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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    [From a method for family planning to a differentiating lifestyle drug: images of the pill and its consumer in gynaecological advertising since the 1960s in West Germany and France] Vom Mittel der Familienplanung zum differenzierenden Lifestyle-Praparat : Bilder der Pille und ihrer Konsumentin in gynakologischen Werbeanzeigen seit den 1960er Jahren in der BRD und Frankreich.

    Malich L

    NTM. 2012 Feb; 20(1):1-30.

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  2. 2

    Budgeting with women in mind.

    Stotsky JG

    Finance and Development. 2007 Jun; 44(2):[9] p.

    When leaders in developed and developing countries alike ponder ways to boost growth, reduce inequality, and improve living standards, the enduring battle of the sexes is most likely the last thing on their minds. But they might want to think again. Gender differences have long been incorporated into economic analysis at the microeconomic level in such fields as public finance, labor, and development economics. For instance, different migration patterns for men and women in developing countries from rural to urban areas have long been a staple of models in development economics and contribute to our understanding of the overall development process. But more recently, the focus has turned to the potential macroeconomic implications of gender differences in behavior-both for understanding economic developments and for formulating sensible policies. Gender differences in behavior that are the outcome of private decisions or reflect the influence of public policies may lead to different outcomes in the macroeconomy, with implications for aggregate consumption, investment, and government spending and, hence, national output. Yet fiscal policies are rarely formulated to take account of gender. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Food sources of vitamin A and provitamin A specific to Africa: An FAO perspective.

    Codjia G

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):357-360.

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in Africa, especially in the Sahelian countries. It occurs mainly in young children and women of childbearing age. Inadequate intake of vitamin A is the main cause of the deficiency. The main animal sources of vitamin A are liver, eggs, milk, and milk products. They contain 25 to 8,235 retinol equivalents (RE)/100 g of edible portion. Even though these sources are rich in highly bioavailable vitamin A, their consumption among the population is still low. Plant foods rich in provitamin A represent more than 80% of the total food intake of vitamin A because of their low cost, high availability, and diversity. Fruits, roots, tubers, and leafy vegetables are the main providers of provitamin A carotenoids. Because of their availability and affordability, green leafy vegetables are consumed largely by the poor populations, but their provitamin A activity has been proven to be less than previously assumed. Among fruits, mangoes constitute an important seasonal source of vitamin A. Yellow or orange sweet potatoes are rich in provitamin A. Red palm oil has a high concentration of provitamin A carotenoids (500-700 ppm/100 g). Extension of new varieties with a high content of bioavailable provitamin A and locally adapted education and counseling on the handling and storage of provitamin A sources can significantly increase the vitamin A intake of vulnerable people. The Food and Agriculture Organization has implemented projects in several African countries to increase production and promote consumption of locally produced or available vitamin A-rich foods. The focus has been on women as the principal food producers and behavioral change agents. Adoption of food- and agriculture-based strategies as the best, appropriate, efficient, and long-term solution should be the focus of African efforts to improve nutrition. Food sources of vitamin A and provitamin A are plentiful in Africa. Food-consumption practices, food habits, and cultural aspects represent essential factors to be taken into account for successful implementation of these approaches. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Enhancing vitamin A intake in young children in western Kenya: Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes and women farmers can serve as key entry points.

    Hagenimana V; Low J; Anyango M; Kurz K; Gichuki ST

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):376-387.

