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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Experience of World Vision Ethiopia Micronutrient Program in promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods.

    Balcha HM

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):366-369.

    Deficiencies of micronutrients are major health problems in Ethiopia. According to a national survey conducted by the former Ethiopian Nutrition Institute in 1985, the prevalence of Bitot's spots exceeded 1%, and low serum vitamin A levels were found in 16% of preschool children. In a 1997 baseline study by World Vision Ethiopia, the prevalence of Bitot's spots was 6.4% and 7.5% in preschool-children and schoolchildren, respectively. In October 1998, World Vision Ethiopia launched a comprehensive Micronutrient Program with the goal of improving the micronutrient and health status of mothers and children. Promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods was adopted as one of the strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the target population. Intensive nutritional education was given in the project areas, focusing on community leaders, women's groups, teachers, and students. Vegetable seeds and hand tools were made available for demonstration purposes, and production of vitamin A-rich foods (dark-green leafy vegetables, carrot, beet root, cabbage, and kale) was started in community demonstration plots and schools. Community members began replicating vegetable gardens at the household level. In areas where the climate is suitable, production of vitamin A-rich fruits, such as mango, papaya, and avocado, was also demonstrated to the communities. Seedlings grown in community plots were distributed to households. At the end of the second year (1999), 11,708 backyard gardens, 275 school gardens, and 77 community gardens had developed with the full participation of the community. In addition to improved micronutrient status, vegetable production contributed to household food security and income generation of the community. Our experience shows that production of vitamin A-rich vegetables is well accepted by the community. It is sustainable and cost-effective. The challenge ahead is the need to develop local vegetable seed production, since the availability and cost of imported seeds are a hindrance, particularly for very poor community members. A food-based approach, and particularly production of vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits, should be the mainstay in designing a sustainable micronutrient program in poor developing countries. (author's)
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  2. 2

    The Indaba Declaration on Food, Nutrition, Health and Sustainable Development.

    SAJCN. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Feb; 16(1):9-11.

    Good health is a vital input to, and outcome of, sustainable development. Good health can be achieved only by addressing the underlying and basic causes of disease. The modifiable causes of health and disease are environmental. The nature and quality of food systems, and therefore of diet and nutrition, are fundamental determinants of human health and welfare, and that of the whole living and natural world. Levels of environmentally determined diseases now amount to a global emergency, projected to become an irretrievable catastrophe. The triple burden now borne by almost all middle- and low-income countries of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases including HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, and chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and stroke, and often also the burden of violence, is too heavy for any country to bear. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Nutritional status of women in Orissa. A rural urban differential from NFHS II.

    Rout NR

    Mumbai, India, International Institute for Population Sciences, 2003. [27] p.

    Since 1947, India has made substantial progress in human development. In 50 years, life expectancy has doubled; mortality level has fallen more than one half, and fertility has declined by more than two fifth. Poverty levels have been reduced from over 50 percent in 1950s to 35 percent in the 1990s. Nutritional status has also improved. Thanks to the green revolution, which provided a breathing spell for achieving a balance between human numbers and food output. Famines no longer stalks the land as frequently as before, the country has become self sufficient in food -one of the world’s greatest achievement in development and the extreme ravages of malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, are now relatively rare. Yet more than half of Indian children under five years of age are moderately or severely malnourished, 30 percent of newborns are significantly underweight and 60 percent of Indian women are anemic. These manifestations of malnutrition are unacceptable. They reflect the neglect of children and women and their high risk of illness and death. They end in failure to achieve full physical and mental potential, lower productivity and blighted lives. Thus it can be well said that improvements in nutritional status have not kept pace with progress in other areas of human development, at least when homogenous distribution is taken into consideration. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Energy and sociality in human populations.

    Cabrera S; Fuster V

    Social Biology. 2002 Spring-Summer; 49(1):1-12.

    In order to characterize and define human populations from a thermodynamic point of view, and considering that human societies are complex systems whose global description can be obtained by their energetic balance, the relationship was evaluated between individual energy consumption and the demographic and social-economic variables in all provinces of Spain. Pearson bivariate correlation, lineal regression analysis, and the coefficient of determination were applied. The results obtained show that individual energy consumption is associated with almost all the variables considered, in provinces with fewer than 400,000 inhabitants. However, in provinces having a population larger than 400,000,the association is reduced to about 50 percent. The positive or negative association between individual energy consumption and certain variables, especially those that determine reproductive success, suggests that the consumption of energy is explained both by the irreversible thermodynamics in relatively small populations and by the optimization principle in relatively large populations. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-9 national family health survey.

