumption. It will end up providing reflections upon some prospective challenges for world population. (excerpt)
World Watch. 2004 Sep-Oct; 14-17.A generation ago, human population growth became an explosive issue. Since then, it has largely disappeared from the media. But the consequences of still-rising population colliding with fast-rising resource consumption have in some respects worsened, and are bringing a whole new set of concerns. Forty years ago, the world's women bore an average of six children each. Today, that number is just below three. In 1960, 10-15 percent of married couples in developing countries used a modern method of contraception; now, 60 percent do. To a considerable extent, these simple facts sum up the change in the Earth's human population prospects, then and now. In the mid-1960s, it was not uncommon to think about the human population as a time bomb. In 1971, population biologist Paul Ehrlich estimated that if human numbers kept increasing at the high rates of the time, by around 2900 the planet would be teeming with sixty million billion people (that's 60,000,000,000,000,000). But the rate of population rise actually peaked in the 1960s and demographers expect a leveling-off of human numbers this century. (excerpt)
Renegotiating boundaries: self perception and public debate on globalization and gender equality in India.
Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 2002 Dec 31; 8(4): p..Global trends towards market economies have signalled the ascendancy of neo-liberal paradigms. Their impact in the Asia-Pacific region has brought about significant social and cultural change. For women the consequences of market liberalization and deeper integration into the global economy are often complex and contradictory. Developing countries such as India have pursued policies of economic liberalization over the last decade. Based on fieldwork among lower middle class families in West Bengal, India, this paper examines the apparent paradox between women's conceptions of empowerment and the reality of the overall negative impact of structural adjustment policies on women. I focus on the worldviews of Bengali lower middle classes concerning gender equality, which are mediated by both public debate and the globalized popular media. The analysis pays particular attention to the confluence of the pro-women consumer discourses of the global market with earlier developmentalist notions of the public role of women. By exploring the ways in which women have been recast within the debates on equality and empowerment, my paper considers the implication of these narratives in enabling women to expand their opportunities and disrupt hegemonic codes. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)