    In western Kenya, where vitamin A deficiency is common and the white sweet potato is an important secondary staple, orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were introduced and their consumption was promoted, along with other vitamin A-rich foods. Ten women's groups grew a number of varieties of sweet potato on group plots in on-farm trials. Five of the groups also received an intervention consisting of nutritional education, individual counseling, and participatory rapid appraisal techniques to promote vitamin A consumption, while the other five formed the control group that received no additional promotion. Changes in consumption of children under five years of age were assessed before and after a one-year intervention period using the Helen Keller International food-frequency method. Varieties were tested for yield, agronomic performance, taste and appearance, and dry matter content. They were also assessed for ß-carotene content in the forms of boiled and mashed puree, sweet potato flour, and processed products. Children in the intervention group consumed vitamin A-rich foods almost twice as frequently as control children (93% more), especially orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, mangoes, dark-green leafy vegetables, butter, and eggs. The yields of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were at least twice those of white sweet potatoes, as were the taste and appearance ratings. The dry matter content of the varieties exceeded 25%, except for one that was preferred as a weaning food. ß-Carotene values were high enough that one cup of boiled and mashed sweet potato fed daily to children of weaning age would alone meet their requirement of vitamin A, even using the higher 12:1 ß-carotene:retinol conversion. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes produced and prepared by women farmers can serve as a key food-based entry point for reducing vitamin A deficiency. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Renegotiating boundaries: self perception and public debate on globalization and gender equality in India.

    Ganguly-Scrase R

    Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 2002 Dec 31; 8(4):[17] p..

    Global trends towards market economies have signalled the ascendancy of neo-liberal paradigms. Their impact in the Asia-Pacific region has brought about significant social and cultural change. For women the consequences of market liberalization and deeper integration into the global economy are often complex and contradictory. Developing countries such as India have pursued policies of economic liberalization over the last decade. Based on fieldwork among lower middle class families in West Bengal, India, this paper examines the apparent paradox between women's conceptions of empowerment and the reality of the overall negative impact of structural adjustment policies on women. I focus on the worldviews of Bengali lower middle classes concerning gender equality, which are mediated by both public debate and the globalized popular media. The analysis pays particular attention to the confluence of the pro-women consumer discourses of the global market with earlier developmentalist notions of the public role of women. By exploring the ways in which women have been recast within the debates on equality and empowerment, my paper considers the implication of these narratives in enabling women to expand their opportunities and disrupt hegemonic codes. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Nutrition scenario in Karnataka, a state in southern India.

    Sheela K

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999; 8(2):167-174.

    India is an agricultural country and the majority of India’s population live in rural areas. This is so in Karnataka, a state in southern India. The present report consists of a detailed nutrition situation analysis. Karnataka has a population of 45 million, which is approximately 3–5% of India’s population. One in every two women are agricultural labourers, reflecting women’s predominance in the field of agriculture. The state has a literacy rate of 56%. The food consumption patterns reveal that cereals and millets are the main food items. However, protective foods (i.e. foods that are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals) are consumed in lesser amounts. When compared with the average Indian recommended dietary intake (RDI), the intake of energy in adults was found to be higher, as was protein. The average intake of vitamins, however, was 50% less than the RDI. Unlike adults, energy deficiency is a problem in the diets of preschool children. Growth retardation has been observed in a vast majority of children in Karnataka. An improvement in the nutritional status of rural adults has been observed in recent years. Protein energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and B-complex deficiencies are the major nutritional deficiencies among preschool children, while anaemia remains a major health problem in women. Improvement in the healthcare system has brought a decline in the infant mortality rate in Karnataka and the state attained universal immunization coverage in 1990. The National Nutrition Programme – Integrated Child Development Scheme provides an integrated package of services to residents of Karnataka. (author's)
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  7. 7

    2001 Behavioural Surveillance Survey in Yunnan and Sichuan. Condom point of sale report.

    Horizon Market Research; Futures Group Europe

    Beijing, China, Horizon Market Research, 2002 Dec. [40] p.

    A modified behavioural surveillance (BSS) study was carried out Yunnan and Sichuan in late 2001 by Horizon Market Research on behalf of The Futures Group Europe (FGE), which is a partner under the 2000-2005 China-UK HIV Prevention and Care Project, with funding from the Department of International Development (DFID). FGE has a contract with DFID (prime contract number CNTR 00 0383) to carry out a condom social marketing (CSM) project in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces with the goal of helping China mount an effective national response to HIV/AIDS in China. The CSM Project has six components: Understanding the factors affecting risky behaviour and condom use by high-risk groups; Building consensus and disseminating lessons learned (related to CSM) among the key stakeholders; Raised awareness of risky behaviour and of condoms as both an effective and acceptable prevention among target population; and reduced stigma and more tolerant attitudes of general population towards those with STIs and HIV/AIDS; Consistently improved access (physical, social, and economic) by target groups to high quality condoms; Condoms marketed under the CSM meet World Health Organization specifications; and A successful business model for sustainable private sector delivery of condoms to high-risk groups. This report is one of three from the behavioural surveillance survey, carried out in Yunnan and Sichuan in July through October 2001. The other reports focus on sex workers and adult males. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Global population and water: access and sustainability.

