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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    The role of material deprivation and consumerism in the decisions to engage in transactional sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi.

    Kamndaya M; Vearey J; Thomas L; Kabiru CW; Kazembe LN

    Global Public Health. 2016 Mar; 11(3):295-308.

    Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18-23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analyzed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums.
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  2. 2

    People and the planet.

    Royal Society

    London, United Kingdom, Royal Society, 2012 Apr. [134] p. (Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report 01/12)

    Demographic changes and their associated environmental impacts will vary across the globe, meaning that regional and national policy makers will need to adopt their own range of solutions to deal with their specific issues. At an international level, this year’s Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, the discussions at the UN General Assembly revisiting the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD+20) scheduled for 2014/2015 and the review of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015 present opportunities to reframe the relationship between people and the planet. Successfully reframing this relationship will open up a prosperous and flourishing future, for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The (indispensable) middle class in developing countries; or, the rich and the rest, not the poor and and the rest.

    Birdsall N

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2010 Mar. [38] p. (CGD Working Paper 207)

    Inclusive growth is widely embraced as the central economic goal for developing countries, but the concept is not well defined in the development economics literature. Since the early 1990s, the focus has been primarily on pro-poor growth, with the “poor” being people living on less than $1 day, or in some regions $2 day. The idea of pro-poor growth emerged in the early 1990s as a counterpoint to a concern with growth alone (measured in per-capita income) and is generally defined as growth which benefits the poor as much or more han the rest of the population. Examples include conditional cash transfers, which target the poor while minimizing the fiscal burden on the public sector, and donors’ emphasizing primary over higher education as an assured way to benefit the poor while investing in long-term growth through increases in human capital. Yet these pro-poor, inclusive policies are not necessarily without tradeoffs in fostering long-run growth. In this paper I argue that the concept of inclusive growth should go beyond the traditional emphasis on the poor (and the rest) and take into account changes in the size and economic command of the group conventionally defined as neither poor nor rich, i.e., the middle class.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Recurrent costs of HIV/AIDS-related health services in Rwanda: implications for financing.

    Quentin W; Konig HH; Schmidt JO; Kalk A

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Oct; 13(10):1245-56.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate recurrent costs per patient and costs for a national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model in Rwanda. METHODS: A national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model was developed. Unit costs were estimated so as to reflect necessary service consumption of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Two scenarios were calculated: (1) for patients/clients in the year 2006 and (2) for potential increases of patients/clients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of results. RESULTS: Average yearly treatment costs were estimated to amount to 504 US$ per patient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to 91 US$ for non-ART patients. Costs for the Rwandan HIV/AIDS treatment programme were estimated to lie between 20.9 and 27.1 million US$ depending on the scenario. ART required 9.6 to 11.1 million US$ or 41-46% of national programme costs. Treatment for opportunistic infections and other pathologies consumed 7.1 to 9.3 million US$ or 34% of total costs. CONCLUSION: Health Care in general and ART more specifically is unaffordable for the vast majority of Rwandan PLWHA. Adequate resources need to be provided not only for ART but also to assure treatment of opportunistic infections and other pathologies. While risk-pooling may play a limited role in the national response to HIV/AIDS, considering the general level of poverty of the Rwandan population, no appreciable alternative to continued donor funding exists for the foreseeable future.
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  5. 5

    Population growth and environmental degradation in India.

    Nagdeve DA

    [Unpublished] 2007. Presented at the Population Association of America 2007 Annual Meeting, New York, New York, March 29-31, 2007. 30 p.

    The present paper examined the relationship of population to the environment and with growing population, poverty and urbanization the environment is degrading. Conducted an analysis of changes and trends over last fifty years. The study reveals that the country's population growth is imposing an increasing burden on the country's limited and continually degrading natural resource base. The natural resources are under increasing strain, even though the majority of people survive at subsistence level. Population pressure on arable land contributes to the land degradation. The increasing population numbers and growing affluence have already resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in India. The environmental effects like ground water and surface water contamination; air pollution and global warming are of growing concern owing to increasing consumption levels. The paper concludes with some policy reflections, the policy aimed at overall development should certainly include efforts to control population and environmental pollution. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact of PROGRESA on food consumption: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 150 (May 2003).

