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New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1992 Apr. 24 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 660)The purpose of this paper is to examine the demand characteristics of cigarettes in Turkey. Aggregate time series data for the 1960-1988 period are used in estimation. Income and price elasticities of cigarette demand are obtained. The effect of health warning is estimated to reduce cigarette consumption by about 9 percent since the inception of warnings in 1982. Imports of cigarettes have been allowed since 1984 in addition to advertising of cigarettes in the non-electronic media. The effect of health warnings are found to be stronger than the opposing effect of advertising. The results also suggest that public education about adverse health effects of smoking may be more effective in reducing consumption and less regressive on consumer incomes than raising the price of cigarettes. (author's)
Health Promotion International. 2004; 19(2):189-196.A survey of students’ smoking in China (n = 1896), comparing medical students with college students in nonmedical majors, was carried out to determine whether a medical education has a preventive effect on smoking uptake. The survey, sampling students from 12 universities in three cities, found no significant differences between medical and non-medical students in smoking prevalence (40.7% versus 45.1% for males, 4.4% versus 6.0% for females), in ‘ever smoked’ groups, in ‘ever smoked 100 cigarettes’ groups or in years of smoking. For both student groups, smoking prevalence increased with age and with years of college. However, one significant difference was found among the smokers: medical students were more likely to be occasional smokers than were non-medical students (75.3% occasional smokers among medical students who smoked versus 60.6% among non-medical students). These results suggest that a medical education had little effect on these students’ decisions to smoke, but that it may have modified their consumption level. Future studies are needed to ascertain factors affecting the decision to smoke and to identify possible early adopters of a nonsmoking culture in China. Action on a societal level is urgently needed to change Chinese social norms regarding smoking. (author's)
Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-9 national family health survey.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2004 Apr 3; 328(7443):801-806.Objective: To investigate the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical distribution of tobacco consumption in India. Multilevel cross sectional analysis of the 1998-9 Indian national family health survey of 301 984 individuals in 92 447 households in 3215 villages in 440 districts in 26 states. Setting Indian states. Participants 301 984 adults ( = 18 years). Main outcome measures Dichotomous variable for smoking and chewing tobacco for each respondent (1 if yes, 0 if no) as well as a combined measure of whether an individual smokes, chews tobacco, or both. Smoking and chewing tobacco are systematically associated with socioeconomic markers at the individual and household level. Individuals with no education are 2.69 times more likely to smoke and chew tobacco than those with postgraduate education. Households belonging to the lowest fifth of a standard of living index were 2.54 times more likely to consume tobacco than those in the highest fifth. Scheduled tribes (odds ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.29) and scheduled castes (1.19, 1.16 to 1.23) were more likely to consume tobacco than other caste groups. The socioeconomic differences are more marked for smoking than for chewing tobacco. Socioeconomic markers and demographic characteristics of individuals and households do not account fully for the differences at the level of state, district, and village in smoking and chewing tobacco, with state accounting for the bulk of the variation in tobacco consumption. The distribution of tobacco consumption is likely to maintain, and perhaps increase, the current considerable socioeconomic differentials in health in India. Interventions aimed at influencing change in tobacco consumption should consider the socioeconomic and geographical determinants of people’s susceptibility to consume tobacco. (author's)
CONSUMER MARKETS ABROAD. 1988 Aug; 7(8):12-3.Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong).
Design of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey: considerations on collecting data on decedents.
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. 1989 Mar-Apr; 104(2):183-8.This is a review of the design and methodology of the U.S. National Mortality Followback Survey. The survey "was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics on a national probability sample of adult deaths in the United States in 1986. Data were collected on (a) socioeconomic differentials in mortality, (b) prevention of premature death by inquiring into the association of risk factors and cause of death, (c) health care services provided in the last year of life, and (d) the reliability of certain items reported on the death certificate. In addition to demographic characteristics of the decedent available from the death certificate and the questionnaire, information was secured on cigarette smoking practices, alcohol use, food consumption patterns, use of hospital, nursing home, and hospice care, sources of payment for care, duration of disability, and assistance with activities of daily living." (EXCERPT)
Period and cohort trends for mortality and cigarette consumption in England and Wales, 1946 to 1980, with emphasis on sex ratios.
