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London, United Kingdom, Royal Society, 2012 Apr.  p. (Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report 01/12)Demographic changes and their associated environmental impacts will vary across the globe, meaning that regional and national policy makers will need to adopt their own range of solutions to deal with their specific issues. At an international level, this year’s Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, the discussions at the UN General Assembly revisiting the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD+20) scheduled for 2014/2015 and the review of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015 present opportunities to reframe the relationship between people and the planet. Successfully reframing this relationship will open up a prosperous and flourishing future, for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
Finance and Development. 2007 Jun; 44(2): p.When leaders in developed and developing countries alike ponder ways to boost growth, reduce inequality, and improve living standards, the enduring battle of the sexes is most likely the last thing on their minds. But they might want to think again. Gender differences have long been incorporated into economic analysis at the microeconomic level in such fields as public finance, labor, and development economics. For instance, different migration patterns for men and women in developing countries from rural to urban areas have long been a staple of models in development economics and contribute to our understanding of the overall development process. But more recently, the focus has turned to the potential macroeconomic implications of gender differences in behavior-both for understanding economic developments and for formulating sensible policies. Gender differences in behavior that are the outcome of private decisions or reflect the influence of public policies may lead to different outcomes in the macroeconomy, with implications for aggregate consumption, investment, and government spending and, hence, national output. Yet fiscal policies are rarely formulated to take account of gender. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct.  p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 1)Access to enough water of sufficient quality is fundamental for all human, animal, and plant life as well as for most economic activity. At the global level, plenty of water is available. But to meet the demand, water has to be supplied where and when it is needed. These spatial, temporal, and qualitative characteristics pose the greatest challenge to meeting the rising demand in all sectors. Water withdrawals are only part of the picture. Almost all uses put something back into the water that degrades it for other users. Water quality and competition between users are therefore critical issues for the future of water use. There is no single ?magic bullet? to solve these complex and interrelated problems. Increases in water supplies, and especially storage, are needed, but so is demand management, including not only economic instruments but also education and other efforts to change behavior. Appropriate technologies and institutions must both play a role. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct.  p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 8)Groundwater problems emerging in many parts of the world reduce drought-buffer supplies, threaten environmental values, and increase risks for many of the world?s poorest people. Programs to improve public understanding and basic scientific information regarding the resource base and to encourage the evolution of groundwater management systems are essential. Furthermore, because many countries will need years to develop systems for managing groundwater, policies should encourage users to adapt to water scarcity conditions rather than attempt to solve water problems per se. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct.  p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 2)Water for agriculture is critical for food security. However, water for irrigation may be threatened by rapidly increasing nonagricultural uses in industry, households, and the environment. New investments in irrigation and water supply systems and improved water management can meet part of the demand. But in many arid or semiarid areas--and seasonally in wetter areas--water is no longer abundant. The high economic and environmental costs of developing new water resources limit supply expansion. Therefore, even new supplies may be insufficient. Whether water will be available for irrigation so that agricultural production can provide for national and global food security remains an urgent question for the world. This brief examines the relationship between water and food production over the next 30 years using IFPRI?s IMPACTWATER model. This global model simulates the relationships among water availability and demand, food supply and demand, international food prices, and trade at the regional andglobal levels. The baseline scenario incorporates our best estimates of the policy, investment, technological, and behavioral parameters driving the food and water sectors. We then look at how faster growth in municipal and industrial (M&I) demand and slower investments in irrigation and water supply infrastructure would affect food production. (excerpt)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):466-.Fortification of appropriate foods is an important component of a comprehensive food-based approach toward sustainable control of micronutrient malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency disorders. There are several aspects to be considered and issues to be resolved before investing in food fortification. Key issues discussed by participants included the following: Need for food-consumption survey data to identify micronutrient problems, target groups for interventions, and appropriate food vehicle(s) that could be fortified, including staple foods, complementary foods, and post-weaning foods; Importance of evaluating risks of fortification versus doing nothing and communicating information to policy makers and the scientific community. (excerpt)
Recommendations for an educational programme to improve consumer knowledge of and attitudes towards nutritional information on food labels.