    Hoddinott J; Skoufias E

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(4):379-380.

    Since 1997, PROGRESA has provided cash transfers linked to children's enrollment and regular school attendance and to health clinic attendance. The program also includes in-kind health benefits; nutritional supplements for children up to age five, and pregnant and lactating women; and instructional meetings on health and nutrition issues. In 2000, PROGRESA reached about 40 percent of all rural families and about 11 percent of all Mexican families. This paper explores whether PROGRESA improves the diet of poor rural Mexicans--a major objective of the program. As such, this evaluation provides insights into whether interventions designed to alleviate poverty also succeed in reducing hunger. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Material girls: sexual perceptions of Korean teenage girls who have experienced compensated dates.

    Kong MH

    Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 2003 Jun 30; 9(2):[12] p..

    The purpose of this study is to examine sexual perceptions and conflicts among Korean teenage girls who have been involved in `compensated dates,' which is a form of sex work that may be temporarily undertaken by young girls or may lead on to prostitution. I have collected data from 12 girls, using in-depth interviews, who had experienced sexual abuse, and economic deprivation. These girls were rather maladjusted and had been abandoned by their families and schools. Their involvement in compensated dates began out of economic necessity, as they had run away from home. Sexual abuse was reportedly common for the majority of the respondents who had also suffered poverty and unhappy family lives. So these girls tended to seek compensated dates to overcome poverty. With poor education and skills, the girls viewed compensated dates as an easy strategy in the face of privation. In addition, the consumer society encouraged them to become sexually promiscuous to earn money, in order to buy and own more and more goods. The sexual conflict and ambivalence experienced by them were outcomes of their sense of sexual subjectivity. They saw their bodies as resources that were exchangeable for money, but they did not realize the internalized oppression they endured. They knew their bodies were a means of pleasure, but did not realize that sexual violence underlies it. The development of a stronger sense of self may resolve the conflict between the girls' curiosities and experiences concerning their bodies and sexuality. (author's)
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  8. 8

    ICPD issues and us -- some reflections.

    Shiva M

    Health for the Millions. 2004 Aug-Nov; 10-15.

    It was not just the emergency period that gave family planning a bad name, but it was the way the F.P. Programme had been planned with setting of 'targets’ number wise and gender wise. Dr Ashish Bose had called this "Targetitis". During the emergency as a post graduate in CMC, Ludhiana I heard from my senior doctor and teacher how on his way back from Delhi to Ludhiana, he had been stopped and marched to a F.P. camp for forced sterilization - and how he had escaped by the skin of his teeth when he demanded to talk to the collector whom he said he knew. If this could happen to a senior doctor, what would have been the fate of lesser mortals, many of whom were not even married nor had a living child. It was cruel. Equally cruel was the putting of IUCD/Copper T in women, even with blatant infection. Women complained of white discharge and all those involved in women's health were well aware of it. How could trained doctors and health personnel putting in IUCDs, in the numerous family planning camps not feel the need to address the other gynecological problems? (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Something else to chew on. The 30 hour famine activities and resources guide.

    World Vision Canada. 30 Hour Famine

    Mississauga, Canada, World Vision Canada, [1993]. [2], 36 p.

    This activity and resources guide was produced for use with people aged 14-18 years old, although in many cases it can be adapted for use with adults and younger adolescents. Canadians need a better understanding of the developing world, the root causes of poverty, and the principles of lasting development. This guide will help teachers, educators, students, and youth group leaders in Canada go beyond the typical media images of hunger and poverty to see more clearly their connections to global issues of poverty, environmental degradation, and human justice. It is hoped that participating in the guide's activities will impart in participants a sense of global community, shared responsibility, and awareness of opportunities to act. Interactive, participatory exercises are one of the best ways to build empathy and awareness. Accordingly, this guide has a variety of challenging, participatory activities which can be adapted to particular settings.
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  10. 10

    Policy statement on population and the environment.

    Social Science Research Council [SSRC]; International Social Science Council [ISSC]; Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era [DAWN]

    FOCUS ON GENDER. 1993 Feb; 1(1):22-3.

