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Beijing, China, Horizon Market Research, 2002 Dec.  p.A modified behavioural surveillance (BSS) study was carried out Yunnan and Sichuan in late 2001 by Horizon Market Research on behalf of The Futures Group Europe (FGE), which is a partner under the 2000-2005 China-UK HIV Prevention and Care Project, with funding from the Department of International Development (DFID). FGE has a contract with DFID (prime contract number CNTR 00 0383) to carry out a condom social marketing (CSM) project in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces with the goal of helping China mount an effective national response to HIV/AIDS in China. The CSM Project has six components: Understanding the factors affecting risky behaviour and condom use by high-risk groups; Building consensus and disseminating lessons learned (related to CSM) among the key stakeholders; Raised awareness of risky behaviour and of condoms as both an effective and acceptable prevention among target population; and reduced stigma and more tolerant attitudes of general population towards those with STIs and HIV/AIDS; Consistently improved access (physical, social, and economic) by target groups to high quality condoms; Condoms marketed under the CSM meet World Health Organization specifications; and A successful business model for sustainable private sector delivery of condoms to high-risk groups. This report is one of three from the behavioural surveillance survey, carried out in Yunnan and Sichuan in July through October 2001. The other reports focus on sex workers and adult males. (excerpt)
CONSUMER MARKETS ABROAD. 1988 Aug; 7(8):12-3.Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong).
In: Programmes to promote breastfeeding, edited by Derrick B. Jelliffe and E.F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. 344-8.This health problem caused by excessive marketing of breast milk substitutes has been termed a commerciogenic disease. Nutrition educators can curb the Market by understanding its functioning, using its own tools in social marketing of breast feeding, and monitoring compliance with the International Code for the Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. The Market's strategy is to expand the artificialization and industrialization of the food supply. This is an amoral process: it may operate for the benefit or the detriment of consumer's health. The tools of the market are the mass-media, the distribution system, sales and promotion devices, price policies, sampling, research and evaluation. The most powerful or these is mass-media advertising, which has a profound impact on the behavior and value systems of the audience. New social policy initiatives involving mass-media access and nutrition-directed food policies are needed. Commercial advertising and marketing practices should also be regulated. The International Code for Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes is an example of surveillance assigned to agencies that do not understand the Market. Although use of substitutes by mother's decision when needed is legitimate, inducement purely for commercial purposes is an anti-social act. Nutrition professionals must monitor the Code including food marketing practices, the market situation, use of advertising media, and sampling, demonstration and promotion practices, especially those done through the health care system, quality control of products, and distribution.
Social Science and Medicine. 1986; 22(11):1141-9.This paper considers the impac of the pharmaceutical industry of Third World health care, indicating the broad outlines of current debate in the field. It examines the structure and characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry and the markets for its products. It then discusses the nature of the health problems particular to the poorer, nonindustrialized communities and the relevance of drugs and their makers. Possible ways towards and more productive pattern of relationships are explored. A major impetus for the development of the pharmaceutical industry was an econmic crisis which drove the industry to attempts at diversification. Other important factors were also at work: migration from rural to urban areas; development of technology; and disconery of the causes of disease. The developing countries account for only 15-20% of global drug consumption as measured in manufacturers' price terms. Overall, most countries in the world spend on average 0.7-0.8% of their GNPs on medicaines. A number of elements are likely to prove common to any successful process of helth and wealth development. These include: increases in literacy rates; the establishment of accepted systems of social and political organization; the creation of effective transport and communication systems; the provision of clean water supplies and sanitation provisions; and the build-up of effective primary and 2ndary health care. The role of medicines and vaccines in deprived communites is 3-fold: they can help prevent illnesses, e.g. as with immunization; pharamaceuticals may be directly curative; they may alleviate pain and other sumptoms. As far as improvement of the access of poor world rural and peri-urban populations to essential drugs is concerned, 3 of the most vital necessary conditions are: the establishment of universally available primary health care facilities; an efficient, secure system of transporting medicines from factories, airports, and docks to health facilities; and proper purchasing agreements.