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Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):239-247.An agricultural project in Highland Ecuador provided a model context to better understand the nutrition of rural women. The adequacy of women's nutrition and the strength of associations with age and socioeconomic status were studied in 104 rural households over four rounds (two seasons) during the 1995-1996 agricultural year using a cross-sectional with repeated-measures design. Women were at high risk for micronutrient deficiencies (calcium, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B12) due to low intakes of animal products. Two distinct constructs representing socioeconomic status were identified: modern lifestyle and farming wealth. In multivariate models, farming wealth was associated with quality of women's diet (animal protein adjusted for energy, p = 0.01). Diet quality, in turn, was positively associated with anthropometric status (p = 0.02). Women over the age of 50 weighed approximately 3.7 kg less than younger women and consumed less energy (300 kcal) and micronutrients (p < 0.05). Age was positively associated with respiratory morbidity (p = 0.01). These findings, while directly relevant to a specific context, suggest the need for cross-cultural studies to identify the extent of, and factors contributing to, the risk of nutritional inadequacy in postreproductive women in developing countries. (author's)
Behavior-change trials to assess the feasibility of improving complementary feeding practices and micronutrient intake of infants in rural Bangladesh.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):228-238.This study used simple rapid-assessment techniques to test the feasibility of increasing the consumption of complementary foods by infants by asking mothers to increase meal quantity or frequency or by altering the viscosity/energy density of the food. The feasibility of using micronutrient supplements either added directly to food or administered as liquid drops was also examined. The study was conducted in rural Bangladesh and involved four separate short-term behavioral change trials. Depending on the trial, fieldworkers recruited 30 to 45 infants 6 to 12 months of age. Following recommendations to increase the amount of food provided to infants, the mean intakes from single meals increased from 40 ± 23 g on day 1 to 64 ± 30 g on day 7 (p < 0.05). In a second trial, the mean meal frequency increased from 2.2 ± 1.3 on day 1 to 4.1 ± 1.3 on day 7 (p < 0.05). Provision of high-energy-density diets, prepared by decreasing viscosity with a-amylase or by hand-mashing rice and dhal into a paste before feeding, increased single-meal energy consumption from 54 ± 35 kcal to 79 ± 52 kcal or 75 ± 37 kcal (p < 0.05), respectively. Both types of micronutrient supplements were well accepted and used according to recommendations. In conclusion, it was possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviors to promote increased food intake, meal frequency, energy density, and micronutrient consumption. Because each of these interventions lasted for only about 1 week, however, the long-term sustainability of these changes is not known. Moreover, the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods on intakes of breastmilk and total daily consumption of energy and nutrients requires further study. (author's)
Impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of rural pregnant women.
Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):51-55.The unfortunate state of nutrition in countries like India is attributed to several factors. Poverty and low purchasing power are no doubt major factors contributing to malnutrition, lack of awareness and paucity of information also aggravate the problem. There are three population groups who suffer from the ill effects of malnutrition. These vulnerable segments are preschool children, expectant and nursing mothers. An expectant and nursing mother needs to be provided adequate nutritional intake for maternal and foetal tissue growth and her own usual maintenance requirements. An acute or chronic deprivation of dietary intake may result in poor pregnancy outcome. In India almost one third of babies born are low birth weight mainly attributable to poor maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy. Nutrition counselling is one of the prerequisites for improving the nutritional status of any group. The prenatal patient represents an ideal opportunity for nutrition counselling, since at that time more than any other time, she may be highly motivated to understand and accept advice. Hence the present study was conducted to see the impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of pregnant women. (excerpt)
Population and the environment: a cross-country exploration of deforestation in low income countries.
