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A demographic dividend of the FP2020 Initiative and the SDG reproductive health target: Case studies of India and Nigeria.
Gates Open Research. 2018 Feb 22; 2:11.Background: The demographic dividend, defined as the economic growth potential resulting from favorable shifts in population age structure following rapid fertility decline, has been widely employed to advocate improving access to family planning. The current framework focuses on the long-term potential, while the short-term benefits may also help persuade policy makers to invest in family planning. Methods: We estimate the short- and medium-term economic benefits from two major family planning goals: the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020)'s goal of adding 120 million modern contraceptive users by 2020; Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3.7 of ensuring universal access to family planning by 2030. We apply the cohort component method to World Population Prospects and National Transfer Accounts data. India and Nigeria, respectively the most populous Asian and African country under the FP2020 initiative, are used as case studies. Results: Meeting the FP2020 target implies that on average, the number of children that need to be supported by every 100 working-age people would decrease by 8 persons in India and 11 persons in Nigeria in 2020; the associated reduction remains at 8 persons in India, but increases to 14 persons in Nigeria by 2030 under the SDG 3.7. In India meeting the FP2020 target would yield a saving of US$18.2 billion (PPP) in consumption expenditures for children and youth in the year 2020 alone, and that increased to US$89.7 billion by 2030. In Nigeria the consumption saved would be US$2.5 billion in 2020 and $12.9 billion by 2030. Conclusions: The tremendous economic benefits from meeting the FP2020 and SDG family planning targets demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of investment in promoting access to contraceptive methods. The gap already apparent between the observed and targeted trajectories indicates tremendous missing opportunities. Accelerated progress is needed to achieve the FP2020 and SDG goals and so reap the demographic dividend.
Lancet. 2012 Jul 14-20; 380(9837):84-85.A growing number of findings from different disciplines show that human wellbeing is increasingly threatened by unsustainable population growth. These threats occur at different levels. At the global level, population size is a crucial factor in consumption of resources... Important as it is to decrease the environmental footprint of high-income countries for sustainability reasons, it is also necessary to boost economic development in low-income countries for humanitarian and ethical reasons... Provision of universal access to modern family planning methods is absolutely necessary and urgent - also from a women’s rights perspective - and it will certainly have an inhibiting effect on population growth, but additional efforts will be needed to push back global fertility to replacement level or below. (excerpts)
In: Global biodiversity strategy: guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably, [compiled by] World Resources Institute [WRI], World Conservation Union [IUCN], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], in consultation with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO], UNESCO. [Washington, D.C.], WRI, 1992. 37-54.It is at the local level where people forfeit or preserve biodiversity. Yet government policies develop incentives that either help or restrain local action. Even though governments tend to intervene in markets for a variety of reasons (e.g., encourage industrial growth), many development policies do not value environmental resources and sometimes accelerate depletion of natural resources and biodiversity loss. They even encourage overexploitation of species, alteration of natural environments, and oversimplistic agricultural ecosystems. It makes economic and ecological sense to reform these policies. For example, governments which subsidize individuals for using natural resources strains national economies and hinders development. Industrialized countries subsidize agriculture at an annual cost of US$150 billion from the outlay of consumers and taxpayers although it drains the environment. 57% of the European Community's budget supports agricultural prices whereas only 1% goes to protect the environment. Indonesia lost US$2 billion between 1979-82 due to its forest policies. Therefore investments in biodiversity conservation more than compensates for savings due to policy reforms. National resource and trade policies must consider biodiversity's potential benefits which include enhanced food security, economic development, and improved medical care. Thus countries need to reform public policies that decrease or misuse biodiversity. These existing policies include forestry, coastal and marine ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems, and agricultural policies. They also need to approve new public policies and accounting methods that encourage conservation and equitable use of biodiversity. Countries must provide widespread access to family planning services and more funding to promote family planning use and reduce consumption through recycling and conservation.
Population, consumption, and entrapment. Improve access to contraception to curb population growth [letter]
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2000 Apr 29; 320(7243):1207-8.In this letter to the editor, John Guillebaud agrees with the comment by Loefer, that in terms of population the adverse influence of the Pontiff reaches beyond Catholicism. The Pope says that contraceptives are anti-life, yet they are cost-effective in reducing the mortality of both mothers and infants. The author acknowledges that poverty has many dimensions, and not all could be mentioned, but population growth is the unrecognized multiplier of the major problems in the world. Among those living in rural areas, having more children would seem advantageous; yet this would limit the resources of the family, bringing smaller shares for all, and exacerbating poverty with high infant mortality and an unstable social security factor. Moreover, there is an added environmental impact, which was highlighted by an equation developed by the authors. Guillebaud believes that making certain every woman wishing to control her fertility via contraception can actually obtain it for herself or her partner would vastly control and eventually prevent future population growth.