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[Unpublished] 2007. Presented at the Population Association of America 2007 Annual Meeting, New York, New York, March 29-31, 2007. 30 p.The present paper examined the relationship of population to the environment and with growing population, poverty and urbanization the environment is degrading. Conducted an analysis of changes and trends over last fifty years. The study reveals that the country's population growth is imposing an increasing burden on the country's limited and continually degrading natural resource base. The natural resources are under increasing strain, even though the majority of people survive at subsistence level. Population pressure on arable land contributes to the land degradation. The increasing population numbers and growing affluence have already resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in India. The environmental effects like ground water and surface water contamination; air pollution and global warming are of growing concern owing to increasing consumption levels. The paper concludes with some policy reflections, the policy aimed at overall development should certainly include efforts to control population and environmental pollution. (author's)
Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1992. , 217 p.The world faces two contrasting crises: 20% of its people live in poverty, while 25% enjoy a lifestyle of profligate consumption. A deteriorating environment links them both. It is increasingly clear that environmental problems cannot be solved without full consideration of the process of development, the results of which are so often destructive rather than sustainable. In this book, these issues are examined from a Southern viewpoint. Examples are drawn from Oxfam's (an international organizations dealing with environmental problems in the Third World) experience of how poor people are responding to safeguard and improve the environment on which their livelihood and common future depend.
In: Population -- the complex reality. A report of the Population Summit of the world's scientific academies, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. London, England, Royal Society, 1994. 349-61.Environmental carrying capacity is dependent upon population size and resource demand per capita. Confusion has arisen from mistaking effects for causes in analysis of the links between poverty, population growth, and environmental degradation. Economic growth in and of itself will not alleviate poverty. Income earning capacities for poor households must be increased, and price systems must be favorable to the poor. Economic growth is necessary in developing countries for relief of poverty, and an obstacle to this growth may be the lack of sufficient capital. Limitations on resources restrict economic growth. Studies have suggested that resource conservation subsidies and depletion taxes correct for open access and improve sustainability. Another option is more equitable reallocation of resources. Evidence suggests that income drives population growth. The Malthusian dilemma of balancing growth with food productivity does not account for technological advances. The impact of population growth on food productivity has not been realized yet. Growth of crop yields has slowed, but physical limits have not been reached. Signs of increasing pressure on food supply are famine and malnutrition. Correction for inequalities of distribution and access would relieve the impact on the poor. The risks to resource depletion are dependent on whether the focus is on population numbers or resource demand. Shaw has modeled the links between population, natural resource consumption, poverty, debt, and technology and environmental well-being; the resulting model shows the complexity of interactions that impact on sustainability. Environmental impact is also dependent on waste technologies, which are affected by consumption patterns. There is global economic interdependence, and narrow national self-interests need to be reversed to reflect global cooperation and survival.
What is at stake at the world conference on population and development: women's rights and responsibilities.
PEOPLE'S PERSPECTIVES. 1994 Mar; (8):4-8.Planetary democracy is necessary and possible. T he world's citizens must participate in decision-making on global issues like the environment, development, and population. There is a recognition at the international level that almost everything in politics and culture has been decided by men. Women must speak out on the problems that afflict humanity in an endeavor to democratize human relationship and politics. At the UN Conference on Population and Development, women must fight to have their reproductive rights respected. Planeta Femea, the women's event during ECO'92, was a demonstration of this new stance taken by women. The Coalition of Brazilian Women that coordinated Planeta Femea addressed two issues: population and ethics. The Rio Conference unmasked the simplistic notion that it was the populous nations of the South that degraded the environment, polluted water, and burned forests, when the North's patterns of production and consumption were the principal culprits of environmental degradation and the depletion of natural resources. The North's technological innovations drive all those denied access to these resources further into underdevelopment. The majority of mankind is becoming less and less competitive. According to UNDP figures, worsening terms of international trade, the burden of foreign debt, and trade protectionism deprive developing countries of 500 billion dollars in resources every year. To continue with present policies that perpetuate disparities among countries is to increase poverty worldwide and risk making our planet unsustainable. Improving the quality of life for all mankind requires a global alliance, a shared responsibility by all nations in confronting squalor and inequality. Modifying patterns of consumption and lifestyle in the North as well as reviewing global patterns of use of capital, resources and technology are needed to implement a common North-South agenda to salvage the planet.