    Subramanian SV; Nandy S; Kelly M; Gordon D; Smith GD

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2004 Apr 3; 328(7443):801-806.

    Objective: To investigate the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical distribution of tobacco consumption in India. Multilevel cross sectional analysis of the 1998-9 Indian national family health survey of 301 984 individuals in 92 447 households in 3215 villages in 440 districts in 26 states. Setting Indian states. Participants 301 984 adults ( = 18 years). Main outcome measures Dichotomous variable for smoking and chewing tobacco for each respondent (1 if yes, 0 if no) as well as a combined measure of whether an individual smokes, chews tobacco, or both. Smoking and chewing tobacco are systematically associated with socioeconomic markers at the individual and household level. Individuals with no education are 2.69 times more likely to smoke and chew tobacco than those with postgraduate education. Households belonging to the lowest fifth of a standard of living index were 2.54 times more likely to consume tobacco than those in the highest fifth. Scheduled tribes (odds ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.29) and scheduled castes (1.19, 1.16 to 1.23) were more likely to consume tobacco than other caste groups. The socioeconomic differences are more marked for smoking than for chewing tobacco. Socioeconomic markers and demographic characteristics of individuals and households do not account fully for the differences at the level of state, district, and village in smoking and chewing tobacco, with state accounting for the bulk of the variation in tobacco consumption. The distribution of tobacco consumption is likely to maintain, and perhaps increase, the current considerable socioeconomic differentials in health in India. Interventions aimed at influencing change in tobacco consumption should consider the socioeconomic and geographical determinants of people’s susceptibility to consume tobacco. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Caracas statement on environment and development.

    Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Protection (1991: Caracas)


    By the close of an international meeting on socioeconomic development and environmental protection, a statement was prepared by the participants, and is presented as the body of this paper. Parliamentarians and environmental experts were in attendance from Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, the United States, Venezuela, and other governmental and private agencies. Participants acknowledged global threats to the environment and overall quality of life caused by some forms of agrarian development, population growth, poor land use, excessive consumption, energy waste, and inequitably distributed resources. Responding to these threats, strategies and policies for sustainable development while meeting the needs of future generations were developed. Heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection and resource management among parliamentarians, business leaders, communications professionals, and the general community is a priority. Effective international cooperation is also stressed in facing these global-scale challenges. Moreover, developing countries should be accorded favored treatment by developed countries due to incurred ecological debt, while local populations should be actively involved as participants in any development process. Sustainable economic growth of poverty-stricken nations is deeply interrelated with equitable wealth distribution, adequate land use, education, conservation, health, employment opportunities, the advancement of women, and population policy. Successful strategies must consider such interrelationships, and include policy elements accordingly.
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  7. 7

    Asia-Pacific report: trends, issues, challenges.

    East-West Center

    Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, 1986. x, 104 p.

    This report contains a review of the major developments in the Asia-Pacific region over the past quarter century, as well as examinations of the trends, issues, and challenges that will be critical to the region's future and to its relations with the US. The view of the region as an arena of internal and international conflict that prevailed in the 1950s and 1960s has been replaced in the 1970s and 1980s by a focus on the rapid economic progress of many of the countries. The region includes 56% of the world's population in 33 independent countries and several territories covering 19% of the world's land area. Part I of the report comprises 2 broad overviews dealing with prospects for peace and continued economic progress. Chapter I examines encouraging trends and continuing problems in the political developments and international relations of the region, while Chapter 2 provides a brief survey of economic trends and challenges in the principal countries and country groups: the newly industrialized countries, the resource-rich Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, low-income southeast Asia, China, South Asia, and the Pacific island countries. Part II examines specific topic areas related to regional economic development which reflect current policy emphases at the East-West Center. Chapter 3 assesses the relationship between the world economy and economic development in the region and analyzes future prospects for external trade opportunities and access to capital. Chapter 4 discusses the connection between population growth and economic development, while also examining the demographic transition in the area, the role of family planning, and future demographic challenges. The influence of declining fertility on increased savings and improved education is explored. Chapter 5 assesse the longterm sustainability of the region's remarkable resource base, which is already under severe strain from the numbers of people requiring food, clothing, shelter, and fuel. The chapter demonstrates the conflict between shortterm exploitation of resources and policies that protect the resource base in the longterm. Chapter 6 reviews changing patterns of supply and demand for minerals and fuels, noting significant additions to supplies of some minerals in Oceania. Based on worldwide trends, access to minerals and fuels is not expected to be a constraint on economic development.
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  8. 8

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  9. 9

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Temporary stability of urban food and nutrition security: the East Jakarta study.

