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    075401

    The hunger report: 1990.

    Chen RS; Bender WH; Kates RW; Messer E; Millman SR

    Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University, Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, 1990 Jun. x, 87 p. (HR-90-1)

    The Hunger Profile differentiates among food shortages, poverty, and deprivation. Food shortage is further reflected in the amounts needed to fulfill nutritional requirements of an entire country's population, to maintain current levels of food consumption, and to prevent starvation or famine. Views are also expressed in terms of a global food shortage food-short countries, food-poor households, and food-deprived individuals. 2% of the world are affected by food shortage and 9-20% are affected by food poverty. 16% of the world's infants are food deprived. 31% of children are underweight/age. 4% are iodine deficient, 13% are deficient in iron, and 15% suffer from vitamin A deficiency. The authors present their views on the state of hunger in 1990, hunger as a weapon of war, food aid and hunger, refugees and hunger, breast-feeding trends, and reducing hunger by 50%. The text of the Bellagio Declaration on Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s is included. Hunger was being used in 1990 as a weapon in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines in Asia; in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania in Africa; in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala in Latin America; and in Armenia and Romania in Eastern Europe. 15% of imports to low-income, food-deficit countries and 44% of imports in developing in developing countries come in the form of food aid. Food aid has decreased 16% since 1985-86. Most food aid comes from the US (57%), the European Economic Community and member countries (20%), and Canada (10%). There is a longterm need to shift from direct food aid to programs that increase access to food for the most vulnerable populations. There has been an increase in cereal food aid since 1973-74; aid is dependent on cereal prices. There must be a balance between longterm and shortterm aid. Food aid is distributed as emergencies (20%), project food aid for maternal and child health programs (25%), and program aid. 5% is directed to target groups. Refugees are a growing population vulnerable to hunger. The most basic rations are given to refugees on an inconsistent basis due to inadequate and hoarded supplies and logistics. Refugee populations are reported by host country for 1989. Breast feeding is declining in general. Commitment, organization, and evaluation are necessary to halve hunger in the 1990s.
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