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[Review of methods of dietary assessment during pregnant] Metodos de avaliacao do consumo alimentar de gestantes: uma revisao.
Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):383-390.Physiological pregnancy changes impact nutritional needs and food intake. The adequate use of tools providing knowledge of food consumption during this life cycle is relevant because it enables the diagnosis for possible nutrition deficits and excesses. The objective of the survey was to perform a bibliographic review on food intake assessment methods during pregnancy. The literature reviewed was selected from an electronic database published between 1994 and September 2004 in Brazil and abroad. This article aims at describing and assessing the different methods and main results of studies determining food intake during pregnancy, among them, the following are highlighted: 24 hour recall, food registration, questionnaire on food intake consumption and food history. The results determine that the 24 hour recall method was the one more frequently used, nevertheless, for many times it was not applied beyond a two day investigation period and it did not take weekends into account. The choice for this method is related to pragmatism and a favorable cost benefit ratio. The conclusion is that to obtain reliable results, the choice of method and study design should always be related to the objectives of the enquiry. (author's)
Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006 Jul; 23(7):700-708.In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk, AFM/1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected groups of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM/1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM/1 ( median 13.5 pg ml, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43) Non-working status (p=0.018, odds ration (OR) =2.87), obesity (p=0.004, OR=3.0), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.028 OR =3.57), contributed to the occurrence of AF in breast milk. AFM/1 contamination of breast milk was frequent, albeit at moderate levels. Growth and development of the infant is rapid and thus it is possible that AF exposure through breast milk has a significant health effect. (author's)
Food items consumed by students attending schools in different socioeconomic areas in Cape Town, South Africa.
Nutrition. 2006 Mar; 22(3):252-258.We investigated the food consumption patterns of adolescent students at schools. Our findings are intended to reveal the overall nutritional quality of foods eaten by students at school, including foods brought to school and foods purchased at school. A questionnaire was completed by 476 students, mostly from grades 7 and 10, from 14 schools in Cape Town, South Africa. The schools were representative of the various ethnic groups and socioeconomic strata of the population. The questionnaire requested information on eating habits at school, foods brought to school and food purchases, and breakfast consumption before school. We also tested whether students knew which foods are healthy and which are less healthy choices. The students were mostly 12 to 16 y of age (mean age 14.5 y). The large majority had breakfast before school (77.8%) and ate at school (79.7%). Food was brought to school by 41% to 56%, whereas 69.3% purchased food at school, mainly at the school store (tuck shop). Predefined “unhealthy” foods brought to school outnumbered “healthy” ones by 2 to 1. Among students who purchased food at school, 70.0% purchased no healthy items, whereas 73.2% purchased two or more unhealthy items. With six foods 84% of students correctly stated whether they were healthy or unhealthy; however, with cola drinks, samoosas (deep-fried pastry with spicy filling), and pies, only 47% to 61% knew that these were less healthy choices. Students’ scores on this question were unrelated to whether they purchased healthy or unhealthy foods. Students who attended schools of high socioeconomic status were twice as likely to bring food to school (64.7% versus 31.0%, P < 0.001), scored higher marks on the quiz of healthy versus unhealthy foods (P < 0.01), but were no more likely to purchase healthy food. The large majority of food eaten by adolescent students in Cape Town is classified as being unhealthy choices. This applies to foods brought to school and food purchases. Consideration needs to be given to policy measures to improve this situation and to improve education of students and their parents. (author's)
Design of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey: considerations on collecting data on decedents.
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS. 1989 Mar-Apr; 104(2):183-8.This is a review of the design and methodology of the U.S. National Mortality Followback Survey. The survey "was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics on a national probability sample of adult deaths in the United States in 1986. Data were collected on (a) socioeconomic differentials in mortality, (b) prevention of premature death by inquiring into the association of risk factors and cause of death, (c) health care services provided in the last year of life, and (d) the reliability of certain items reported on the death certificate. In addition to demographic characteristics of the decedent available from the death certificate and the questionnaire, information was secured on cigarette smoking practices, alcohol use, food consumption patterns, use of hospital, nursing home, and hospice care, sources of payment for care, duration of disability, and assistance with activities of daily living." (EXCERPT)
Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1986 Mar. 115 p.The findings of a 1985 survey concerning population and development problems in India are reported. The survey covered a sample of 280 households in two regions. In the first two chapters, an overview of population dynamics and health issues in India is presented, and various aspects of urbanization are discussed. Tables in the third chapter provide information on the survey sample, including age distribution, place of birth, income and occupational status, consumption of selected durable goods, educational status, delivery of health services, family planning practice, family characteristics and size, married women in the labor force, and migration. A sample of the questionnaire used is included.