    Inequalities in distribution of wealth, uneven use and distribution of resources, and human settlement patterns contribute more to environmental degradation than does population size. Current global economic strategies and policy decisions affect population and the natural environment. Large-scale technology and communications, the globalization of capital, subordination within world markets, and increasing consumption levels have broken down livelihoods and the environment. Therefore, contrary to popular opinion, population growth is not the key variable in environmental degradation. The erosion of livelihoods really affect women, especially poor women. Legal and political rights, women's economic independence, education, health, access to reproductive health services, and improved child survival greatly influence fertility decline. The disintegration of women's livelihoods restricts their access to health services and education. We cannot depend on capitalism to protect our livelihoods or the health of the environment. So nongovernmental organizations, international agencies, and national and local governments must do so. Assessments of intensive agriculture, industries destroying the social and physical environment, and military activities are critically needed. We need to reassess the macroeconomic forces affecting the natural environment and livelihoods of the poor. Communities should influence and demand policies and regulations preserving their access to resources. Women must participate more intensely in decision making. They should have access to key services. Citizens should have more access to information on environmental damage of industrialized products and processes. All of us need to advocate for more environmentally sound and sustainable forms of development and technology. People at the local, national, and global levels must work to change values that have caused overconsumption, thereby promoting a new ethic centering on caring for people and the environment.
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  11. 11

    Overview of scientific perspectives.

    Chapman AR

    In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 39-47.

    This paper examines questions about the impact of human population growth, technology, and consumption patterns on the environment, and considers to what extent science can provide answers. It notes that the impact of population growth is compounded by the fact that the greatest increase is taking place in poor countries, worsening the alarming rates of hunger, poverty and environmental degradation. Such problems limit the possibilities of achieving sustainable economic development and improving the quality of life. Moreover, it is noted that high rates of natural resource consumption and pollution, primarily in affluent countries, exert strong demographic pressures. In this regard, the inequality between poor and rich countries underlies the population- consumption-environmental crisis. In assessing the state of the environment and options for solving the problems, science has made various contributions such as knowledge, promotion of awareness of the interdependence of life forms, and provision of long-term global view. However, science has little likelihood of providing answers to critical issues due to the difficulty in measuring the interrelationships between human population and environment.
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  12. 12

    No time to waste: poverty and the global environment.

    Davidson J; Myers D; Chakraborty M

    Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1992. [4], 217 p.

    The world faces two contrasting crises: 20% of its people live in poverty, while 25% enjoy a lifestyle of profligate consumption. A deteriorating environment links them both. It is increasingly clear that environmental problems cannot be solved without full consideration of the process of development, the results of which are so often destructive rather than sustainable. In this book, these issues are examined from a Southern viewpoint. Examples are drawn from Oxfam's (an international organizations dealing with environmental problems in the Third World) experience of how poor people are responding to safeguard and improve the environment on which their livelihood and common future depend.
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  13. 13

    Rio + 5: picking up the pieces.

    Hinrichsen D

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(4):4-5.

    The UN General Assembly Special Session held during June 1997 has failed to take forward the objectives set out at the Earth Summit in Rio, casting doubt on the global effort to create a sustainable future. This article presents a balance sheet set out by Don Hinrichsen in the wake of Rio+5. It outlines the progress made by the UN as well as the prevailing issues, which need to be acted upon immediately. It is noted that little progress has been made since the Summit; only the issues of population, forests, and oceans have been given attention, subsequently achieving a significant progress. However, the UN has failed in addressing the issues of poverty, high consumption, management of freshwater, and the continued loss and impoverishment of biological diversity. Little or lack of progress has been made since Rio in implementing recommendations tackling such problems. In the context of the issues regarding land degradation and climate change, assessing progress would be too early for these aspects.
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  14. 14

    Population, environment, and development: interactions and issues.

    Reidhead PW; Qureshy LF; Narain V

    In: Population, environment, and development, edited by R. K. Pachauri and Lubina F. Qureshy. New Delhi, India, Tata Energy Research Institute [TERI], 1997. 45-68.