[Unpublished] .  p.In this paper we explore linkages between population growth and environmental degradation in low income countries, focussing on deforestation. The analysis is primarily based upon country-level data from 85 developing countries with 1990 populations of over one million, and is considered quite preliminary. At the outset it is important to acknowledge three major difficulties in examining these interrelations. First, the available data are suspect. We have used what appears to be the most comparable available data from various UN agencies and the World Resources Institute; however, environmental data are particularly weak for much of the developing world. In some of the developing countries, population and agricultural censuses--the major sources for cross-country data--are not regularly taken. Furthermore, rural populations are sometimes not separately reported by countries which do have a census. (excerpt)
Mumbai, India, International Institute for Population Sciences, 2003.  p.Since 1947, India has made substantial progress in human development. In 50 years, life expectancy has doubled; mortality level has fallen more than one half, and fertility has declined by more than two fifth. Poverty levels have been reduced from over 50 percent in 1950s to 35 percent in the 1990s. Nutritional status has also improved. Thanks to the green revolution, which provided a breathing spell for achieving a balance between human numbers and food output. Famines no longer stalks the land as frequently as before, the country has become self sufficient in food -one of the world’s greatest achievement in development and the extreme ravages of malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, are now relatively rare. Yet more than half of Indian children under five years of age are moderately or severely malnourished, 30 percent of newborns are significantly underweight and 60 percent of Indian women are anemic. These manifestations of malnutrition are unacceptable. They reflect the neglect of children and women and their high risk of illness and death. They end in failure to achieve full physical and mental potential, lower productivity and blighted lives. Thus it can be well said that improvements in nutritional status have not kept pace with progress in other areas of human development, at least when homogenous distribution is taken into consideration. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)
International Journal of Global Energy Issues. 1997; 9(4-6):237-55.This paper highlights consumption pattern differences across income classes in India, namely the top 10%, middle 40% and the bottom 50% of the population in rural and urban areas. The analysis is based on an input-output model that uses consumption expenditure distribution data from various sources. It examines direct and indirect demand on resources and carbon-dioxide emissions due to consumption of each of these income classes. Out of a total of 167 metric tons carbon (mtC) of carbon emissions in 1989-90, 62% was due to private consumption, 12% from direct consumption by households and remaining 50% due to indirect consumption of intermediates like power, steel and cement, while the rest was attributed to investment, government consumption and exports. The analysis reveals that the consumption of the rich is oriented more towards energy using sectors like electricity and transport, and uses relatively more resources in the form of minerals and metal products. The net effect is that the rich have a more carbon intensive lifestyle. The per capita direct and indirect emission level of the urban rich is about 15 times that of the rural poor and yet about the same as the world average. In a scenario where private consumption expenditure is expected to reach twice the 1990 level by 2010, carbon-dioxide emissions are projected to rise to 502 mtC. The low purchasing power of the poor results in their dependence on nature and the environment. This points to the conclusion that poverty is unsustainable. (author's)
REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS. 1999 Feb; 81(1):41-9.This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality [in India], by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children. In order to avert the issue of selection bias due to underreporting of births of girls, a methodology is employed that does not require data on births by gender. The results indicate that favorable rainfall shocks increase the ratio of the probability that a girl survives to the probability that a boy survives. (EXCERPT)
JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1998; 11(4):453-70.In this study we use data from rural India to examine the impact of the birth of a boy relative to the birth of a girl (i.e., the `gender shock') on the savings, consumption and income of rural Indian households. We find that the gender shock reduces savings for medium and large farm households, although there is no evidence that the shock affects savings for the landless and the small farm households. We also estimate the effect of the shock on income and consumption for the former group in order to determine the source of the drop in savings. (EXCERPT)
Household demographic characteristics, consumption pressure, labor utilization, and land use among settler households on the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon frontier.