    Wasito E; Pritasari; Susilowati D; Iswarawanti DN; Schultink W

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 10 Suppl:S29-S33.

    The food and nutrition situation in households of East Jakarta was assessed in 1993/94 and 1998/99 with the aim of identifying the determinants of potential problems and the dynamics of change. In 1993/94, the nutritional status of approximately 73% of children under 5 years of age and 60% of mothers was within the normal range, although underweight and overweight were prevalent in almost all households. Between 1998 and 1999, there was a sharp increase in fathers reporting unemployment. The consumption of animal food sources decreased, whereas the consumption of food derivatives such as oils and sugar remained high. Approximately 90% of the population obtained drinking water from wells. By 1998, the public garbage collection system had almost completely collapsed in East Jakarta. Between 1993 and 1998, the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections in children aged under 5 years increased dramatically, from 8 and 44% to 24 and 70%, respectively. The urban environment has undergone significant changes. In Indonesia, as a whole, many achievements in the improvement of household food security and care have been lost due to the economic and political crisis. The statistical association between mothers' and fathers' education and the nutritional status of their children that was observed in 1993/94 did not appear in the 1998 survey. It seems that the education-related coping mechanisms of the parents were inadequate to deal with the rapid deterioration in the economic and political situation. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Consumption patterns by income groups and carbon-dioxide implications for India: 1990-2010.

    Parikh J; Panda M; Murthy NS

    International Journal of Global Energy Issues. 1997; 9(4-6):237-55.

    This paper highlights consumption pattern differences across income classes in India, namely the top 10%, middle 40% and the bottom 50% of the population in rural and urban areas. The analysis is based on an input-output model that uses consumption expenditure distribution data from various sources. It examines direct and indirect demand on resources and carbon-dioxide emissions due to consumption of each of these income classes. Out of a total of 167 metric tons carbon (mtC) of carbon emissions in 1989-90, 62% was due to private consumption, 12% from direct consumption by households and remaining 50% due to indirect consumption of intermediates like power, steel and cement, while the rest was attributed to investment, government consumption and exports. The analysis reveals that the consumption of the rich is oriented more towards energy using sectors like electricity and transport, and uses relatively more resources in the form of minerals and metal products. The net effect is that the rich have a more carbon intensive lifestyle. The per capita direct and indirect emission level of the urban rich is about 15 times that of the rural poor and yet about the same as the world average. In a scenario where private consumption expenditure is expected to reach twice the 1990 level by 2010, carbon-dioxide emissions are projected to rise to 502 mtC. The low purchasing power of the poor results in their dependence on nature and the environment. This points to the conclusion that poverty is unsustainable. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Population, consumption, and eco-justice: a moral assessment of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development.

    Martin-Schramm JB

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 219-44.

    This article employs the concept of eco-justice to provide a moral assessment of the approach to population and consumption issues reflected in the 1994 Programme of Action of UN International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt. This approach represents a shift away from a focus on numbers of people, demographic goals, and rates of contraceptive use toward an emphasis on the empowerment of women, reproductive rights, and improvement in the lives of all people. However, despite the important improvements that the Cairo consensus represents, it is noted that that there are some significant ways in which the document has failed. This article evaluates these weaknesses along with the strengths of the existing approach to population and consumption issues that were agreed upon in Cairo. It also examines the unique features and key objectives of the Programme of Action, and provides a brief historical summary of international reflection on the relationship of population and development. Finally, it identifies the key objectives of the program in relationship to the plan's relevant chapters.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado C

    GEOJOURNAL. 1997 Jan; 41(1):43-53.

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption.
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  14. 14

    Culture and knowledge in development.

    Arizpe L

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume IV. Changes in the human dimension of development, ethics and values, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 117-24.

