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Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study.
Science of the Total Environment. 2007 Mar; 374(1):60-70.The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, µg/L). Mercury levels were 0.38±0.5 µg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50±0.64 µg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45±13.8 µg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 µg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level. (author's)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 2(1):43-45.In India. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are present throughout the country. Out of 275 districts surveyed by Government of India institutions, Indian Council of Medical Research and Central Goiter Survey Teams in different States and Union Territories, 235 have been found to be endemic for iodine deficiency disorders (Tiwari et al., 1998; I.C.M.R., 1989) Deficiency of Iodine, which is among the body's essential micro nutrients, is both easy and inexpensive to prevent. Iodine is an essential element for normal growth and development in animals and humans. It is required for synthesis of the thyroid hormones i.e., thyroxine (T(-4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(-3)). Thyroid hormones bring about a wide variety of vital physiological processes such as early growth and development of the brain and body in man. Scientific studies in India and elsewhere have shown that nutritional iodine deficiency causes deficiency of thyroid hormones during foetal life and childhood. A normal healthy thyroid gland of an adult human contains 8-12 mg iodine. This can be reduced to as low as 1 mg or less in iodine endemic areas (Ranganathan and Reddy, 1995). (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)