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Nutrient intake and consumption of supplementary nutrition by severely malnourished children in two ICDS projects in Rajasthan state.
Indian Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 36(8):799-802.In India, severe protein energy malnutrition is one of the important factors associated with high infant and child mortality rate. Thus, direct intervention in the form of supplementary nutrition (SN) is provided through ICDS scheme to malnourished children for improving their nutritional status. However, data regarding the status of receipt of consumption of SN by severely malnourished children in the ICDS scheme is lacking. As such, a study was undertaken in two urban ICDS projects of Rajasthan to evaluate the nutrient intake and consumption pattern of SN by severely malnourished children. The nutritional status of all the children in 6 months-6 year age group in 50 angan-wadi centers was assessed by weight for age criteria as per the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Classification. Overall, the results show that the calorie intake of severely malnourished children was found to be low and insufficient in all the three age groups, in spite of registration for delivery of supplementary nutrition. It is also noted that the distribution of double supplementary nutrition to severely malnourished children was not according to the guidelines. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the guidelines for distribution and consumption of SN for management of severe malnutrition through the ICDS scheme.
Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition in Rwanda.
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute, 1991. 123 p. (Research Report 85)This research reports on the effects of increased commercialization on production, household real income, family food consumption, expenditures, on nonfood goods and services, and the nutritional status of the population in Rwanda. The process by which household food consumption and nutritional status are affected by commercialization is described with emphasis on identifying the major elements and how each element is influenced by the change. The issue was whether agricultural production systems and efficient use of resources can be sustained under population pressure. The study area was the commune of Giciye in Gisenyi district in northwestern Rwanda. The area is mountainous and has very poor quality and acidic soils, with a deficiency of phosphorus. Population increase averaged 4.2%/year. There is a high prevalence of underconsumption and malnutrition. Subsistence food production is becoming increasingly more difficult. New activities include production of tea and expansion of potato production. There is beer processing from sorghum and off-farm employment. The forces driving commercialization are identified, followed by a discussion of the production and income effects of the commercialization process, the consumption relationships and effects, the consumption/nutrition/health links, and the longterm perspectives on rural development. The research design, theory, and data base are described. The conclusions were that increasing the rate of change in agricultural technology for subsistence crops would not maintain even the current levels of poverty; there must be reductions in population growth. The recommended strategy is to encourage diversification of the rural economy with specialization in both agriculture and nonagricultural products and to improve the human capital and infrastructure base. Labor productivity needs to be increased as well as employment expansion. Labor-intensive erosion control methods such as terracing are recommended as a resource investment, which are assumed to take into account women and their time constraints. Tea production which is considered a women's crop has offered off-farm employment opportunities. Consideration must be given to land tenure policy and issues of compensation for loss of land during the commercialization process. Health and sanitation measures are needed concurrently with economic development.
American Demographics. 1980 Sep; 2(8):32-37.Add to my documents.