    Culture strongly influences national economic performance, local and national politics, and the creation of knowledge for development. However, culture has multiple meanings in different settings and various cultural dislocations appear in the North and the South. In the industrialized countries of Europe and the US these are manifested in psychological alienation and social isolation, while in the former socialist countries, in the lack of motivation in production and in social apathy. In the South these dislocations came to the surface in ethnic conflict triggered by the loss of cultural identity. In the 1960s and 1970s, the intellectual hegemony of Western culture over the globe started to crumble, and in the South traditional cultures and religions became the symbols of national liberation which also spilled over to the minorities of the North. On the other hand, ethnicity became excessively politicized leading to communalism in India (Sikh demand for greater regional autonomy), ethnic clashes in Africa, Indian militancy in Latin America (Amazonian tribes demanding land rights), and religious fundamentalism in different countries. Culture is a multilayered concept with social, political, and economic dimensions underlying the symbolism, social behavior, and systems of knowledge recognized as the reification of culture. The crisis of postindustrial capitalism has been diagnosed as a cultural crisis. The loss of religious belief has been identified as a major factor in the homeless mind syndrome of Western society and the quasi-religious adoption of nationalistic and socialist doctrines in the countries of the South. The revival of fundamentalism in the South particularly appeals to the powerless as progress has reached only the few while dislocating the many. The present economic trends to a multipolar world must be accompanied by a recognition of cultural diversity while removing discrimination against marginalized ethnic, communal, and religious entities.
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  15. 15

    The South should not heed lethal sermons from the North.

    Banerji D

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(2):118-9.

    The idea that pragmatism is preferable to humanitarianism is an extreme example of Machiavellianism. Dr. Martin praises Maurice King's ideas as the only way to achieve the sustainable development of the planet. Halfdan Mahler equated them to a proposal for mass euthanasia of children in the south. Dr. Martin has chosen to ignore that, during the past 3 decades, experts from the north have regarded almost all the countries of the south from a Malthusian viewpoint, considering population growth as the cause of poverty, rather than the other way round. Dr. Martin is timid about writing prescriptions for the north, where 15-20% of the world's population consumes 70-80% of its resources. It is too simplistic to presume that public health interventions are responsible for the present demographic and ecological crisis and that the tide of disaster can be turned if men of the north stop international public health interventions. He ignores the refusal of the countries of the north to make adequate contributions to ecologically sustainable development, the grossly unjust north-south terms of trade, the hemorrhage of resources from the south to the north, the economic, social, political and military domination of the north over the south, and the sharp contrast between the elite classes and the vast masses in the countries of the south. The population problem of the south is serious, and the Malthusian approach should give way to strategies aimed at encouraging oppressed people to have smaller families. Viable programs should be devised to improve socioeconomic conditions, and the Alma-Ata approach to primary care should be implemented. The time has come for the north to have a deeper understanding of the threat posed by rapid population increase in the south in a wider intersectoral context.
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  16. 16

    [Divorce rate increases if the index of consumer sentiment declines] Echtscheidingscijfer stijgt bij daling van consumentenvertrouwen.

    de Beer J

    MAANDSTATISTIEK VAN DE BEVOLKING. 1993 Sep; 41(9):29-31.

    The development of the total divorce rate (the sum of the marriage-duration specific divorce rates) [in the Netherlands] in the years 1973-1992 can be explained by an index of consumer sentiments, viz. the index of the willingness to buy (lagged one year)....The index of the willingness to buy explains the strong increase of the divorce rate in the early 1980s, the decrease in the mid 1980s and the strong increase in 1992. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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  17. 17

    [Demography and planning] Demografia e planejamento.

    de Souza GA; Szmrecsanyi T

    In: Dinamica da populacao: teoria, metodos e tecnicas de analise, [compiled by] Jair L.F. Santos, Maria Stella Ferreira Levy, Tamas Szmrecsanyi. Sao Paulo, Brazil, T.A. Queiroz, 1980. 311-5.

    Population is the sum of producers and consumers. There is a relationship of mutual dependence between demographic and socioeconomic variables. The capacity for production or effective production in a society does not only depend on the population, but it also determines the number of producers. They depend to a great degree on the means of production and on the productivity of the work force. Population represents only an approximation for gauging the dimensions of a consumer society. The effective demand for goods and services depends less on the number of inhabitants than on the level and profile of distribution of income. The size, the increase, the age composition, and spatial distribution of population provide data of fundamental importance for planning, mainly through demographic analysis and population studies. Information is used to produce models for planning, for the systematization of decisions in regional, sectoral, or isolated projects. Planning starts with diagnosis which, for instance, not only indicates whether the population is increasing, concentrating in urban areas, and the labor force is becoming younger, but also the components of population dynamics: fertility, mortality, and migrations. These data have to utilized optimally because of the lack of time and the high cost of research. Historical trends and projection into the future are carried out on the basis of such data concerning the increase of population and hypothesis about trends. Development policy constitutes the elaboration of plans by choosing quantitative objectives for accurate economic forecasting, while taking into consideration its interaction with demographic indicators, such as the infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth.
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  18. 18

    Gender, education, and fertility: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan African nations.