    Leete R; Donnay F; Kersemaekers S; Schoch M; Shah M

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)

    UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    [Fertility and household standard of living: a new look] Fecondite et niveau de vie des menages: un nouveau regard.

    Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED]

    Rabat, Morocco, Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED], 1992 Mar. 50 p.

    The relationship between household expenditure and fertility in Morocco is examined using data from the 1984-1985 National Survey on Consumption and Household Expenditure (ENCDM). The results indicate that fertility declines as household expenditure increases. Female education and economic activity appear to be the primary determinants associated with lower fertility. (ANNOTATION)
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  10. 10

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  11. 11

    Consumption: North American perspectives.

    Hynes HP

    In: Dangerous intersections: feminist perspectives on population, environment, and development. A project of the Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment, edited by Jael Silliman and Ynestra King. Cambridge, Massachusetts, South End Press, 1999. 189-201.

    This document discusses the content of the north American critiques of consumption and consumerism; the strengths and weaknesses of these critiques are cited in order to present the core elements that can bring about a woman-centered analysis. A report from a nongovernmental organization (NGO) promoting a simple, fairly low-cost solar cooker to Somali women, provide the occasion for the author's exposition of different facets of consumption and consumerism: the consumption of resources by individuals, by governments and the ruling elite, by semi-autonomous and secretive institutions such as the military, and by macroeconomic systems that are embedded within the matrix of political economy and cultural values. Three approaches are used as a basis for analyses to provide alternatives to consumption pattern and consumerist ideology in industrialized countries: the demographics of consumption, the movement to simplify life and make consumer choices that are less environmentally damaging, and the computation of the ecological footprint. The demographics of consumption claim that happiness has diminished as people work more to purchase more nondurable, packaged, rapidly obsolete, nonvital goods and services. The voluntary simplicity movement has emphasized the need for people to assess their real financial needs, to budget and invest to achieve financial independence on a substantially reduced income, and to calculate the impact of their lifestyle on the environment through household audits of energy, products, and waste. The ecological footprint model is based more on the calculation of consumer impact on the earth in connection with the responsibilities of government, the right of every human to a fair and healthful share of the earth's resources and a deep concern for not overloading or degrading global ecosystems. Woman-centered analysis of the issue of consumption was discussed with the aim of furthering the goals of redistributing and humanizing the use of natural resources, consumer goods, and services, and of mitigating and reversing the impact of pollution on ecosystems.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Consumption smoothing and excess female mortality in rural India.

    Rose E


    This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality [in India], by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children. In order to avert the issue of selection bias due to underreporting of births of girls, a methodology is employed that does not require data on births by gender. The results indicate that favorable rainfall shocks increase the ratio of the probability that a girl survives to the probability that a boy survives. (EXCERPT)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Household commodity demand and demographics in the Netherlands: a microeconometric analysis.

    Kalwij A; Alessie R; Fontein P

    JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1998; 11(4):551-77.

    We investigate the effects of demographics, household expenditure and female employment on the allocation of household expenditure to consumer goods. For this purpose we estimate an Almost Ideal Demand System based on Dutch micro data. We find that interactions between household expenditure and demographics are of significant importance in explaining the allocation to consumer goods. As a consequence, consumer goods such as housing and clothing change with demographic characteristics from luxuries to necessities. (EXCERPT)
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  14. 14

    Taking population out of the equation: reformulating I=PAT.

    Hynes HP

    North Amherst, Massachusetts, Institute on Women and Technology, 1993. iv, 59 p.