[Unpublished] 1995. Revised version of paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Francisco, California, April 6-8, 1995. , 25 p.This study is based on a unique data set on 413 settler households in the Northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon frontier (Napo and Sucumbios provinces) during 1990. It builds on the previous research of Pichon and Bilsborrow and considers the impact of household demographic characteristics on consumption pressure, land use, and labor utilization among settler households. The study area represents an area of growth due to migration of small farmers. The theoretical framework of the study firmly supports Chayanov's proposition that household demographic structure is important in determining settler economic activity by shaping household consumption needs and labor capacity (adult male consumption units [AMCUs] and adult male labor units [AMLUs]). Consumption pressure is computed by dividing consumption needs by labor capacity. The sample is composed of 58.8% nuclear families, 35.8% extended families, and 5.3% one-person households. About 33% of households are at stage 3 of the life cycle. Nuclear households average about 6.0 persons, while extended households average about 8.4 persons. Nuclear households have the highest consumption pressure during early life cycle stages and are more abrupt. The explanation given is that early life cycle stages include children with consumption needs and no labor capacity. Extended households have the highest consumption pressure at later life cycle stages due to grandchildren's consumption. Extended households have higher absolute levels of labor capacity (179.1 compared to 192.2 AMLUs per year at all stages). Use of household labor capacity at each stage is higher among nuclear families. Increases in cleared land areas occur in both household types at early stages. The size of the clearing is the same for both types of households. Pasture areas are greater among nuclear households. Regression results confirm descriptive findings. Cleared areas are affected by labor use. Nondemographic factors affecting cleared areas have stronger effects among nuclear families. Further analyses and collection of longitudinal data are suggested.
Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1995 Jan. 20,  p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 95-1)This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality, by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children....The impacts of households' landholdings, parents' education and the availability of health and educational institutions are also assessed. (EXCERPT)
JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES. 1993 Fall; 28(4):735-58.In this paper, longitudinal data from a national probability sample of rural households in India are used to assess how the traditional migration of women across households via marriage, by contributing to consumption smoothing, augments the returns to women as human capital and how these returns are affected by economic development propelled by agricultural technical progress. The estimates confirm earlier findings based on more geographically confined data from India that interhousehold financial transfers play a small but significant role in contributing to consumption-smoothing. Such transfers appear to be more responsive to a household's fluctuations in earnings that are loans, and this responsiveness is significantly augmented in households with more informal connections to other households that arise due to the marriages of sons, who stay in the parental household, and daughters who migrate. The estimates also suggest that technical change, presumably because of its impact on the returns to experience, on earnings levels, and on risk assessment, represents a threat to the traditional household and in particular to marriage-based risk pooling. The results indicate that the transformation of traditional agriculture through technological change thus extends beyond agricultural practices to the relationships among households and also within households, and does not necessarily lead to great equality by sex in the intrahousehold distribution of resources despite the evident normality of equality in intrahousehold resources. (author's)
In: Of marriage and the market: women's subordination internationally and its lessons. 2nd ed., edited by Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz, and Roslyn McCullagh. London, England, Routledge, 1984. 117-35.The organization of work and consumption patterns of men and women was explored within the household among Berber-speaking people of the Middle Atlas region using data from a study of a cluster of hamlets which are attached to a small (11,000) Arabic-speaking town. The town's population consists of administrators, teachers, traders, and two battalions of soldiers. Approximately 2/3 of the hamlet populations is engaged in agriculture. There is a sexual division of labor in the hamlets between adult men and women. Women's work consists of the care of animals; the cultivation of subsistence crops; the processing and cooking of agricultural products; and the care of the house and its children, the aged and the sick. Women do not have access to money, so they are confined to qualitatively differentiated social roles. Women do not even control the income from their agricultural work. Female inheritance constitutes a threat for the patrilineal males. The husband becomes full guardian of his wife by paying bridewealth and may control her social contacts and her relations with her family of origin. In this survey, 52% of hamlet marriages ended in divorce compared with 28% of the town bridewealth-paying unions. At the time of divorce, a woman a claim only her personal belongings and half of that year's wheat crop. According to the etiquette followed when there are guests, and as a family routine, men and women eat separately. The neglect of children's special needs means that 70% of all deaths occur among children <14 years old. The marriage contract stipulates that a wife has a right to food, lodging, and a given sum of money for clothes. Anything else, such as medical expenses, are paid for by the woman's family of origin. In the province, only 10% of the girls of school age went to school. Since women are separated from money, their position worsens as household cash income increases, because of the diffusion of wage-earning and the more frequent sale of agricultural products. Women work more, consume relatively less, and are increasingly controlled by men.
