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  1. 1

    Beyond Malthus: sixteen dimensions of the population problem.

    Brown LR; Gardner G; Halweil B

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1998 Sep. 89 p. (Worldwatch Paper No. 143)

    This study looks at 16 dimensions or effects of population growth in order to gain a better perspective on how future population trends are likely to affect the human prospect. The evidence gathered here indicates that the rapid population growth prevailing in a majority of the world's countries is not going to continue much longer. Either countries will get their act together, shifting quickly to smaller families, or death rates will rise from one or more [stresses such as AIDS, ethnic conflicts, or water shortages]. The sixteen topics are grain production, fresh water, biodiversity, climate change, oceanic fish catch, jobs, cropland, forests, housing, energy, urbanization, natural recreation areas, education, waste, meat production, and income. (EXCERPT)
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  2. 2

    Dynamics of population growth: implications for environment and quality of life.

    Panandiker VA

    [Unpublished] 1990. Presented at the Population-Environment Dynamics Symposium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 1-3, 1990. 26 p.

    Basic issues and problems involved in India's population growth, the environment, and the quality of life are identified. India is a populous country (16.5% of the world's population). The nature of the population problem is a growth rate of 2.4%/year. The target for India is to reach NRR-1 by 2000 with a birth rate of 21/1000 and a death rate of 7, which is impossible when in 1990 the birth rate was 31 and the death rate 11/1000. Population growth affects 1) agricultural production, 2) the environment, and 3) the quality of life. Agricultural production increased 333% between 1950 and 1990 while population increased 240%, which reduced the need for imported foodgrains. India's share of the world's arable land is 12% and the share of population is 16%. Yields are low compared with China or Southeast Asia. The Indo-Gangetic Plains have the potential for satisfying carrying capacity. Environmental problems result not just from agricultural practices but also from the patterns of consumption of developed countries and domestic development policies. The 1990 development plan supplies a hopeful approach toward development which promotes ecological balance and conservation and regeneration of natural resources. However, increased agricultural production means intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and soil degradation which impact on the environment, as evidenced in the Punjab and Haryana. Currently estimates of damaged or unusable land amount to 60% of available agricultural land. Loss from flooding affects 795 million people. Water logging and salinity are also affected by agricultural development due to inadequate drainage. The implications of population growth on the environment are dwarfed by the pressing political problems of food and employment. Environmental pressure groups are forming. Poverty is a serious problem particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar with >50% of the population below the poverty line. Population pressure strains resources such as education where planned growth still would leave 30% illiterate by the year 2000, and the costs would take a large share of the national budget. Availability of water, health care, housing, and clothing pose similar problems. The concern is whether upheaval will accompany the changes and whether poverty and other problems can be resolved satisfactorily.
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  3. 3

    [Luxembourg statistical yearbook 1987/88] Annuaire statistique de Luxembourg 1987/88.

    Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC]

    Luxembourg, STATEC, 1987 Dec. xx, 529 p.

    The 1987/88 Statistical Yearbook of Luxembourg contains data on a wide variety of topics organized into 23 chapters with data on economic and noneconomic topics specific to Luxembourg and a final chapter with a series of international comparisons. Each of the chapters and many of the tables and graphs contain introductory notes and explanations. The work opens with a listing of basic statistics followed by chapters on territory and climate and on population. The chapter on population includes subsections on evolution of the total population, the active population, natural movement of the population, migratory movement, and housing and households. The major section on economic statistics includes chapters on national accounts, agriculture and forestry, industry, artisanry, services, banks and credit, public finances, income and social security, consumption and prices, research and external economic relations. The section on noneconomic statistics includes chapters on accidents, anthropometry, culture and education, environment, justice, names and surnames of the national population, politics, religion, health, and sports.
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  4. 4

    The water crisis and population. [Pamphlet collection].

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    [Rome, Italy], FAO, [1986]. vi, [126] p.

    The dimensions of the water crisis and its implications for the population of the world is the subject of a 4-pamphlet packet distributed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Part 1 relates legends about water and details the role of water in human history. Rapid population growth and its detrimental effects on water conservation and the environmental balance are explained. Recognition of the population growth problem is urged, with government-backed family planning programs recommended. Part 2 gives a detailed explanation of the life cycle and its dependence on soil and water. Climate, vegetation, and types of water are examined in relation to their role in the distribution of available water resources. Future water resources and demand are projected for agriculture, industry, and domestic use. The disruption of the balance between man and water and the problem of water pollution are addressed, as are deforestation, desertification, drought, and the greenhouse effect. Part 3 offers a view of inland waters and agriculture, with a history of irrigation and the role of irrigation today. Rural water, its use, sources, storage, and collection are examined in relation to work distribution, family size, and sanitation. Problems arising from unsafe water supplies, including disease, infection, and malnutrition are discussed, and examples are given of small-scale projects that have successfully addressed these problems. The final section deals with water and the future. A continuing effort at water and land conservation, as well as surface water and ground water management, is urged. Irrigation planning and supporting systems, such as terracing, fallowing, and improved cropping patterns, are presented as further management techniques. Preserving existing resources, lifting, various kinds of wells, new storage methods and purification systems, are suggested to increase domestic water conservation. Examples of water projects in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific are presented. Finally, population management and its crucial role in future water resources allocation, conservation, and distribution, is provided.
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  5. 5

    [Migration, labor markets and development] Migracion, mercados de trabajo y desarrollo.