SAJCN. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001 Feb; 14(1):28-35.The needs and objectives of the various groups affected by nutritional labelling illustrate the complex and controversial nature of nutritional labelling and the problems in formulating a simple and easily understood system. Twenty homogeneous white middle-income suburbs were chosen at random from a total of 39 strata. The multistage cluster method of sampling was used to divide each suburb into smaller clusters. One area was chosen at random from each suburb. Twenty homes were then systematically selected to bring the total sample number of respondents to 400. White middle-income women completed a questionnaire analysing consumer attitudes towards and knowledge of nutritional labelling in order to identify the objectives needed for the formulation of an educational programme concerning the nutritional labelling of food containers. The results of the survey suggest that although white middle-income women (N = 388) lacked nutritional labelling knowledge (pass rate < 20%), they had a positive attitude towards nutritional labelling (mean 18.29 ± 4.8). As knowledge scores increased, the following factors became more positive: attitudes towards nutritional labelling (R = 0.2905, P = 0.0000), nutritional education (c2 = 40.9273, P = 0.01), and the use of nutritional labelling in the purchase of food (r = 0.2230, P = 0.0258). The results of this survey suggest a definite need for a nutritional labelling education programme in South Africa. Although the subject group could be considered representative of the top end of the South African market, a comprehensive needs assessment of the relevant target markets that make up South Africa's diverse population should be undertaken for the formulation of a national nutritional education programme. (author's)
Recommended and actual calorie intake of intensive care unit patients in a private tertiary care hospital in the Philippines.
Nutrition. 2006 Apr; 22(4):345-349.This study compared the computed nutrient requirements of geriatric patients under critical care with their actual intake within the first 3 d after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and determined the percentage of patients who achieved adequate intake. Fifty-eight geriatric patients who were admitted to the ICU from September to December 2002 were prospectively enrolled. Recommended and actual calorie intakes per patient were recorded and mean amount of carbohydrate, protein, and fat consumed were calculated. Student’s t test was used to compare actual with recommended nutrient intakes. Actual in relation to recommended nutrient intake was inadequate (41.5% on day 1 to 71.7% on day 3 for calories and 21.1% on day 1 to 24.3% on day 3 for protein, P < 0.001). Carbohydrate intake was low (falling from 61.9% on day 1 to 39.8% on day 3, P < 0.001) and fat intake was also low (increasing from 29.4% to 37.9% on day 3, P < 0.001). The percentage of patients who achieved adequate intake was 51.2% on day 1 and increased to 73.2% on day 3. The intake of geriatric patients in the ICU is low, with differences in actual and recommended intakes. Delivering what is recommended is still a goal to be realized in the ICU setting. (author's)
No product? No programme! The logistics of reproductive health supplies on conflict-affected settings.
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Jan; (19):18-19.The government of Angola is working with NGOs to initiate a series of aggressive HIV prevention activities and information campaigns. Twenty-five years of civil war, however, have robbed the country of its ability to procure enough contraceptives for these programmes, and even to guarantee a regular supply of essential medicines to meet other basic health needs of the Angolan population. A similar story emerges in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Condoms are rarely available, particularly in the east, where population movements, military presence and the use of rape as a weapon of war contribute to the increased transmission of HIV. An OCHA assessment of health facilities in Kinshasa found stock-outs of many basic medicines, especially those needed for safe motherhood programmes. And although family planning supplies can be found in many pharmacies, they are too expensive for most women. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 412-7.This paper presents recommendations on how the business community can address the issues of climate change. The forecast of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is that over the next century temperatures might rise from 1 to 3.5 degrees Celsius, and that sea levels might rise by between 15 and 95 cm. The challenge is to achieve growth and a continuing rise in the living standards of all the people of the world in a non-destructive way. Since there is an existing target for an overall reduction of carbon emissions by 2005 or 2010, the next step will be to develop the means through which any target can be achieved. Through practical incentives, much can be achieved through means of: using combined heat and power plants to increase energy efficiency use; supporting scientific research and joint implementation initiatives in such areas as solar and other renewable energies; exploring for future oil, coal, and gas reserves. There is a great scope for practical constructive action across the whole agenda, and business has a role and a responsibility in that, including working with governments and nongovernmental organizations.