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 114-47.The association of food security with income levels, and the relationship of food security to economic variables and policies, particularly those that affect income distribution and growth are examined. The results are based on a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier analysis. Food-security issues were explored by using the simplest demand-based multiplier analysis based on the only available but out-of-date SAM. The 1978-79 SAM data base for Sudan was modified to include a disaggregation of sorghum into modern and traditional dura for the source of the SAM. There was no easy way in which the urban and rural income groups shown in the SAM could be associated with food insecurity. It was estimated that 40% of the population in Sudan is poor and food-insecure. Food insecurity could be linked to income levels through the data provided by the Household Income and Expenditure Survey for the years 1978-80. Another result from the multiplier analysis was the impact of activity injections on household income. Equivalent injections into the economy through additional investment or additional net exports or other sources of exogenous final demand had much more powerful income multiplier effects in the traditional agricultural sectors, particularly livestock and forestry, than in the industrial and nontraded sectors. Additionally, the highest absolute values of the income multipliers for the traditional agricultural and the labor-intensive non traded activities were for rural households with less than S-9000/year income measured in 1986-87 prices, covering most of the food-insecure groups in the rural areas. The results provide an independent quantification of some of the major structural relationships affecting growth, income distribution, and food security in Sudan within the constraints of the data and the assumptions of the multiplier model.
Water in India with reference to agriculture and population: some issues and patterns -- dynamic approaches needed for development.
GEOJOURNAL. 1990 Mar; 20(3):271-84.Population growth is increasing the demand for water in India, especially for agricultural purposes. Yet, the government of India has not included an assessment of water needs for an expanding population into its development strategy. The leading obstacle to such an assessment is lack of quality data. In fact, the latest data comes from the 1981 Census. A government official proposes to transform climate and water balance synthesis into crop regions as a means to evaluate the national or macro level effects on agriculture. Rice is the dominant crop of the eastern and coastal regions of India which have a humid and rainy climate. The acute to marginally dry crop regions grow jowar, maize, bajra, and ragi and face a water shortage. In dry northwestern India, developed irrigation systems sustain the wheat crop. Agricultural water needs depend on sufficient monsoon rain and/or irrigation. India has 5 microclimates: perhumid, humid, dry, semiarid, and arid regions. 40.7% of all of India which comprises 33.4% of the population is prone to drought. Rural-urban migration since 1960 has increased the urban population size in India, yet most cities' master plans for provision of safe drinking water for urban dwellers are only advisory rather than mandatory. In fact, 460,000 urban dwellers and many rural dwellers still depend on rivers, canals, or tanks which often are contaminated with sewage, toxins, and radioactive materials. Further, only 0.53% of the rural population has sanitation facilities. 5-level zoning (population-hydrological regions) for India would provide distributional aspects of water by major and minor surface water plans and groundwater, which in turn would bring about a practical infrastructure to different areas for agricultural and population needs. Much of the baseline data needed to develop these regions and to research this system already exists.
[Urban-rural differences in food intake of poor families in Guatemala] Diferencias urbano-rurales en la ingesta de alimentos de familias pobres de Guatemala.
