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  1. 1

    Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    Thomas D; Strauss J

    [Unpublished] 1990. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Toronto, Canada, May 3-5, 1990. [2], 28 p.

    Household survey data from Brazil, matched with information collected at the municipio (county) level, are used to examine the relation between parental characteristics (primarily education), community infrastructure and services, and child height. Data are drawn from 2 sources: Informacoes Basicas Municipais (1974) is a periodic survey of 4000 municipios on infrastructure, health and education services. Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar (1974-75) is a household survey covering 37,000 children under age 8 on income, expenditure, anthropometry and socio-demographic characteristics. Local food price indices were derived from these data. Child height is significantly affected by local infrastructure, particularly modern sewerage and piped water in urban areas and electricity in rural settings. These effects are stronger for children over 2, those of better educated mothers, and those in households spending more. Higher prices for dairy products and sugar are linked to lower urban child height, and higher fish prices to lower rural child height, significantly for children of illiterate mothers. Higher prices for meat and rice are associated with taller height, possible because men usually eat these foods. Mothers with elementary schooling can counteract the effects of food prices on child height. Number of teachers is positively related to height in rural children. Numbers of nurses and of hospital beds is associated with shorter children, suggesting that large hospitals locate in poor urban areas. This study has succeeded in identifying some public investments that affect child health.
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  2. 2

    The water crisis and population. [Pamphlet collection].

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    [Rome, Italy], FAO, [1986]. vi, [126] p.

    The dimensions of the water crisis and its implications for the population of the world is the subject of a 4-pamphlet packet distributed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Part 1 relates legends about water and details the role of water in human history. Rapid population growth and its detrimental effects on water conservation and the environmental balance are explained. Recognition of the population growth problem is urged, with government-backed family planning programs recommended. Part 2 gives a detailed explanation of the life cycle and its dependence on soil and water. Climate, vegetation, and types of water are examined in relation to their role in the distribution of available water resources. Future water resources and demand are projected for agriculture, industry, and domestic use. The disruption of the balance between man and water and the problem of water pollution are addressed, as are deforestation, desertification, drought, and the greenhouse effect. Part 3 offers a view of inland waters and agriculture, with a history of irrigation and the role of irrigation today. Rural water, its use, sources, storage, and collection are examined in relation to work distribution, family size, and sanitation. Problems arising from unsafe water supplies, including disease, infection, and malnutrition are discussed, and examples are given of small-scale projects that have successfully addressed these problems. The final section deals with water and the future. A continuing effort at water and land conservation, as well as surface water and ground water management, is urged. Irrigation planning and supporting systems, such as terracing, fallowing, and improved cropping patterns, are presented as further management techniques. Preserving existing resources, lifting, various kinds of wells, new storage methods and purification systems, are suggested to increase domestic water conservation. Examples of water projects in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific are presented. Finally, population management and its crucial role in future water resources allocation, conservation, and distribution, is provided.
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