In: Population, consumption, and the environment: religious and secular responses, edited by Harold Coward. Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1995. 295-303.This concluding book chapter suggests that many groups and individuals, such as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), can be instrumental in resolving consumption and population growth problems. NGOs can ensure accountability among governmental and NGO decision-makers for their actions and inactions affecting growth in consumption and population. Foreign aid programs must balance immediate and long-term needs of recipients with environmental sustainability and support nonviolent conflict resolution. Women need to be involved in aid programs. Governments must adopt environmental stewardship at the macro-, meso-, and microlevels and develop better ways of accounting for the costs of resource consumption. Governments need to recognize the importance of women's right to control their own fertility and to meet both women's and men's needs for family planning. Governments need to alleviate gross national and international inequities and poverty. Military expenditures need to be redirected toward peacekeeping and programs that promote social equity and ecological sustainability. The rights of Aboriginal peoples must be respected and their unique wisdom must be preserved. Trading should be equitable, provide fair prices for South and North producers, and aim for common environmental and social standards for traded products. Business leaders must promote consumerism that eliminates harmful forms of consumption and marketing. Business operations, marketing, and lobbying must be consistent with public commitments to social and environmental goals and standards. The author makes recommendations for individuals, educators, and religious leaders.
CHINESE JOURNAL OF POPULATION SCIENCE. 1997; 9(3):215-22.China's enormous population is the major obstacle to ongoing economic development in the country. Consumer demands drive market-based consumption-dominated economies. China's huge population is simply a basic feature of the country. As such, the country's consumption strategy should be based upon the condition of such a large population. China will give priority to the development of labor-intensive industry and devote much attention to science and technology. All Chinese people hope that China will increase the speed at which it modernizes. However, it is unclear how to achieve that goal over the long term. It will be problematic if China follows the path of Japan and Western Europe after World War II. The nation should instead give priority to the development of labor-intensive industry since industry in the developed countries is capital- and technology-intensive. In so doing, China will exploit its resource advantage while reducing the high national level of unemployment.
In: Human population, biodiversity and protected areas: science and policy issues. Report of a workshop, April 20-21, 1995, Washington, DC, edited by Victoria Dompka. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], International Directorate, 1996. 11-7.This chapter presents the recommendations of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and natural resource managers at a 1995 population and biodiversity workshop. The recommendations pertain to policy and field-oriented scientific research priorities. Three guidelines are identified. 1) Scientific research must pertain to improvement in the understanding of the relationships between human population dynamics and biodiversity loss and protection. 2) Effective research involves a number of specific approaches. 3) Research funding must be provided by policymakers and institutions. For example, research must involve a review and analysis of existing scientific data, information, and knowledge about the links between population, biodiversity, and protected areas; relevant government and nongovernment policies; and lessons learned from success stories. Population dynamics research should focus on how population dynamics effect on biodiversity in the local protected area and on the root causes of the population dynamics that negatively impact on biodiversity. Long and short term impacts must be considered. Available population dynamics data sources need to be identified for specific sites. Data should be collected in order to fill in the data gaps. A flaw in existing data is aggregation within political rather than ecological boundaries. Participants recommended determining which aspects of resource consumption and pollution were linked with population dynamics' effect on biodiversity and protected areas. Population dynamics issues include topics in population dynamics, biodiversity, resource consumption, local people, and social, cultural, and economic issues.
Boulder, Colorado, National Audubon Society, Human Population and Resource Use Dept., . 39 p.Human population growth and energy consumption will radically alter the quality of life for Americans, even though most Americans do not experience the poverty and crude life conditions suffered by most inhabitants of the world. Americans can limit family size to two children in the present generation. If world fertility declines from 4.3 in 1990 to 2.3 by 2025, and energy consumption in developing countries does not increase, world energy consumption will increase by 33% by 2025, or 22.5 billion barrels of oil annually. 55% more energy will be consumed if developed countries halve their energy consumption and developing countries double theirs. The recommendations are made to increase energy efficiency and conservation, promote the transition to alternative energy sources, exercise international leadership in energy, and stabilize population growth. The US should promote energy efficiency in buildings. For instance, 80% of every energy dollar is spent on lighting. Heating units can be replaced with more efficient models. Fluorescent light bulbs should replace incandescent bulbs. 65% of US oil consumption is due to automobiles. A change to more efficient models with fuel rates of 50 miles per gallon is feasible. The federal government should set an example by buying right. Photovoltaic and other alternative energy sources should be encouraged. The price of energy should reflect its true cost. Incentives can work. Foreign assistance and multilateral banks should promote energy efficiency, particularly in rural areas of developing countries. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change should be implemented fully by the US government. The social status of women should be improved, and funding for family planning and contraceptive research should be increased. Programs should be developed to suit the needs, values, and cultures of populations. Foreign policies must recognize population as a major factor in sustainable development and not solely as a developing country problem. For example, the impact on the environment is the same for 100 births in Bangladesh as it is for only one birth in the US. US teenage pregnancies result in many unwed mothers and unwanted births. The 1992 Earth Summit established that sustainable development and new models of energy use must be implemented.