ARCHIVOS LATINOAMERICANOS DE NUTRICION. 1991 Sep; 41(3):327-35.Differences in diet and nutrient consumption among impoverished families in urban and rural areas of Guatemala were analyzed using data from 2 surveys conducted in 1987. A sample of 200 families in the marginal community of El Milagros in Guatemala City inhabited largely by rural in-migrants and a sample of 900 families of agricultural wage workers from 195 rural communities in the northwestern altiplano participated in the nutritional study. Poverty, poor health conditions, and high rates in malnutrition among the children characterized both samples. The method of 24-hour recall in single interviews was used in both areas. The urban families were visited in July-August 1987 and the rural families in October-November. Reported consumption of foods of animal origin, milk products, eggs, and meats was over twice as high in urban areas as measured by average consumption and by the percentage of families reporting consumption Maize consumption was very high in rural but not urban areas. 97% of rural families prepared their own tortillas, tamales, and atole, and only 5% bought them prepared. In the marginal urban area by contrast, 31% of families prepared their own maize and 82% bought prepared maize derivatives primarily tortillas and tamales. Consumption of beans was higher in urban areas, largely because their cultivation is impossible in the high altitude communities of the altiplano. The average adult caloric consumption of 3194.3 in rural areas exceeded the 2637.5 of urban areas. But in both cases calorie consumption was below recommended levels. The urban total represented 86% of the daily recommendation of 3050 calories for a moderately active adult, while the rural total was equivalent to 91% of the daily recommendation of 3500 for very active adults. The average daily protein intake of 82.9 g in urban and 87.8 g in rural areas exceed the daily adult recommendation of 68 g. Almost 70% of caloric intake among rural adults came from maize, compared to 27% in urban areas. Wheat bread, beans, and sugar together accounted for 41% of total calories in urban areas. Almost 70% of protein in rural areas was contributed by maize and beans, while in urban areas over 30% was from foods of animal origin, 25% from beans, and 21% from maize. Despite their lower caloric consumption, urban families enjoyed more diversified diets and higher levels of calcium and vitamin A consumption. But vitamin A consumption met only 62% of the daily requirement in urban areas and 43% in rural areas, while iron consumption met less than 80% of the daily need in either area.
Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition in Rwanda.
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute, 1991. 123 p. (Research Report 85)This research reports on the effects of increased commercialization on production, household real income, family food consumption, expenditures, on nonfood goods and services, and the nutritional status of the population in Rwanda. The process by which household food consumption and nutritional status are affected by commercialization is described with emphasis on identifying the major elements and how each element is influenced by the change. The issue was whether agricultural production systems and efficient use of resources can be sustained under population pressure. The study area was the commune of Giciye in Gisenyi district in northwestern Rwanda. The area is mountainous and has very poor quality and acidic soils, with a deficiency of phosphorus. Population increase averaged 4.2%/year. There is a high prevalence of underconsumption and malnutrition. Subsistence food production is becoming increasingly more difficult. New activities include production of tea and expansion of potato production. There is beer processing from sorghum and off-farm employment. The forces driving commercialization are identified, followed by a discussion of the production and income effects of the commercialization process, the consumption relationships and effects, the consumption/nutrition/health links, and the longterm perspectives on rural development. The research design, theory, and data base are described. The conclusions were that increasing the rate of change in agricultural technology for subsistence crops would not maintain even the current levels of poverty; there must be reductions in population growth. The recommended strategy is to encourage diversification of the rural economy with specialization in both agriculture and nonagricultural products and to improve the human capital and infrastructure base. Labor productivity needs to be increased as well as employment expansion. Labor-intensive erosion control methods such as terracing are recommended as a resource investment, which are assumed to take into account women and their time constraints. Tea production which is considered a women's crop has offered off-farm employment opportunities. Consideration must be given to land tenure policy and issues of compensation for loss of land during the commercialization process. Health and sanitation measures are needed concurrently with economic development.
