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  1. 1

    Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Overview.

    Meinzen-Dick RS; Rosegrant MW

    Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct. [2] p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 1)

    Access to enough water of sufficient quality is fundamental for all human, animal, and plant life as well as for most economic activity. At the global level, plenty of water is available. But to meet the demand, water has to be supplied where and when it is needed. These spatial, temporal, and qualitative characteristics pose the greatest challenge to meeting the rising demand in all sectors. Water withdrawals are only part of the picture. Almost all uses put something back into the water that degrades it for other users. Water quality and competition between users are therefore critical issues for the future of water use. There is no single ?magic bullet? to solve these complex and interrelated problems. Increases in water supplies, and especially storage, are needed, but so is demand management, including not only economic instruments but also education and other efforts to change behavior. Appropriate technologies and institutions must both play a role. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Groundwater: potential and constraints.

    Moench M

    Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct. [2] p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 8)

    Groundwater problems emerging in many parts of the world reduce drought-buffer supplies, threaten environmental values, and increase risks for many of the world?s poorest people. Programs to improve public understanding and basic scientific information regarding the resource base and to encourage the evolution of groundwater management systems are essential. Furthermore, because many countries will need years to develop systems for managing groundwater, policies should encourage users to adapt to water scarcity conditions rather than attempt to solve water problems per se. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Water for food production.

    Rosegrant MW; Cai X

    Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI], 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment, 2001 Oct. [2] p. (Overcoming Water Scarcity and Quality Constraints. Focus 9. Brief 2)

    Water for agriculture is critical for food security. However, water for irrigation may be threatened by rapidly increasing nonagricultural uses in industry, households, and the environment. New investments in irrigation and water supply systems and improved water management can meet part of the demand. But in many arid or semiarid areas--and seasonally in wetter areas--water is no longer abundant. The high economic and environmental costs of developing new water resources limit supply expansion. Therefore, even new supplies may be insufficient. Whether water will be available for irrigation so that agricultural production can provide for national and global food security remains an urgent question for the world. This brief examines the relationship between water and food production over the next 30 years using IFPRI?s IMPACTWATER model. This global model simulates the relationships among water availability and demand, food supply and demand, international food prices, and trade at the regional andglobal levels. The baseline scenario incorporates our best estimates of the policy, investment, technological, and behavioral parameters driving the food and water sectors. We then look at how faster growth in municipal and industrial (M&I) demand and slower investments in irrigation and water supply infrastructure would affect food production. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    World's water resources face mounting pressure.

    Mygatt E

    [Washington, D.C.], Earth Policy Institute, 2006 Jul 26. [4] p.

    Global freshwater use tripled during the second half of the twentieth century as population more than doubled and as technological advances let farmers and other water users pump groundwater from greater depths and harness river water with more and larger dams. As global demand soars, pressures on the world's water resources are straining aquatic systems worldwide. Rivers are running dry, lakes are disappearing, and water tables are dropping. Nearly 70 percent of global water withdrawals from rivers, lakes, and aquifers are used for irrigation, while industry and households account for 20 and 10 percent, respectively. Pressure on water resources is particularly acute in arid regions that support agricultural production or large populations--regions where water use is high relative to water availability. The Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, South Asia, China, Australia, the western United States, and Mexico are especially prone to water shortages. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    No product? No programme! The logistics of reproductive health supplies on conflict-affected settings.

    Crystal P; Ehrlich L

    Forced Migration Review. 2004 Jan; (19):18-19.

    The government of Angola is working with NGOs to initiate a series of aggressive HIV prevention activities and information campaigns. Twenty-five years of civil war, however, have robbed the country of its ability to procure enough contraceptives for these programmes, and even to guarantee a regular supply of essential medicines to meet other basic health needs of the Angolan population. A similar story emerges in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Condoms are rarely available, particularly in the east, where population movements, military presence and the use of rape as a weapon of war contribute to the increased transmission of HIV. An OCHA assessment of health facilities in Kinshasa found stock-outs of many basic medicines, especially those needed for safe motherhood programmes. And although family planning supplies can be found in many pharmacies, they are too expensive for most women. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Guyana: better-fed children.

    Van der Vynckt S

    UNESCO SPECIAL. 1988; (15):1-4.

    In 1987, an UNESCO project, with the financial support of the Norwegian Ministry of Development Co-operation, was launched in Guyana (796,750 inhabitants), to promote the development of the home market for locally produced foods, and alleviate malnutrition through education. This, in a country where, especially in rural areas, 22% of 5 years old children suffer from malnutrition. The results of a 1st set of studies focused on consumer behavior, and demand analysis, were made public in March 1988. The results of a 2nd series of studies aimed at determining how the agro-industrial sector can best meet the demand for local food products, at identifying food processing possibilities, and improving marketing practice, are to be presented in December 1988. Nutrition education has been given to mothers with small children, receiving dietary advice, and basic information on child growth, in the course of their visits to the clinic. In addition, a series of video-cassettes has been shown in the clinic, and a series of radio messages has been aired nationwide. Even more innovative has been the use of the usual techniques of commercial marketing. The use of "social marketing" has yielded good results in developing countries, and it is hoped that the UNESCO project in Guyana will serve as an example to other countries facing similar food supply problems.
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