Address before the Second Committee of the General Assembly at its 48th Session on agenda item 96: International Conference on Population and Development.
[Unpublished] 1993. 4 p.This speech by Dr. Maher Mahran, Egyptian Minister for population and family welfare, before the 48th UN general assembly on November 4, 1993, pertained to his remarks on the Annotated Outline for the UN Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994. Brief comments were made about conference preparations and conference facilities progress. The following recommendations were made to strengthen wording on the link between development and population and to use this link as a major thematic area. 1) The analysis of the impact of consumption patterns on economic growth and sustainable development should be expanded to addressed whether degradation of the environment and depletion of resources is due to the consumption patterns of the rich or to greater population numbers. The goal should be to attain reasonable consumption patterns for developed and developing nations. 2) The link between structural adjustment and poverty reduction needs to be included in the draft document; national reports should document the effects of structural adjustment on their economies. 3) The link between rural development and sustained economic growth should be made in the final document. 4) Male responsibilities and participation in population programs must be detailed in a separate chapter, not just in paragraph 17. More research and resource allocation needs to be directed to this area. 5) The active participation of the private sector and local communities should be secured; a definition of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is needed. 6) Chapter IV, subchapter A with Chapter XI should be combined with chapter IV, subchapter B as a separate entity; and chapter IV, subchapter C should be merged with chapter V. Chapters V and VI, chapters VII and VIII, chapters IX and X, and chapters XI and XII should be combined. 7) Greater emphasis needs to be placed on closing the gender gap and on implementing Safe Motherhood education programs, programs increasing women's status, programs linking ethics and population, programs for the elderly, and education in environmental protection and population. Finances, sovereignty, and NGO's freedom to experiment are other important issues. Egypt provides the example of a success story.
Washington, D.C., Population Action International, Population and Environment Program, 1994. 48 p.Some human activities produce gases which trap solar heat in the lower atmosphere. Unless the levels of these activities are reduced and controlled, the gases produced will cause average temperatures worldwide to increase with no endpoint in sight. This report is the second in a series on population and critical natural resources which began with an examination of renewable fresh water. Based upon the argument that the atmosphere is a finite global resource threatened by humanity's disposal of greenhouse gases into the air, a model is developed to show how an international agreement may be designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels based upon the principles of equal access to the atmosphere, and how population and consumption dynamics would affect this effort in different ways. Carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas, with industrial emission its major source. This paper therefore looks mainly at industrial carbon dioxide emissions for which there are four decades of country-specific data. Cement production releases the gas as a byproduct of limestone processing and is responsible for 2% of total emissions. Moreover, the paper focuses upon 1990 because it is the latest year for which there is authoritative data for both population and carbon dioxide emission by country for 126 countries with populations of more than one million people. International cooperation between and among both more developed and developing countries is needed to allocate equitable disposal rights. Stabilizing world population at a lower rather than higher level will also increase the likelihood that tolerable levels of individual resource consumption will be compatible with equity and a stable climate, and thus sustainable. Sections discuss atmospheric overload, considering population's role, a stabilization model, and strategies, while appendices list data sources and methodology along with countries' per capita 1990 carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel and cement production.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1989. , 12, 16,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)In February 1989, a consultant went to Rwanda to provide technical assistance on creating Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) Corners and on oral rehydration solution (ORS) production and distribution. Major obstacles to setting up ORT Corners was limited manpower and financial resources. Recommendations for ORT Corners were that the government should emphasize ORT Corners' aim and role rather than the material and physical aspects and gain support of local and regional health officials. Annual consumption of ORS packets stood at 450,000. Since the goal was to have children use ORS for every diarrhea episode, needs would range from 8 to 10 million ORS packets/year. The cost would well surpass the ability of any government or donor agency to finance them, however. Thus the government should implement cost recovery procedures before introducing large-scale community-based distribution. Research was in the process of finding distribution mechanisms additional to the health services. Perhaps the nutrition centers, where about 60% of <2-year old children attend, could serve as ORS distribution points and impart ORT education. The consultant recommended more research on home available fluids to treat diarrhea without dehydration and not exclude them from diarrhea control programs. Since uncertainties existed about probable ORS demand levels, no one could determine needed production capacity or investment level. The consultant observed that it was not obvious who would purchase output. He concluded that Rwanda should continue to receive ORS packets from UNICEF until 1990 or 1991. It should only consider local ORS production when it has clearly identified financing and distribution options and determined demand.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
