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Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study.
Science of the Total Environment. 2007 Mar; 374(1):60-70.The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, µg/L). Mercury levels were 0.38±0.5 µg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50±0.64 µg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45±13.8 µg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 µg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level. (author's)
[Review of methods of dietary assessment during pregnant] Metodos de avaliacao do consumo alimentar de gestantes: uma revisao.
Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):383-390.Physiological pregnancy changes impact nutritional needs and food intake. The adequate use of tools providing knowledge of food consumption during this life cycle is relevant because it enables the diagnosis for possible nutrition deficits and excesses. The objective of the survey was to perform a bibliographic review on food intake assessment methods during pregnancy. The literature reviewed was selected from an electronic database published between 1994 and September 2004 in Brazil and abroad. This article aims at describing and assessing the different methods and main results of studies determining food intake during pregnancy, among them, the following are highlighted: 24 hour recall, food registration, questionnaire on food intake consumption and food history. The results determine that the 24 hour recall method was the one more frequently used, nevertheless, for many times it was not applied beyond a two day investigation period and it did not take weekends into account. The choice for this method is related to pragmatism and a favorable cost benefit ratio. The conclusion is that to obtain reliable results, the choice of method and study design should always be related to the objectives of the enquiry. (author's)
Impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of rural pregnant women.
Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):51-55.The unfortunate state of nutrition in countries like India is attributed to several factors. Poverty and low purchasing power are no doubt major factors contributing to malnutrition, lack of awareness and paucity of information also aggravate the problem. There are three population groups who suffer from the ill effects of malnutrition. These vulnerable segments are preschool children, expectant and nursing mothers. An expectant and nursing mother needs to be provided adequate nutritional intake for maternal and foetal tissue growth and her own usual maintenance requirements. An acute or chronic deprivation of dietary intake may result in poor pregnancy outcome. In India almost one third of babies born are low birth weight mainly attributable to poor maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy. Nutrition counselling is one of the prerequisites for improving the nutritional status of any group. The prenatal patient represents an ideal opportunity for nutrition counselling, since at that time more than any other time, she may be highly motivated to understand and accept advice. Hence the present study was conducted to see the impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of pregnant women. (excerpt)
Mumbai, India, International Institute for Population Sciences, 2003.  p.Since 1947, India has made substantial progress in human development. In 50 years, life expectancy has doubled; mortality level has fallen more than one half, and fertility has declined by more than two fifth. Poverty levels have been reduced from over 50 percent in 1950s to 35 percent in the 1990s. Nutritional status has also improved. Thanks to the green revolution, which provided a breathing spell for achieving a balance between human numbers and food output. Famines no longer stalks the land as frequently as before, the country has become self sufficient in food -one of the world’s greatest achievement in development and the extreme ravages of malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, are now relatively rare. Yet more than half of Indian children under five years of age are moderately or severely malnourished, 30 percent of newborns are significantly underweight and 60 percent of Indian women are anemic. These manifestations of malnutrition are unacceptable. They reflect the neglect of children and women and their high risk of illness and death. They end in failure to achieve full physical and mental potential, lower productivity and blighted lives. Thus it can be well said that improvements in nutritional status have not kept pace with progress in other areas of human development, at least when homogenous distribution is taken into consideration. (excerpt)
[Food consumption by pregnant adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil] O consumo alimentar de gestantes adolescentes no Município do Rio de Janeiro.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2004; 20 Suppl 1:S121-S129.The increase in teenage pregnancy has been viewed with concern by public health experts. Food consumption to help maintain high nutrient demands has been identified as one of the most relevant components. This study aims to present the habitual consumption of food and energy-specific nutrients by pregnant adolescents. A total of 1,180 adolescent mothers were interviewed in maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro, and a simplified questionnaire on semi-quantitative frequency of food consumption was applied. Lower consumption of fruit juice, vegetables, and fruits was observed among adolescent mothers over 15. Adolescent mothers classified in the lowest quartile of consumption lack the minimum recommended consumption of energy and nutrients. An inverse association was found between the number of household members and energy and nutrient consumption. Adolescent mothers who received dietary information and changed their eating habits during pregnancy showed better results concerning the consumption of energy and nutrients. Prenatal care was a key factor for improving the results of pregnancy, emphasizing the importance of providing dietary information. (author's)
Measurement of energy consumption and energy expenditure of pregnant women in Purworejo district, central Java [abstract]
[Unpublished] .  p.The objective was to know energy consumption and energy expenditure of pregnant women in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester pregnancy, and to observe the correlation between level of consumption and morbidity. The design was a Cross sectional study with standardized open ended questioner in community based survey, in-depth interview, and observation participation. The location was a Community health and nutrition research laboratories in Purworejo district, Central Java province. 30 pregnant women in 1st-3rd trimester of pregnancy with 10 subjects for each pregnancy time, selected randomly. Age of subject for each group did not differ significantly, 27.8 years old for the 1st trimester 28.6 in 2nd trimester, and 28.14 in 3rd trimester respectively. The average of BMI for each group were 20.21, 22.04, and 22.48. The average of daily energy expenditure were 2101.76 Kcal, 2704.26 Kcal, and 2719.39 Kcal for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester pregnancy respectively, that showed significant differential (p<0.05). The average of energy consumption for each trimester were 1499.22 Kcal, 1665.22 Kcal, and 2139.36 Kcal did not indicate a statistically different significant. Compared to energy expenditure, an energy requirement were 49.84%, 70.77% and 89.56%. The numbers were 70%, 72.62, and 89.56% when it was compared to recommended dietary allowance 1993. In this research the corelation between energy consumption and anaemia was not found. There were greater increases of energy expenditure in 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. There was not correlation between hemoglobin level and energy consumption and energy expenditure. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1997. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 27-29, 1997. , 25 p.The authors review and analyze available anthropometric and food consumption data to dispel the notion that women and children are routinely discriminated against in intrahousehold food allocation throughout the developing world. Little evidence was found that the youngest children tend to get less than their fair share of household food supplies. Researchers recording food consumption data have often omitted infant breast milk consumption, making it seem as though infants and young children are being underfed. Moreover, female children do not consistently have poorer growth than male children, even in india. Among Indian elites, however, there is strong evidence that women are discriminated against in the allocation of both food and health care. Adult women actually have better diets than adult men, except when lactating or pregnant. These findings suggest that, in the interest of both maternal and child health, nutrition and nutrition education interventions be targeted to pregnant and lactating women rather than to the broad population of women and children.