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. 1988; 41(4):373-84.This study continues previous work on the relationship between smoking and mortality using data for England and Wales for the period 1946-1980. "In this paper temporal changes in the sex ratio of cumulative cigarette consumption by cohort, and of smoking rates by age, are considered in relation to changes in the sex ratio of mortality. Again, no consistent correlations emerge and it is evident that factors other than smoking have played a dominant part in determining recent changes in the sex ratio of mortality in all age groups from 35-39 to 80-84 years. Among these 'other factors' are birth cohort effects that can be attributed, in part, to birth cohort changes in the sex ratio of mortality from bronchitis and emphysema." (EXCERPT)
In: Tobacco: a major international health hazard. Proceedings of an international meeting organized by the IARC and co-sponsored by the All-Union Cancer Research Centre of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR, held in Moscow, 4-6 June 1985, [edited by] D.G. Zaridze, R. Peto. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1986. 125-33. (IARC Scientific Publications No. 74)In most developing countries, tobacco consumption has been relatively low in the past. It has been increasing in recent years as developed countries have exported more cigarettes to developing countries, and as developing countries have cultivated more tobacco themselves to produce cheaper tobacco, at the sacrifice of food production. Tobacco sales are an important source of revenue for governments in the developing countries as in the developed countries. The spread of smoking to developing countries and the increase in tobacco consumption have had several adverse effects: an increase in lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases; an increase in economic burdens resulting from imports of cigarettes from developed countries and increased medical costs for smoking-related diseases; and decreases in production and import of foods. There are many obstacles and constraints to smoking control in the developing countries, but smoking control is badly needed to prevent lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases, to alleviate economic burdens, and to increase the production and import of foods. (author's)
[Unpublished] .  p.This worldwide review of smoking trends and of efforts to reduce smoking is based on information obtained from American embassy officials, government officials of specific countries, and published sources. It was prepared by the Office on Smoking and Health of the US Public Health Service for presentation at the 4th World Conference on Smoking and Health, convened in Stockholm in 1979. This review updates the information which was included in a similar review conducted in 1973. A brief regional summary of smoking trends and a more detailed summary of smoking trends in each of 36 countries is provided. The country summaries contain information, whenever available, on smoking trends, antismoking efforts, tobacco production, nicotine and tar levels, and smoking and cigarette advertising restrictions. In many developed countries, antismoking campaigns and the imposition of restrictions on smoking in public places and on tobacco advertising has led to a decline in smoking, even among teenagers. In most countries the decline among males was sharper than among females. The Scandinavian countries, in particular, waged intensive antismoking campaigns, and their efforts have had a marked impact on the public's smoking habits. In Sweden the goal is to create a smoke free environment within 25 years, and an intensive effort is being made to educate the country's youth about the negative consequences of smoking. As a result of these efforts, the percent of 16 years old Swedes who smoke declined between 1971-77 from 41%-25% among boys and from 47%-40% among girls. In the European region, the proportion of males who smoke is declining; however, more than 1/2 of the male population continues to smoke and smoking is increasing among teenagers and women in several European countries. In Asia as a whole, 40% of the male population smokes, and in some countries, e.g., Japan and the Philippines, the proportion of males who smoke reaches 70%. The Chinese are probably the heaviest smokers in the world. China is also the world's largest producer of cigarettes. In 1977, the Chinese manufactured 775 billion cigarettes while the US, the 2nd largest producer of cigarettes, produced 666 billion. In Africa, data on smoking is scarce. Available information suggest that the proportion of smokers in the population is probably similar to that in more developed regions of the world, but that per capita comsumption is much lower in Africa than in other areas simply because people cannot afford to purchase many cigarettes. As income in these countries increases, smoking will probably increase. Most African countries have made no effort to combat smoking. In Latin America as a whole, 18% of the female population and 45% of the male population smokes. In these countries smoking is more common among blue collar workers and less educated individuals than among other occupational groups and among more educated persons.