In: Strategies for Third World development, edited by John S. Augustine. New Delhi, India, Sage Publications, 1989. 16-33.In spite of the many differences in developing countries, all promote policies aimed at improving resource allocations, increasing the value of public and private corporations, preparing domestic savings, locating access for market exports, and supporting investment activities. Poverty and unemployment are indigenous to rural areas in developing countries. Planners' and policymakers' objectives are to promote policies for growth, arrange exports and imports, deal with the interdependence and economic dependence in trade relations, to develop agricultural policies, alleviate poverty and unemployment, and to provide food security. Each task is discussed, e.g., growth policies must balance an appropriate mix of stabilization and structural adjustment. Growth can be accomplished through increased domestic savings, an appropriate rate of monetary growth, a stable exchange rate, and reduced budget deficits. Efficiency of investment can be increased with encouraging private domestic and foreign investment and reducing administrative controls and tax system distortions. Military spending reductions and increased investment in irrigation, drainage, and extension of public services and agricultural support make better use of public savings. Optimizing use of scarce resources of capital and foreign exchange contribute to social and economic improvement. Insulation from the fluctuations in growth trends in other countries reduces vulnerability. Self-reliance is promoted. In coping with inequalities in income distribution, poverty, and unemployment, developing counties have focused on growth in gross national product (GNP). Production and investment need to be reorganized in order to have a wider effect on income distribution and achieve social justice. Employment must be increased for neutral personal tax-subsidy schemes to work. Production planning targeted to the rural poor and geared to consumption planning can help to alleviate hunger and poverty. In balancing production, consumption, and employment, it is important to consider that increasing the level of employment beyond free market equilibrium requires a certain level of subsidy, and increasing the level of distributive consumption may led to lower investment for future growth and employment.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
AMBIO. 1992 Feb; 21(1):56-62.Since 1960, The Republic of Korea has experienced 1 of the most spectacular levels of economic development in the world. At the same time, it experienced 1 of the most rapid demographic transitions from high to extremely low levels of fertility and mortality. These changes had profound impact on all aspects of life for the Koreans. The social norms of extended family gave way to nuclear families; the reduction in family size combined with a rise in income led to changes in the lifestyle and consumption patterns of Koreans. These changes, together with rapid industrialization resulted in greater demands on the use of natural resources. As a result, the environmental degradation and, therefore, levels of all kinds of pollution (air, water, and waste) have been the consequence. The gains from slower population growth rates have thus been partially offset by these trends. Efforts must be directed toward informing and educating the people about the sustainable use of resources, especially when a range of opportunities becomes available due to a rise in income and reduction in family size. (author's modified)
Household demand for health care in El Salvador. Volume II: determinants of household demand for curative ambulatory medical care.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1990 Feb. viii, 70 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)The results of a study designed to explain consumer behavior with regard to the consumption of curative ambulatory health services provided by doctors in El Salvador, paying close attention to behavioral differences among urban and rural populations, are reported. The study relied on data collected through a survey of 13, 896 people in 2885 households in San Salvador, other urban areas, and rural areas. In order to identify demand determinants, the effect on health care demand of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, education, and income), and as well as provider characteristics (e.g., price, travel time, and waiting time) were measured. Health providers were categorized into 3 groups: 1) those associated with the Ministry of Health (MOH); 2) those associated with the El Salvador Social Security Institute (ISSS); and 3) private health care providers, whether for-profit or nonprofit. Following a summary and introduction, section III describes the study goals and methodology. Section IV reports the findings on health care utilization patterns, while section V contains the findings on the determinants of health care demand. Section VI discusses the policy implication of the study. 53% of those interviewed reported a self-perceived health problem during the survey's 2-week recall period, but only 14.9% sought curative ambulatory care. Of those who sought care, 81% saw a doctor. Demand for ambulatory care was highest in San Salvador and lowest in rural areas. Differences between the 2 groups were attributed to factors such as education, income, and traveling distances. The study also revealed that the population perceives MOH services as being of very poor quality, while private for-profit providers are viewed as rendering the highest quality services.