    Adamchak DJ; Ntseane PG

    SOCIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM. 1992 Apr-Jun; 12(2):167-82.

    According to the demographic transition theory and the wealth flows model, it is expected that fertility will decline with socioeconomic development, manifested in part through increasingly greater proportions of the population with formal education. Since their independence in the 1960s, most sub-Saharan African nations have experienced rapid changes in educational levels. However, recent estimates indicate that high levels of fertility are being maintained as reflected in the high rates of population increase of approximately 3%/year. Controlling for socioeconomic development as measured by per capita energy consumption and percentage of labor force in agriculture, this article examines the relationship between education and fertility for men and women in 37 sub-Saharan nations. Results indicate that primary school enrollment in 1960 and 1980 for both males and females had a weak negative and nonsignificant relationship with the total fertility rate 15-30 years later. Secondary school enrollment in 1960 for both males and females had weak relationships with the total fertility rate. However, secondary school enrollment for males in 1980 had a significant negative effect on the total fertility rate 10-25 years later. Implications are discussed. (author's)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Demographic transition and patterns of natural-resources use in the Republic of Korea.

    Kim OK; van den Oever P

    AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):56-62.

    Since 1960, The Republic of Korea has experienced 1 of the most spectacular levels of economic development in the world. At the same time, it experienced 1 of the most rapid demographic transitions from high to extremely low levels of fertility and mortality. These changes had profound impact on all aspects of life for the Koreans. The social norms of extended family gave way to nuclear families; the reduction in family size combined with a rise in income led to changes in the lifestyle and consumption patterns of Koreans. These changes, together with rapid industrialization resulted in greater demands on the use of natural resources. As a result, the environmental degradation and, therefore, levels of all kinds of pollution (air, water, and waste) have been the consequence. The gains from slower population growth rates have thus been partially offset by these trends. Efforts must be directed toward informing and educating the people about the sustainable use of resources, especially when a range of opportunities becomes available due to a rise in income and reduction in family size. (author's modified)
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  20. 20

    Fertility in urban squatter settlements in Jordan: a microeconomic analysis.

    Elwan AE

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1989. [5], iii, 139 p. (Order No. 8923677)

    A population of low-income urban squatter households in Amman, Jordan, many of whom are migrants, is used to investigate the degree to which fertility has been affected by exposure to the influence of an urban environment. The data are provided by 2 surveys, carried out in 1981 and 1985, before and after a substantial upgrading program was carried out. The program included the provision of physical and social infrastructure (paved roads, piped water and sewerage, electricity, community centers, and women's training centers, etc.). Since the program also provided the opportunity for households to purchase the land on which they had settled, it represented altogether a substantial change in living conditions and choices for the study population. The surveys thus allowed the investigation of the effects of land ownership on fertility; the factors involved were those such as ethnic background, presence of extended family members in the household, as well as urban exposure. The aspects of fertility which were investigated were: cumulative fertility--analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on cross-sectoral data; contraceptive use--examined using logit and probit analysis as well as OLS, on a subsample of the study population; and current fertility--investigated using Poisson regression to analyze the number of children born between the 2 surveys and the open interval at the time of the 2nd survey to analyze OLS regression. The various analyses do not support a hypothesis of urban exposure per se as being negatively associated with fertility. Apart from the expected findings regarding the biological variables included (age, marital status), and the pervasive negative effect of women's education, the variables tested tend to influence fertility in a direction contrary to expectation. "Higher status" variables such as land ownership, skilled occupation of household head, and income, tend to operate in the direction of allowing larger numbers of children. Contraceptive use levels are higher than would be expected on the basis of observed fertility levels, but are much lower than the potential need for birth spacing, given the relatively large proportion of the women surveyed who did not desire a pregnancy. What emerges, essentially, is that those households studied still either have a large desired family size, due possibly to cultural factors not seen in the analysis (those that would affect the entire population) or that their altered perceptions concerning number of children have not yet been translated into lower fertility. The main policy implications for this population are: changes in dwelling ownership, household head's job status, and household income are unlikely to, on their own, have a strong negative impact on fertility in the shortterm. There is considerable scope, however, for reducing fertility among the older age groups. In view of the likelihood of a decline in breastfeeding popularity, the potential demand for birth spacing, and the positive correlation between contraceptive use and income in the study population, reductions in cost and increased availability of contraceptive methods as part of a healthcare program would likely be beneficial. (author's modified)
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  21. 21

    The tragedy of the commons that wasn't: on technical solutions to the institutions game.