    The authors discuss ways of achieving sustainable development given the constraints imposed by population and the environment. Aspects considered include poverty and environment, urbanization and migration, food security, consumption and the North-South debate, and policy suggestions. (ANNOTATION)
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  15. 15

    Survey of economic and social conditions in Africa, 1991-1992.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations, 1994. xvi, 139, 63 p. (E/ECA/SERP/94/1)

    This 1991-92 survey report summarizes economic conditions in Africa. This report differs from the 1990-91 survey report in that it uses 1990 as the base year for constant prices. The topical structure of the survey has remained the same, with the exception of a new chapter on the construction industry. Chapter topics include an overview of the global economy in 1992, the economy of Africa in 1992, fiscal and price developments, external debt and new structural adjustment programs (SAPs), foreign trade, agriculture and forestry and fisheries, petroleum and natural gas, mining, manufacturing, construction, transportation and telecommunications and tourism, and a review of selected social issues. The economy of Africa is stagnating and in crisis. During the 1980s there was not a single African country that successfully industrialized or started to industrialize. The gross domestic product per capita in the region was lower than other regions, and the African share of the global economy and world trade declined. Even African commodities that were almost monopolies declined. The African economy grew by an average of 2% annually during 1980-90 and an estimated 1.3% in 1992. The African region has suffered from the effects of the Gulf War, drought in Southern Africa, and civil wars and conflicts in many countries. The growth rate of the world economy was 1.4% in 1992 and 2.0% in 1994. The growth rate of developing economies was 6.1% in 1992 and 5.7% in 1993. The growth rate in Africa was 2.0% in 1992 and 2.3% in 1993. The extent of outstanding debt in developing countries continued to rise. The African share of developing country debt was $292 billion out of $1478 billion in 1991. Economic conditions in Africa deteriorated sharply in 1992. The prospects for 1993 were not even for modest growth. The crisis in the social sector continued without stop into the 1990s. Women and children are the most seriously affected.
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  16. 16

    Poverty and household size.

    Lanjouw P; Ravallion M

    ECONOMIC JOURNAL. 1995 Nov; 105(433):1,415-34.

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. We find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity of the cost of living is about 0.6. This turns out to be the elasticity implied by a modified version of the food share method of setting scales. By contrast, some measures of child nutritional status indicate an elasticity of unity. Consideration of the weight attached to child versus adult welfare may help resolve the non-robustness of demographic profiles of poverty. (EXCERPT)
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  17. 17

    The future of populous economies. China and India shape their destinies.

    Livernash R

    ENVIRONMENT. 1995 Jul-Aug; 37(6):6-11, 25-34.

    Population in 1995 was about 1.2 billion in China and about 935 million in India. Populations are expected to reach respectively 1.5 billion and 1.4 billion by 2025. These two countries now and in the future will average about 35% of total world population. This article compares the current and expected demographic, economic, and environmental conditions in China and India. How these countries manage their growth, poverty, and population will affect the region and the world as well as each nation. China's fertility is now below replacement but population momentum will increase population by about 300 million/year. India's fertility is 3.6 children/woman and India will add 450 million/year. China's population over 60 years old will reach 20% by 2020, while India's will be under 15% in 2025. China will be almost 55% urban by 2025 from 30% in the 1990s, and India will be 45% urban from 27% urban. China's economic growth has averaged over 9%/year compared to India's 5% annual growth during the 1980s and the economic decline during the 1990s. China has 12% of rural population living below the poverty line and India has about 33% of its total population impoverished. China's life expectancy is about 10 years higher. Under-five mortality is 43/1000 live births in China and 131/1000 in India. Poverty-related diseases are still high in India. China is a homogenous population with an authoritarian regime. India is a democracy with a large nongovernmental community and a heterogenous population. India has about 33% of the land area of China but over twice the agricultural land per person. About 50% of China's land and only 25% of India's land is irrigated. Water resources are problems in northern China and much of India. Air and water pollution are problems in both countries. Differences in the population-environment-development context are discussed in terms of the effects of poverty, the constraints posed by development, and the environmental impact of rising per capita consumption. It is concluded that India faces the more difficult future.
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  18. 18

    Gender and nutrition.

    Patterson AW

    In: Gender, health, and sustainable development: perspectives from Asia and the Caribbean. Proceedings of workshops held in Singapore, 23-26 January 1995 and in Bridgetown, Barbados, 6-9 December 1994, edited by Janet Hatcher Roberts, Jennifer Kitts, and Lori Jones Arsenault. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995 Aug. 285-90.