LAND USE POLICY. 1990 Oct; 7(4):337-50.The conflict between population and land in China results from high population density, declining availability of arable land, decrease in cropland, overgrazing, inability to afford imported grain, and expansion of land use for urbanization. Unwise decisions have been made. These decisions have resulted in land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, degradation of grasslands, waste of land for freight storage or waste disposal due to low grain prices, and nonagricultural constructions on croplands. Ineffective land management problems are identified as: 1) the lack of an economic means of guiding land use and land is not valued; the lack of any mechanism to ensure economic land use including public lands which are not accounted for with rent; 2) the lack of integration of departments into the decision making structure and too many departments making decisions about the same land; 3) the lack of choice in land use which results in higher government departments being unaware of local conditions, and the lack of appropriate investment which results in short-term exploitation; and 4) surveys are inadequate for decision making. The strategies suggested for improvement in land use management include low resources expenditure in production and appropriate goods consumption. The goal is to sustain subsistence with gradual improvement through development. Land resources must be conserved and the environment protected. The solutions to depend on food imports or reduce the nutritional level deny the equally plausible solution to generate a higher level of input. The profit motive and scientific agricultural practices could accomplish this end. Reclamation for cropland is possible for 8 million hectares of wasteland in wide areas in Sanjiang Plain and 3.4 million hectares in small pockets in Eastern Monsoon China. Traditional agriculture must be transformed and an optimum scale of land operation established. Land tenure reform is necessary. Regional conditions must prevail as the guiding principles. Several implementation strategies are suggested: controlling population growth and establishing a balance between expenditure and land productivity, expanding and conserving forest areas, increasing agricultural investment, reforming land tenure, adjusting land product prices, strengthening land administration, developing other industries, and reforming economic and political systems.
TROPICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL MEDICINE. 1990 Jul; 42(3):197-206.An exposition of the ethical arguments for placing sustainability as a priority in implementation of public health programs is made, considering the definition of sustainability, theories of the demographic transition, the ecological transition, the relationship between sustainability of the ecosystem and the human birth rate, types of ethical conflicts over the issue of child survival interventions, a suggested way of resolving the dilemma and a possible paradigm shift constituting a scientific revolution in the field of international health. Sustainability means maintenance of the capacity to support life in quantity and variety. Although most demographers are familiar with Notestein's classic definition of the demographic transition, many are unaware of the likelihood that many countries will become entrapped in stage 2, to the extent that they destroy their ecosystem and thus their population, the "demographic trap." The 3 stages of the ecological transition are 1) expanding human demands with sustainable yield; 2) excess human demands with consumption of biological reserves; 3) ecosystem collapse and death or exit of the human population. An early sign of the 3rd phase is a rise in infant mortality. Sustainability can be increased by adjusting the environment or by lowering human birth rate, with Chinese rigor in need be, or by adding sustainable elements to the system that outweigh de-sustaining ones. Unfortunately there are too many unremovable constraints, and not enough time to wait for socioeconomic gains to lower birth rates. The current attempt by UNICEF to lower the child death rate to effect a demographic transition is attractive but unsound, since it has been proven that numbers of child deaths do not affect family fertility sufficiently. Reducing child deaths will only make population pressure worse. Ethical principles arguing for lowering child deaths have been articulated in Western culture, but now the challenge of sustainability may outweigh them all. It may be possible to apply sustaining measures to countries where possible, but for others, it is argued that child survival measures should not be instituted. These would only make the demographic transition impossible and prolong human misery for larger numbers. For these societies, only the kind of care Mother Teresa gives is appropriate. Finally, residents of developed countries must assume a "deep green" behavior code, a sustainable consumption level. WHO's definition of health should be updated to "Health is a sustainable state of complete...well-being."