    Dahlman CJ

    POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT. 1991 Spring; 12(3):285-96.

    The author uses Garrett Hardin's thesis concerning population growth and land ownership and their effects on natural resources as a basis for discussing the sociopolitical background determining resource use and conservation. The need for institutions and governments to enact policies that address population and energy problems is stressed. (ANNOTATION)
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  22. 22

    Europe's ageing population: trends and challenges to 2025.

    de Jouvenel H

    Guildford, England, Butterworths, 1989. 54 p.

    This report examines the trends of demographic ageing in Europe up to 2025. By that date one European in four could be aged 65 or over. With trends continuing towards the contraction of working life, severe imbalances may occur in individual life cycles, in the structure of the workforce, and in socioeconomic provision for an ageing population. The report further considers the potential impacts of these emerging imbalances on living conditions, consumption patterns, and socio-medical/health care provision for the old. Finally, a range of responses are outlined to the challenges of possible intergenerational conflict surrounding the nexus of issues related to demographic ageing.
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  23. 23

    [The impact of the demographic crunch on standards of living over the long term] L'impact du choc demographique sur le niveau de vie a long terme.

    Fortin P

    ACTUALITE ECONOMIQUE. 1989 Sep; 65(3):364-95.

    The long-term implications of the radical decline in fertility that has occurred in all modern industrial societies are analyzed, with particular reference to Canada. "On first approximation, calculations based on the Solow growth model predict a decline in the time path of aggregate consumption per adult that could reach 5 or 6 per cent in Canada in 2011-2016, but would become smaller thereafter. The demographic shock would therefore not generate economic tragedy. This result is the outcome of the opposite effects on aggregate consumption of the declining population growth rate and of the rising dependency ratio." (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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  24. 24

    [Economic-demographic results of the life of one cohort (based on the cohort born in 1950)] Ekonomiko-demograficheskie itogi zhizni odnogo pokoleniya (na primere pokoleniya 1950 g. rozhdeniya).

    Milovidov A

    VESTNIK STATISTIKI. 1989; (12):7-14.

    Data from a five percent sample of the Soviet population, collected in 1985, are used to analyze the demographic and economic characteristics of the cohort born in 1950. Factors considered include mortality, marriage and divorce, income, consumption, and wealth. Differences in these factors by age and region are explored. (ANNOTATION)
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Intergenerational transfers in industrialised countries: effects of age distribution and economic institutions.

    Ermisch J


    In Great Britain, using mid 1980s data and assuming no productivity increase over generations thereby making the discount rate and population growth rate 0, the average ages of household consumption and production stood at 46.3 and 41.3 respectively. Further, assuming 2% annual productivity growth and discount rates, the average consumption age was 41.7 and the average production age was 38.7. Therefore, net transfers here passed from the younger to older generations. In Japan, 1985 data shows that, under the same assumptions as Great Britain, the average ages of household consumption and production stood at 50.8 and 44.3 respectively. When assuming 2% annual productivity growth and discount rates, Japan's average consumption age was 41.7 and it's average production age was 38.7. Like Great Britain, Japan's net transfers passed from the younger to older generations. Specifically, production was significantly higher than consumption in the 20-60 year old age group and the reverse occurred in the older age groups. Even though there were similar patterns between the 2 countries, the difference between the average ages of consumption and production for Japan is much larger than for Great Britain. Further, it is even greater than the United States' whose estimates correspond to Japan's and Great Britain's. Specifically, the strength of the transfer effect is higher for Japan than Great Britain or the US because of the longer life expectancy among the Japanese. In addition, due to changes in fertility and mortality, the proportion of the <15 year olds has decreased and the proportion of those > or = 65 years old has increased. Therefore net transfers have shifted in favor of the older generations.
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