    This paper presents an overview of some of the issues pertaining to nutrition in the Caribbean region: food production, food availability, food consumption, poverty, culture, and nutrition-related health problems. It is concluded that sustainable development should assure survival and the ability to be healthy. Research and programs are lacking in the attention given to the management and control of obesity and chronic diseases. Prevention of chronic diseases requires the adoption of healthy life styles and life skills in all population groups regardless of age, sex, or social status. Policy directions and the national allocation of resources are necessary for developing and implementing health education programs. Program strategies must involve multidisciplinary disciplines and personnel. The International Conference on Nutrition recommends further activity on improving household food security, preventing and managing infectious diseases, caring for the deprived and nutritionally vulnerable, promoting healthy diets and life styles, protecting consumers through improved food quality, preventing micronutrient deficiencies, researching nutrition situations, and including nutrition objectives within development plans. Little research, other than a small study in Jamaica, is available on the health impact of women's agricultural work in the Caribbean, particularly on pesticide and agricultural chemical exposure. Caribbean countries rely heavily on food imports to meet basic food needs. Currently there is adequate food availability at the national level. Poverty is a major cause of undernutrition and women in female-headed households are a particularly vulnerable group. Food consumption data in the Caribbean are inadequate for a variety of reasons. Indigenous food that is nutritionally of high quality is rejected as "poor people's food." The leading causes of death in the Caribbean include anemia, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes.
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  19. 19

    Population and social development. World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 6-12 March 1995.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 1994 Aug. 5 p. (Backgrounder 4)

    The 1994 Human Development Report states that world peace hinges on whether people have security in their daily lives. This articles discusses some implications of unbalanced population growth for limiting human development. This background paper refers to reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. The proposed people-centered approach would emphasize reducing poverty, building solidarity, and creating more jobs in developing countries in the context of sustainable development. Recent world conferences served as an interim impetus for securing the commitment of all countries to a human development agenda. The underlying assumption was that human development would fuel economic growth in sustainable ways. Demographic factors have exacerbated the problems of poverty, social conflict, and gender inequity. The UN's Plan of Action called for integrating population issues into all aspects of development planning. A concern is whether humans can adjust to the projected massive numbers of people without increasing scarcity, conflict, and social disintegration. The key to human progress has been recognized by some as the empowerment of women. It is proposed that population growth will be stabilized and poverty will be alleviated by provision of family planning services for women with an unmet need. The threat to human survival is recognized as threats to sufficient resources and inequitable access to resources at all levels. Structural adjustment development policies are recognized as remedies for serious economic imbalances at the expense of human needs. Natural resource depletion and environmental pollution are recognized as emanating from unsustainable production and consumption patterns in industrialized countries. Developing countries need jobs. The world's age distribution of population is demographically lopsided.
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  20. 20

    1989 report on the world social situation.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 126 p. (ST/ESA/213; E/CN.5/1989/2)

    The introductory section of this report on the world social situation describes the existing setting for social development, slow economic growth and scarce resources worldwide during the 1980s, and principal themes. The report was prepared by the Office for Development Research and Policy Analysis of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat, with contributions from the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the UN Office in Vienna. It explores the changing structure of the family; the advancement of women; food consumption and supply; inequality and poverty; new technologies and their social impact; threats to the environment; social development, security, and disarmament; international cooperation against drug abuse, international terrorism, and AIDS; migrants and refugees; and changing perceptions regarding social development issues. An annex considers the changing social situation in Africa.
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  21. 21

    The conundrum of consumption.

    Durning AT

    In: Beyond the numbers. A reader on population, consumption, and the environment, edited by Laurie Ann Mazur. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1994. 40-7.