    This book presents a reformulation of the population/environment formula known as I = PAT, where "I" is human impact on the environment, "P" is population size, "A" is goods consumed per capita, and "T" is pollution generated by technology per good consumed. The introduction describes the formula and its attractiveness. The next section explains that the formula is so entrenched that critics and advocates debate its merits from a position within its argot. Feminists, on the other hand, would reform I = PAT to add key structural factors that reflect elements of social and environmental justice. The book continues by critically analyzing each factor in the equation and then offering corrections that 1) separate survival consumption from luxury consumption; 2) introduce a factor to account for military pollution; 3) introduce the element of environmental conservation; and 4) account for human agency. The new formula would be I = C - PAT, where "I" is human impact, "C" is conservation, "P" is patriarchy, "A" is consumption shaped by economic realities, and "T" is environmentally injurious technology. It is recommended 1) that women's health and environmental organizations replace the population framework with the feminist framework, introduce agency, educate women and men, and redirect contraceptive technology and research and 2) that environmental organizations teach ecological literacy, examine consumption, and support grassroots and urban environmentalism.
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  15. 15

    Gender, reproductive status, and intrahousehold food distribution.

    Millman SR; DeRose LF

    [Unpublished] 1997. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 27-29, 1997. [2], 25 p.

    The authors review and analyze available anthropometric and food consumption data to dispel the notion that women and children are routinely discriminated against in intrahousehold food allocation throughout the developing world. Little evidence was found that the youngest children tend to get less than their fair share of household food supplies. Researchers recording food consumption data have often omitted infant breast milk consumption, making it seem as though infants and young children are being underfed. Moreover, female children do not consistently have poorer growth than male children, even in india. Among Indian elites, however, there is strong evidence that women are discriminated against in the allocation of both food and health care. Adult women actually have better diets than adult men, except when lactating or pregnant. These findings suggest that, in the interest of both maternal and child health, nutrition and nutrition education interventions be targeted to pregnant and lactating women rather than to the broad population of women and children.
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Women-headed households and household welfare: an empirical deconstruction for Uganda.

    Appleton S

    WORLD DEVELOPMENT. 1996 Dec; 24(12):1811-27.

    This study examines the well-being of female-headed households (FHHs) in Uganda. Data were obtained from the first nationally representative sample survey, the 1992 Integrated Household Survey. 2729 households were classified as female-headed. 25.8% of households and 22.2% of individuals in Uganda were female household heads. Well-being was measured by consumption, income, assets, housing, time use, education, and health. Only around 1% of the poor were urban FHHs. FHHs were not significantly poorer as measured by consumption or low income. There were few differences between food consumption in male-headed households (MHHs) and FHHs. FHHs had significantly lower food consumption only in urban areas. People in FHHs worked longer hours in the busiest 12 hours of each day than in MHHs. Men in FHHs worked longer hours. Women in FHHs worked shorter hours than women in MHHs. Urban women in FHHs worked longer hours than those in MHHs. FHHs had less cultivable land and greater landlessness. FHHs in rural areas were significantly less likely to own their homes. FHHs had better built housing but inferior sanitation. In urban areas, FHHs were less likely to live in an independent house. Girls in FHHs were slightly less likely to be enrolled in school. Enrollment rates for boys were the same regardless of the gender of the household head. Female heads received less education than male heads. Mortality rates were nearly a third higher in FHHs. Adults in FHHs were less likely to seek medical care, but men in urban areas were more likely than women to be sent for treatment. Vaccination rates were higher in FHHs. Although women received less schooling, women did not receive less returns for schooling. Findings suggest that without remittances FHHs would be significantly poorer. Women in Uganda should not be targeted for poverty reduction interventions.
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  17. 17

    The determinants of female headship in Jamaica: results from a structural model.