EARTHWATCH. 1991; (41):7-8.The 1990 World Conservation Strategy, a document entitled "Caring for the World," contains a chapter on the obstacles confronting sustainable development, defined as that which will improve the capacity to convert constant level of physical resource use into increased satisfaction of human needs. Countries are sometimes classified into 3 groups: industrialized countries with low, zero or negative population growth and constant or decreasing resource consumption, and increasingly environmentally friendly technologies; countries with rapidly declining family size, but still rapidly growing population size, increasing urbanization and increasing rates of resource consumption; and countries with high population growth and low consumption. There are several conceptual problems in dealing with these issues. It is politically prudent to keep issues of population growth and resource consumption separate. People are sometimes confused about the ramifications of the declining population growth rates with still rising population size. Another practical difficulty is matching demographic data with that on natural resources. There are no census data on ecological resources, and what data we have always have different geographical boundaries from demographic administrative districts. Demographers could help biologists by elaborating their analytical tools for use of ecologists.
In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
POPULI. 1989 Sep; 16(3):20-9.Rapid population growth and overpopulation do not create serious problems for poor countries - they explain why most of them cannot escape poverty. The creation of a worldwide lethal situation is not due to the crude numbers of people or population density per se, but to the disproportionately negative impact of rich nations dumping on the life support systems and resources of the world. Roughly 3/4 of carbon dioxide released in burning fossil fuels is caused by the mobilization of energy to power overdeveloped societies. Poor people don't use much energy, so they do not contribute much to the damage caused by mobilizing it. "The average Bangladeshi is not surrounded by plastic gadgets, the average Bolivian doesn't fly in jet airplanes, the average Kenyan farmer doesn't have a tractor or a pickup, the average Chinese doesn't have air conditioning or central heating in his apartment." Statistics on per capita commercial energy use are used to develop an index of responsibility, by country, for damage to the environment and the consumption of resources by an average citizen of a nation. A baby born in the US represents twice the disaster for earth as one born in Sweden or the USSR; 3 times one born in Brazil; 35 times one born in India; 140 times one in Bangladesh or Kenya; and 280 times one in Chad, Rwanda, Haiti or Nepal. Overpopulation in industrial countries represents a much greater threat to the health of ecosystems than does population growth in developing countries. People in rich nations are in better positions to take responsibility for the world's resource depletion and environmental deterioration, because if they fail to reduce consumption rates and develop more accountable corporate standards, they can't expect the developing world to do so. The situation requires input by all nations to find solutions to problems of population growth, environmental degradation and damaging technologies and to design a more sustainable civilization. (Author's modified). (EXCERPT)
In: Tobacco: a major international health hazard. Proceedings of an international meeting organized by the IARC and co-sponsored by the All-Union Cancer Research Centre of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR, held in Moscow, 4-6 June 1985, [edited by] D.G. Zaridze, R. Peto. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1986. 125-33. (IARC Scientific Publications No. 74)In most developing countries, tobacco consumption has been relatively low in the past. It has been increasing in recent years as developed countries have exported more cigarettes to developing countries, and as developing countries have cultivated more tobacco themselves to produce cheaper tobacco, at the sacrifice of food production. Tobacco sales are an important source of revenue for governments in the developing countries as in the developed countries. The spread of smoking to developing countries and the increase in tobacco consumption have had several adverse effects: an increase in lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases; an increase in economic burdens resulting from imports of cigarettes from developed countries and increased medical costs for smoking-related diseases; and decreases in production and import of foods. There are many obstacles and constraints to smoking control in the developing countries, but smoking control is badly needed to prevent lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases, to alleviate economic burdens, and to increase the production and import of foods. (author's)