    Consumers in developed countries and the middle income and poor in developing countries comprise the world's ecological social classes. These groups are distinguished by their per capita consumption of natural resources, emissions of pollution, and disruption of habitats. 1.1 billion people in the world are poor or earn less than $700 annually per family member and earn only 2% of world income. 100 million of the poor are homeless. 3.3 billion people are middle income, earn between $700 and $7500 annually per family member, and claim 33% of world income. 1.1 billion people are consumers with annual income over $7500 per family member and claim 64% of world income. Included in the consumers are 202 billionaires and 3 million millionaires. Consumption is viewed as a societal good and the goal of national economic policy, but consumption has a large environmental cost. Industrialized countries with 25% of world population consume 40-86% of the earth's natural resources. The consumer class are responsible for 3.5 tons of carbon dioxide emissions, while the middle class is responsible for only 0.5 tons and the poor for 0.1 tons annually. The average person in an industrialized country consumes 3 times as much fresh water, 10 times as much energy, and 9 times as much aluminum as a person in a developing country. 75% of sulfur and nitrogen oxides responsible for acid rain come from fuel burned in industrialized countries. Most of the world's hazardous chemical waste comes from factories in industrialized countries. 96% of radioactive waste comes from atomic power plants in industrialized countries. 99% of the world's nuclear warheads are housed in developed countries. 90% of the chlorofluorocarbons are released from air conditioners, aerosol sprays, and factories. Herman Daly's solution applied over the next 40 years would involve stopping the growth of per capita resource consumption in developed countries, allowing developing countries to catch up, and limiting population growth to a single doubling. The solution to the problem of maintaining a sustainable environment may be in reducing consumption among the consumer class and tempering aspirations among the middle income and poor. The substitute for a happy consumer society is a shift to fulfillment in leisure, human relationships, and other nonmaterial pursuits and high quality, low input durable goods. The goal is living by efficiency rather than excess.
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  22. 22

    Visions of a sustainable world: ethical evaluations or political programmes?

    Chadwick MJ

    In: Population -- the complex reality. A report of the Population Summit of the world's scientific academies, edited by Francis Graham-Smith. London, England, Royal Society, 1994. 349-61.

    Environmental carrying capacity is dependent upon population size and resource demand per capita. Confusion has arisen from mistaking effects for causes in analysis of the links between poverty, population growth, and environmental degradation. Economic growth in and of itself will not alleviate poverty. Income earning capacities for poor households must be increased, and price systems must be favorable to the poor. Economic growth is necessary in developing countries for relief of poverty, and an obstacle to this growth may be the lack of sufficient capital. Limitations on resources restrict economic growth. Studies have suggested that resource conservation subsidies and depletion taxes correct for open access and improve sustainability. Another option is more equitable reallocation of resources. Evidence suggests that income drives population growth. The Malthusian dilemma of balancing growth with food productivity does not account for technological advances. The impact of population growth on food productivity has not been realized yet. Growth of crop yields has slowed, but physical limits have not been reached. Signs of increasing pressure on food supply are famine and malnutrition. Correction for inequalities of distribution and access would relieve the impact on the poor. The risks to resource depletion are dependent on whether the focus is on population numbers or resource demand. Shaw has modeled the links between population, natural resource consumption, poverty, debt, and technology and environmental well-being; the resulting model shows the complexity of interactions that impact on sustainability. Environmental impact is also dependent on waste technologies, which are affected by consumption patterns. There is global economic interdependence, and narrow national self-interests need to be reversed to reflect global cooperation and survival.
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  23. 23

    Population growth and the food supply: conflicting perspectives.

    Bongaarts J

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1993. 37 p. (Research Division Working Papers No. 53)

    This review aims to expose the diversity of existing views on the consequences of rapid population growth for food production and to summarize the opposing views on the state of natural resources. A deteriorating environment is viewed as inevitable and the developing world improves its standard of living and population increases. Population is expected to reach 10 billion people by 2050. Food consumption varies by quantity, quality, and country. The developed world has a diet rich enough in calories and animal products to impair health, while Africans have the poorest diets and Latin Americans the best in the developing world. The developing world's 4.1 billion population in 1990 consumes an average of 4000 gross and 2500 net calories of food crops per capita every day. Production needs in 1990 are 0.7 billion hectares of harvested land with an average crop yield of 2.2 tons of grain per hectare (tge/ha), or its equivalent in nongrain crops. Net imports are 5% of the food supply in the developing world. The needs for 2050 and a population of 8.7 billion can be estimated based on the following scenarios: 1) no change in diets, 2) a 50% increase in gross per capita intake to 6000 calories per day, or 3) a 150% increase as represented in diets in developed countries. Production needs for option one would be an increase from 2.2 tge/ha to 4.7 tge/ha in 2050. Option two would require 14 tge/ha, which is an impossibility considering the current US cereal production is 4.2 tge/ha. Harvested land would need to increase by 50% by 2050 and yields would have to increase to 3.1 tge/ha for option one, 5.2 tge/ha for option two, and 9.3 tge/ha for option three. Global weather conditions are likely to change due to greenhouse emissions and global warming, which will both positively and negatively affect agriculture. The question remains as to how to apply new technology for growth in agriculture for increased production and acceptable environmental costs. Progress is unlikely to be uniform, and the poor will suffer the most. Three hunger scenarios are possible: poor countries with no reserves of land or water and reliance on food aid, ample resources and unequal distribution and ineffective policies, and political instability and civil strife.
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  24. 24