    Handa S


    The determinants of female family headship in Jamaica are examined, with particular reference to the economic forces that lead to female headship. "The first section provides a sociological review of the Jamaican family structure, Section II outlines an economic model of household headship and considers some of its testable implications, Sections III and IV discuss the sample and present the results of the estimation procedure, and Section V concludes the discussion." The author concludes that "estimates from the structural probit model provide support for a theory that outside opportunities, or threat points, influence the household formation decision of adult women in Jamaica. An increase in the expected level of their own consumption and their children's welfare, associated with being a household head, significantly increases the probability of becoming a head." (EXCERPT)
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  18. 18

    Gender and nutrition.

    Patterson AW

    In: Gender, health, and sustainable development: perspectives from Asia and the Caribbean. Proceedings of workshops held in Singapore, 23-26 January 1995 and in Bridgetown, Barbados, 6-9 December 1994, edited by Janet Hatcher Roberts, Jennifer Kitts, and Lori Jones Arsenault. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995 Aug. 285-90.

    This paper presents an overview of some of the issues pertaining to nutrition in the Caribbean region: food production, food availability, food consumption, poverty, culture, and nutrition-related health problems. It is concluded that sustainable development should assure survival and the ability to be healthy. Research and programs are lacking in the attention given to the management and control of obesity and chronic diseases. Prevention of chronic diseases requires the adoption of healthy life styles and life skills in all population groups regardless of age, sex, or social status. Policy directions and the national allocation of resources are necessary for developing and implementing health education programs. Program strategies must involve multidisciplinary disciplines and personnel. The International Conference on Nutrition recommends further activity on improving household food security, preventing and managing infectious diseases, caring for the deprived and nutritionally vulnerable, promoting healthy diets and life styles, protecting consumers through improved food quality, preventing micronutrient deficiencies, researching nutrition situations, and including nutrition objectives within development plans. Little research, other than a small study in Jamaica, is available on the health impact of women's agricultural work in the Caribbean, particularly on pesticide and agricultural chemical exposure. Caribbean countries rely heavily on food imports to meet basic food needs. Currently there is adequate food availability at the national level. Poverty is a major cause of undernutrition and women in female-headed households are a particularly vulnerable group. Food consumption data in the Caribbean are inadequate for a variety of reasons. Indigenous food that is nutritionally of high quality is rejected as "poor people's food." The leading causes of death in the Caribbean include anemia, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes.
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  19. 19

    What it will take.

    Ehrlich PR; Ehrlich AH; Daily GC

    MOTHER JONES. 1995 Sep-Oct; 52-5.

    As world population continues to grow, the UN has made high, midrange, and low projections for population. The high projection, which shows population passing 28 billion in 2150 and continuing to climb, is entirely unrealistic because plague, famine, and/or war would occur if the population reached those levels. The low projection shows population peaking at 8 billion in 2050 and then dropping to below 5 billion by 2150. This below replacement level fertility seems possible with concerted international effort because the industrialized world is well below replacement level and China is rapidly approaching it. Understanding of how such a concerted international effort should be framed has grown from the realization that family size diminishes as child mortality declines to the identification of the specific aspects of development that result in smaller families: improving basic health, providing old-age security, educating women, and helping women become economically independent. An example of this sort of development at work is presented by Kerala state in India where women are treated equitably and are literate and where family size has fallen to 1.8 despite the prevailing poverty. The benefits of educating women, in fact, extend to all aspects of society. Effective family planning programs also help reduce fertility, especially when they are coupled with extensive education and promotion efforts. A large unmet need for contraception remains, however, and annual spending on reproductive health must increase significantly in developing countries. The life-support systems of the planet are also strained by the materialistic life-style embraced by industrialized nations. Rich nations perpetuate poverty in the developing world, and increasing socioeconomic equity would go far toward improving the human condition.
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  20. 20

    Consumption smoothing and excess female mortality in rural India.

    Rose E

    Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1995 Jan. 20, [8] p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 95-1)

    This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality, by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children....The impacts of households' landholdings, parents' education and the availability of health and educational institutions are also assessed. (EXCERPT)
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  21. 21

    Income, wealth, and intergenerational economic relations of the aged.