[Unpublished] 1984. viii, 106 p.An analysis was performed on the breast-feeding behavior of a sample of 1178 Mexican women aged 15 to 49 interviewed during the Mexican Fertility Survey of 1976-1977 as part of the World Fertility Survey program. The study examines the relationships of individual, household, and community-level characteristics with breast-feeding initiation. Descriptive results revealed that overall 83% of the women in the sample breast-fed their last child. Breast-feeding varied little with maternal age, migrant status, and sex of the child, but women were more likely to breast-feed if they had less than 6 years of education, no work earnings, and a previous childbirth. Only 68.7% of the primaparas breast-fed their infants. Women who delivered in a hospital or clinic and/or were attended at a delivery by a doctor or a nurse midwife were less likely to breast feed. Lower proportions of women breast-fed whose husbands had more than 5 years of education and were involved in farm work. Households which possessed any number of assets (i.e, electricity, stove, iron, radio, television) had lower percentages of mothers breast feeding. 89.9% of rural breast-fed as compared to 73.4% of urban women. Communities which were more isolated and had lower levels of development had higher proportions of breast-feeding women. Communities which were more isolated and had lower levels of development had higher percentages of breast-feeding women. Communities which had medical resources had lower proportions of breast-feeding women. Logistic regression analyses identified the following variables as having significant negative relationships with breast feeding: 1) parity greater than 8, 2) delivery attended by a doctor or a nurse midwife, 3) birth in a private hospital or a clinic, 4) mother born in an urban area, 5) mother's work away from home, 6) mother's income, 7) husband's education greater than 5 years, 8) electricity in the household, 9) mean wage in the community, 10) industry or commerce and services as the main economic activity, and 11) distance from an urban community. Program and policy implications based on the results are presented, and limitations of the study are discussed. (author's)
The consequences of temporary emigration and remittance expenditure from rural and urban settlements: evidence from Jordan.
In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. Paris, France, OECD Publications, 1989. 109-25. (Development Centre Seminars)This paper investigates the characteristics of temporary emigration for employment and the nature of remittance expenditure within 1 country of labor emigration to the Arab world, Jordan. It compares 2 independent household expenditure surveys conducted at opposite ends of the settlement continuum, 1 in the village of Sammu' (31 households in 1985) in northwest Jordan and the other in Marka (40 households in 1984), a suburb of the capital Amman. The results of the 2 surveys reinforce the argument that international migration is associated with non-productive investment of remittances in consumer goods and in the construction sector. In an economy such as Jordan's, this pattern of remittance expenditure encourages very marked geographical changes in both villages and large urban settlements, but the morphological and functional changes that occur vary in significance according to urban hierarchy. The common link in all scales of settlement is that emerging patterns are determined by consumer rather than by producer behavior, resulting in patterns of settlement change that are distinctly different from those found in settlement systems whose dynamics are governed by local patterns of production.
PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1988 Autumn; 27(3):229-76.A subjective equilibrium model was constructed, integrating economic and demographic behavior of agricultural households, using data from a special Philippine survey. The data were collected in 1978-1979 from 590 households in Misamis Oriental, northern Mindanao Island, sponsored by FAO/UNFPA. Households were categorized into large and small farms, and owner and tenant-operated farms. The utility maximization hypothesis was tested and could not be rejected for any socioeconomic groups. The major difference was the input of child labor. The utility maximization model also revealed demands for leisure and commodities consistent with higher valuation of children in tenant and small households compared to owner and large households. The analysis of household equilibrium with demographic characteristics suggests important policy implications: that improved endowments at the bottom could trickle up to result in higher production and lower population growth.
[Unpublished] 1985. 20 p.This paper examines general patterns of urban-rural food and diet consumption in Indonesia. Diet is a critical element in the welfare of urban dwellers, especially newcomers from rural areas. Food prices are likely to be higher in urban areas; with the same levels of income, urban dwellers are likely to be worse-off. Customary diets may be upset by differential food prices. For any given level of income, city life offers more options which compete with food consumption for household income, and may be detrimental to the diet. There is nothing in the urban environment that can support one's diet, whereas food gathering is common in rural areas where people are close to food sources. The data used are from the 1978 National Socioeconomic Survey. The authors compare levels of expenditure as well as food and nutrition consumption in urban and rural areas in an attempt to establish dietary and nutritional patterns. In spite of the relative affluence of the urban population, it does not fare better than the rural population in terms of diet. Urban diets are more expensive in absolute terms; relative prices also bias consumption away from grains which are rich in calories towards other foods which are rich in protein and fat. Price differentials between the areas appear to outweigh the income differentials as far as food consumption is concerned. As a result, the urban population is on average better-off in terms of the consumption of protein and vitamin C, and worse-off in terms of calories and other micronutrients.