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  1. 1

    Ecological footprints of nations. How much nature do they use? How much nature do they have?

    Wackernagel M; Onisto L; Callejas Linares A; Lopez Falfan IS; Mendez Garcia J

    Xalapa, Mexico, Universidad Anahuac de Xalapa, Centro de Estudios para la Sustentabilidad, 1997 Mar 10. 32, [5] p.

    This "Ecological Footprints of Nations" initiative compares the ecological impact of 52 large nations, inhabited by 80% of the world population. It also shows to what extent their consumption can be supported by their local ecological capacity. All the calculations are based on official UN statistics. This document provides solid evidence that the human enterprise already far exceeds the long-term biophysical carrying capacity of the planet. About one-third more resources and eco-services are used by humanity than what nature can regenerate. People are living on the biophysical heritage of their children. Most significantly, eco-footprint analysis shows that it is the high-income countries that have appropriated most of the world's ecological output. In conclusion, sustainability begins with accepting the fact that people are dependent on nature and should acknowledge the problems posed by unsustainable lifestyles. Progress is only possible if there is a clear vision and measurable goals toward it. The contribution of this study was to show that the ecological bottom-line of sustainability can be measured. This document also presents systemic assessment to give direction for local, national, and global efforts to close the sustainability gap, which became an effective strategic planning tool and a guidepost for a more secure, equitable, and sustainable future.
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  2. 2

    Consumer perceptions of quality of family planning services in Egypt. [Draft].

    Kafafi L; Waszak C; Abou-Taleb H; Pfannenschmidt S

    [Unpublished] 1998 Jul 1. 59, [35] p.

    This paper presents the results from a study designed to explore consumers' expectations for quality of family planning (FP) services and how it may influence demand in Egypt. The first section of the paper presents findings on women's and men's knowledge of reproductive health issues, including their definition of FP, the various FP methods, rumors and misinformation about these methods, attitudes and decision-making processes about FP practice and sources of information on FP. The findings provide a context for the types of services that Egyptian women and men may want or need. The second section covers the elements of quality that participants consider critical to good services and how the participants ranked these elements. The elements of quality are illustrated by descriptions of women's experiences with FP services as either positive or negative examples of each element. Finally, the third section presents results on the respondents' willingness to pay for high-quality services.
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  3. 3

    Health financing in developing countries: synthesis of applied field research 1989-1995.

    Bitran R

    Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Health Financing and Sustainability Project, 1995 Aug. [2], xvii, 69 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5974-Z-00-9026-00)

    This technical report, prepared by USAID's Health Financing and Sustainability (HFS) project, reviews policy issues and constraints in developing countries. This report summarizes the nature and extent of HFS applied research activities in over 40 countries, synthesizes findings, and draws some conclusions and implications for policy and applied research. The following topics were the focus of HFS research: 1) quality of care and cost recovery, 2) protection of the poor under cost recovery, 3) mechanisms to promote demand, 4) provider incentives, 5) feasibility of social financing and insurance for low income populations, 6) public-private differences in efficiency, 7) private sector development, 8) private-public collaboration, and 9) reallocation of public sector spending. Over 40 applied research projects were conducted in mostly low income countries. Each project included a literature review of health service provision and costs, lessons learned, and field work. This report refers extensively to HFS research activities in Niger, Senegal, and the Central African Republic because of the large size and scope of research activities in these locations. Major findings are presented on the following topics: quality of care and its role in cost recovery and in government health services, protection of the poor under cost recovery, public sector reform, efficiency in service provision and differences between the public and private sectors, reallocation of public sectoring spending, expanding social financing, private sector potential for health care delivery in Africa, and the economic impact of malaria in Africa. It is concluded that the main quality of care problems were lack of drugs, medical supplies, and equipment and inappropriate medical practices. It is concluded that cost recovery may be able to cover the cost of essential drugs for treatment of ambulatory patients. Factors relating to the high rates of cost recovery are identified. Use of a fee or insurance system is considered to be dependent on the population's willingness to purchase premiums, managerial capability, and the means to invest insurance revenues. Willingness to pay appeared to be high among most population and income groups.
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  4. 4

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  5. 5

    The hunger report: 1990.

    Chen RS; Bender WH; Kates RW; Messer E; Millman SR

    Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University, Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, 1990 Jun. x, 87 p. (HR-90-1)

    The Hunger Profile differentiates among food shortages, poverty, and deprivation. Food shortage is further reflected in the amounts needed to fulfill nutritional requirements of an entire country's population, to maintain current levels of food consumption, and to prevent starvation or famine. Views are also expressed in terms of a global food shortage food-short countries, food-poor households, and food-deprived individuals. 2% of the world are affected by food shortage and 9-20% are affected by food poverty. 16% of the world's infants are food deprived. 31% of children are underweight/age. 4% are iodine deficient, 13% are deficient in iron, and 15% suffer from vitamin A deficiency. The authors present their views on the state of hunger in 1990, hunger as a weapon of war, food aid and hunger, refugees and hunger, breast-feeding trends, and reducing hunger by 50%. The text of the Bellagio Declaration on Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s is included. Hunger was being used in 1990 as a weapon in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines in Asia; in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania in Africa; in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala in Latin America; and in Armenia and Romania in Eastern Europe. 15% of imports to low-income, food-deficit countries and 44% of imports in developing in developing countries come in the form of food aid. Food aid has decreased 16% since 1985-86. Most food aid comes from the US (57%), the European Economic Community and member countries (20%), and Canada (10%). There is a longterm need to shift from direct food aid to programs that increase access to food for the most vulnerable populations. There has been an increase in cereal food aid since 1973-74; aid is dependent on cereal prices. There must be a balance between longterm and shortterm aid. Food aid is distributed as emergencies (20%), project food aid for maternal and child health programs (25%), and program aid. 5% is directed to target groups. Refugees are a growing population vulnerable to hunger. The most basic rations are given to refugees on an inconsistent basis due to inadequate and hoarded supplies and logistics. Refugee populations are reported by host country for 1989. Breast feeding is declining in general. Commitment, organization, and evaluation are necessary to halve hunger in the 1990s.
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