    Holtz-Eakin D; Smeeding TM

    In: Demography of aging, edited by Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1994. 102-45.

    Panel data from the HRS survey of health and retirement and the AHEAD survey on health and assets were expected to fill in the gaps in knowledge about the welfare of the aged. A remaining unfulfilled data need was identified as consumption data. The past research emphasis has been on income changes rather than on wealth changes in savings and dissavings. Needs assessment has been lacking. Little research was available on the economic needs of the aged and their effect on household budgets, consumption needs, and wealth decumulation. Wealth transfers also have not been well researched. There was little to research about how expectations of wealth transfers affected the decisions of the young and human capital accumulation. Comparable international data would facilitate examination of the interaction between public and private transfers. This article reviewed the relevant literature on the following issues: diversity in the economic status of the elderly, economic trends and future sustainability, the role of intergenerational transfers, and data needs, particularly of forecasting the economic status of the aged. The summary review of the income of the aged found that incomes were similar to the non-aged but showed a wider range. Poverty among the aged was lower than in the general population but higher compared to other industrialized countries. The American population aged 65 years and older had the highest income in the world, but age 75 years revealed the highest proportion of low-income women living alone. The literature on wealth was sparse compared to the literature on income. Little was known about the links between asset holdings and health status and health care expenses or between housing wealth and health status. What data were available covered a period of economic boom between 1983 and 1989.
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  22. 22

    Environmental issues of special concern to women and children. Discussion note.

    United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], 1994, Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women, Gaborone, Botswana, June 22-26, 1992. 5, [1] p. (ESD/P/ICPD.1994/EG.III/DN.17)

    Environmental degradation is a universal concern, affecting such basic human needs as food and water. Consumption and population need to be managed in order to assure natural resource sustainability, worldwide survival, environmental protection, and global well-being. Women and children are affected differently in developed compared to developing countries. In developing countries survival is a struggle, and environmental damage affects women first through, for instance, increased workload or poor quality water. Children are affected, for instance, through increased mortality and disease. The most critical environmental problems affecting women and children are conditions that threaten provision of food, safe water, and fuel for cooking or warmth. Contaminated water supplies, lack of adequate sanitation, and overcrowded conditions increase the human, animal, and crop hazard. Water is contaminated by agricultural run-off, industrial waste deposits, and sewage. Protection of watersheds and water quality have implications for the many rural women dependent on farming for their livelihood. Chemical contaminants from pesticides and fertilizers are particularly harmful to pregnant or breast feeding women, if ingested. Hazardous wastes from urban and industrial areas provide other hazards to women and children. High energy consuming countries contribute to natural resource depletion and pollution from industrial releases into the air, water, and soil. Women in developing countries use fuelwood, which contributes to deforestation. The time and energy used to collect fuelwood diminishes human resources. Deforestation reduces supply and contributes to greenhouse gas build-up. Other fuel available, such as agricultural waste and dung, are used instead as important fertilizers, without which soil becomes degraded. Land degradation limits food production, contributes to malnutrition and desertification, and limits women's means of livelihood. Women have an important role in managing natural resources, which entitles them to participate in community decision making.
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  23. 23

    Work, consumption and authority within the household: a Moroccan case.

    Maher V

    In: Of marriage and the market: women's subordination internationally and its lessons. 2nd ed., edited by Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz, and Roslyn McCullagh. London, England, Routledge, 1984. 117-35.

