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The impact of PROGRESA on food consumption: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 150 (May 2003).
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(4):379-380.Since 1997, PROGRESA has provided cash transfers linked to children's enrollment and regular school attendance and to health clinic attendance. The program also includes in-kind health benefits; nutritional supplements for children up to age five, and pregnant and lactating women; and instructional meetings on health and nutrition issues. In 2000, PROGRESA reached about 40 percent of all rural families and about 11 percent of all Mexican families. This paper explores whether PROGRESA improves the diet of poor rural Mexicans--a major objective of the program. As such, this evaluation provides insights into whether interventions designed to alleviate poverty also succeed in reducing hunger. (excerpt)
SOCIOLOGICAL SPECTRUM. 1992 Apr-Jun; 12(2):167-82.According to the demographic transition theory and the wealth flows model, it is expected that fertility will decline with socioeconomic development, manifested in part through increasingly greater proportions of the population with formal education. Since their independence in the 1960s, most sub-Saharan African nations have experienced rapid changes in educational levels. However, recent estimates indicate that high levels of fertility are being maintained as reflected in the high rates of population increase of approximately 3%/year. Controlling for socioeconomic development as measured by per capita energy consumption and percentage of labor force in agriculture, this article examines the relationship between education and fertility for men and women in 37 sub-Saharan nations. Results indicate that primary school enrollment in 1960 and 1980 for both males and females had a weak negative and nonsignificant relationship with the total fertility rate 15-30 years later. Secondary school enrollment in 1960 for both males and females had weak relationships with the total fertility rate. However, secondary school enrollment for males in 1980 had a significant negative effect on the total fertility rate 10-25 years later. Implications are discussed. (author's)
POPULATION RESEARCH (BEIJING). 1988 Dec; 5(4):17-30.Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.
[Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1982] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1982.
Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. xxviii, 575 p. (ST/ESCAP/235)Add to my documents.
Migrant behavior and the effects of regional prices: aspects of migrant selection in Colombia [tables]
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 14-16, 1983. 3 p.If the preferences of potential migrants differ for activities and the structure of prices of these activities differ across regions, price variation may help to explain both who migrates and to where, and systematic behavioral differences between migrants and nonmigrants in consumption and investment, particularly as reflected in family size, child schooling, and child health. Colombia and Brazil are considered in the empirical analysis because these diverse countries involve traditional and dynamic frontier rural areas as well as urban centers where relative prices discourage high fertility and encourage schooling and health investments. (author's)