    Population control: controlling the poor or the poverty?

    Bergstrom S; Syed SS

    In: Health and disease in developing countries, edited by Kari S. Lankinen, Staffan Bergstrom, P. Helena Makela, Miikka Peltomaa. London, England, Macmillan Press, 1994. 25-36.

    The magnitude of the population problem is indicated by the annual addition of about 100 million people and the acceleration of growth. There were around 5.3 billion inhabitants in the world in 1990, but by the year 2020 there will be about 8 billion people, although the total fertility rate decreased from around 6 children per woman in 1960 to 4 in 1985. The unprecedented growth of population, particularly in poor countries, together with overconsumption and lack of global justice in the distribution of goods has put a severe stress on the environment. The overconsumption problem is illustrated by the case of the United States, with 6% of the world's population but with the consumption of 40% of its resources. The energy consumption of 1 American equals that of 2 Frenchmen, 6 Mexicans, 39 Indians, and 456 Nepalese. The poverty trap and the demographic trap has recently been analyzed in 4 parts: 1) the lack of productive assets. The poor are poor because they do not own assets (in several Latin American countries 1% of landlords own more than 40% of arable land); 2) physical weakness and illness means constant malnourishment and low productive capacity; 3) population pressure forces salaries down to survival levels while having large families often becomes necessary for economic security; and 4) powerlessness means that most poor people are often coerced into signing away their rights and legal systems offer little protection. The structural readjustment programs have had adverse repercussions for the poor, because maternal and child health expenditures were slashed. The HIV infection rate reached 40-50% of pregnant women in some parts of Zimbabwe. Freedom and coercion issues in population control pertain to the compulsory sterilizations in the mid-1970s and female contraceptive surgery consisting only of abortion and sterilization.
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  25. 25

    Address before the Second Committee of the General Assembly at its 48th Session on agenda item 96: International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mahran M

    [Unpublished] 1993. 4 p.

    This speech by Dr. Maher Mahran, Egyptian Minister for population and family welfare, before the 48th UN general assembly on November 4, 1993, pertained to his remarks on the Annotated Outline for the UN Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in 1994. Brief comments were made about conference preparations and conference facilities progress. The following recommendations were made to strengthen wording on the link between development and population and to use this link as a major thematic area. 1) The analysis of the impact of consumption patterns on economic growth and sustainable development should be expanded to addressed whether degradation of the environment and depletion of resources is due to the consumption patterns of the rich or to greater population numbers. The goal should be to attain reasonable consumption patterns for developed and developing nations. 2) The link between structural adjustment and poverty reduction needs to be included in the draft document; national reports should document the effects of structural adjustment on their economies. 3) The link between rural development and sustained economic growth should be made in the final document. 4) Male responsibilities and participation in population programs must be detailed in a separate chapter, not just in paragraph 17. More research and resource allocation needs to be directed to this area. 5) The active participation of the private sector and local communities should be secured; a definition of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is needed. 6) Chapter IV, subchapter A with Chapter XI should be combined with chapter IV, subchapter B as a separate entity; and chapter IV, subchapter C should be merged with chapter V. Chapters V and VI, chapters VII and VIII, chapters IX and X, and chapters XI and XII should be combined. 7) Greater emphasis needs to be placed on closing the gender gap and on implementing Safe Motherhood education programs, programs increasing women's status, programs linking ethics and population, programs for the elderly, and education in environmental protection and population. Finances, sovereignty, and NGO's freedom to experiment are other important issues. Egypt provides the example of a success story.
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