    The organization of work and consumption patterns of men and women was explored within the household among Berber-speaking people of the Middle Atlas region using data from a study of a cluster of hamlets which are attached to a small (11,000) Arabic-speaking town. The town's population consists of administrators, teachers, traders, and two battalions of soldiers. Approximately 2/3 of the hamlet populations is engaged in agriculture. There is a sexual division of labor in the hamlets between adult men and women. Women's work consists of the care of animals; the cultivation of subsistence crops; the processing and cooking of agricultural products; and the care of the house and its children, the aged and the sick. Women do not have access to money, so they are confined to qualitatively differentiated social roles. Women do not even control the income from their agricultural work. Female inheritance constitutes a threat for the patrilineal males. The husband becomes full guardian of his wife by paying bridewealth and may control her social contacts and her relations with her family of origin. In this survey, 52% of hamlet marriages ended in divorce compared with 28% of the town bridewealth-paying unions. At the time of divorce, a woman a claim only her personal belongings and half of that year's wheat crop. According to the etiquette followed when there are guests, and as a family routine, men and women eat separately. The neglect of children's special needs means that 70% of all deaths occur among children <14 years old. The marriage contract stipulates that a wife has a right to food, lodging, and a given sum of money for clothes. Anything else, such as medical expenses, are paid for by the woman's family of origin. In the province, only 10% of the girls of school age went to school. Since women are separated from money, their position worsens as household cash income increases, because of the diffusion of wage-earning and the more frequent sale of agricultural products. Women work more, consume relatively less, and are increasingly controlled by men.
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  24. 24

    Children, women and the environment.


    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 15 p.

    The relationship among children, women, and the environment is approached within the framework of UNICEF. The impact of environmental degradation on children is greater and has longterm effects. An approach to the problem of environmental degradation is to focus on the well being of children and their mothers. Activities to improve well being involve household food security (techniques for improved and sustained crop yields and better food processing and storage), water and sanitation activities, household fuel security (agroforestry and fuel efficient stoves), and promotion and/or facilitation of breast feeding. The aforementioned "doable" activities alleviate the workload and contribute to better health for children. Other "doable" activities which contribute to well-being are formal and informal educational and advocacy, reduction of child mortality, and other health improvements (oral rehydration, immunization). The strategy is to provide interventions to improve conditions at the household and community levels along with social mobilization and encouragement of longterm self-reliance. The assumption is that high impact, low cost techniques with achievable actions can stimulate other local and national initiatives and empower communities. Underlying causes must be considered: poverty, consumption patterns. Discussion focuses on the underlying causes and conditions that need improvement and are "doable". Sustainability is augmented by social mobilization and advocacy. It is underscored that those without means for providing the basic necessities of life cannot be placed in the position of directly caring for the environment, because survival is at stake. Mobilization of governments, national and international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations and communities is needed. Solutions are complex so that even partial "doable" solutions demand immediate attention. Production techniques must be environmentally sustainable and sound for all countries. Integrated health and family planning are necessary for lowering birth and death rates and reducing pressure on limited resources. The goals must be perceived by local populations as a benefit because of a better standard.
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  25. 25

    The case that the world has reached limits.

    Goodland R

    In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 3-22.

    Population multiplied by per capita resource consumption denotes the total flow (throughput) of resources from the ecosystem to the economic subsystem, then return to the ecosystem as waste. The global ecosystem's source and dump uses have a finite capacity to support the economic subsystem, so throughput growth does not lead to sustainability. The major limit to throughput growth is fossil energy use. The human economy now uses around 40% of the net primary product of photosynthesis and with a doubling of the world's population that figure rises to 80%. The 2nd evidence of limits is global warming resulting from carbon dioxide buildup caused by burning fossil fuels (beginning with the Industrial Revolution) and by deforestation. The hole in the ozone layer is evidence of the planet's limits to absorb chlorofluorocarbon pollution. Ultraviolet B radiation enters through this hole posing an increased risk of depressed immune systems, skin cancer, and declining crop yields and marine fisheries. Decreased productivity of the land caused by soil erosion, salination, and desertification is the 4th evidence of limits. Population growth and activity have already decreased the earth's biodiversity. Developing countries exceed limits because their populations are so large (77% of the world's total) and continue to grow faster than they can provide for themselves (90% of world's population growth). Yet developed countries consume more than 70% of the world's commercial energy. Reducing poverty, educating girls, improving women's status, and meeting the unmet demand for family planning would curb population growth. Qualitative development must replace quantitative throughput growth to achieve sustainability. We can do so by accelerating technical improvements in resource productivity (producing more with less), reducing population growth, and redistributing resources (e.g., technology transfer) and wealth from developed to developing countries.
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