    Perez Lizaur I

    In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO] Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 57-79.

    Population policy in Mexico is closely tied to the strategy for achieving a more egalitarian society in the areas of employment and income distribution. Current migration patterns in Mexico resulted largely from the development model followed since the 1950s, which gave rise to population movements because of the growth of infrastructure and communication facilities as well as new employment opportunities in some areas and shrinking labor markets in others. Existing data on migration in Mexico is insufficient, and other sources should be developed to supplement the national population censuses. Some urban areas with relatively abundant services have attracted high concentrations of population, while in some areas industrial development has prompted population influxes which the localities are unable to manage efficiently. Goals of the National Development Plan include relocation of the population concentrated in the largest cities, reorientation of migration, and retention of population in places of origin. In 1980, over 60% of Mexico's population was classified as urban. The urban population has grown at least 3 times faster than the rural for the past 35 years. Aids to industrialization in Mexico's past development plans implied channeling into industry the economic surplus generated in the agricultural sector, public enterprises, the informal sectors of the economy, and export businesses. The principal mechanisms utilized were adjustment of relative prices of urban and rural products, containment of labor costs, and transferral of economic resources from exporters to importers through overvaluing of the currency. The industrialization process resulted in generation of employment in urban areas and concentrated opportunities for social advancement and access to basic services in cities as well, resulting in the definitive movement of millions of Mexicans into the cities while the rural areas had increasing difficulties retaining their populations. The overall orientation of the World Population Plan of Action coincides in its basic aspects with the central strategies of the Mexican National Development Plan. The Mexican Plan proposes to address problems of migration by dealing with their structural causes, and also emphasizes development of efficient links between the national and international economies. The Plan recognizes that a better regional distribution of productive resources is needed, as well as a reorientation of production in favor of mass consumption. 2 lines of action are intended to influence population distribution: integral rural development and decentralization of production and social welfare activities. More equitable terms of exchange between rural and urban areas will be required in order to improve rural living standards. Organizations such as the National Employment Service are among the legal and administrative instruments which are expected to help implement new strategies.
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  6. 6

    [Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1982] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1982.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. xxviii, 575 p. (ST/ESCAP/235)

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  7. 7

    To choose a future: resource and environmental consequences of alternative growth paths.

    Ridker RG; Watson WD

    Baltimore, Md., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. xv, 463 p.

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  8. 8

    The Caribbean basin to the year 2000. Demographic, economic, and resource-use trends in seventeen countries: a compendium of statistics and projections

    Graham NA; Edwards KL

    Boulder, Colo./London, England, Westview Press, 1984. xv, 166 p. (A Westview Replica Edition)

    A comparative analysis of demographic, economic, and resource trends in 17 countries in and around the Caribbean is presented for the period up to the year 2000. The data are taken from a variety of national and international sources. Forecasts of selected demographic trends are made using an updated version of the GLOBESCAN data base and socioeconomic forecasting system developed by The Futures Group. Particular attention is given to the implications of the study's findings for U.S. interests and policy, including U.S. foreign assistance. The methods and data sources are first described, and individual profiles of the situation in the 17 countries are provided. The interactions of rapid population growth, economic trends, and natural resource use are then analyzed in terms of their impact on land supply, agricultural production and consumption, income, energy use, the depletion of forests, water supplies, the environment, tourism, and political instability.
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  9. 9

    Demographic factors in South Korean economic development: 1963-1977

    Hess PN

    Chapel Hill, N.C, University of North Carolina, 1982. 436 p.

    This research investigated the role of demographic factors in economic development. Specifically, a general model of the economic development process is constructed and then applied to the experience of South Korea from 1963-77. The model emphasizes the incorporation of demographic factors, widely interpreted to include not only the size, growth rate, and composition of the population, but also the quality of the population as minifested in the levels of human capital formation. South Korea has been 1 of the most successful of recent development efforts. Most of the research on the Korean phenomenon has highlighted the economic factors. Usually cited as responsible for the rapid, export led Korean economic development are the utilization of an able, motivated, but previously underemployed labor force, the large inflows of foreign capital, and the special relationships with Japan and the US, and the establishment of a strong central government, committed to economic development and able to implement effective growth policy. Important demographic factors, however were the impressive human capital formation that had begun 15 years prior to the onset of rapid economic growth and the dramatic declines in Korean fertility, which paralleled the economic achievements in the 1960s and 1970s. Using Korean national income data and economic-demographic selected surveys, the quantitative influences of demographic factors, particularly human capital formation and population dynamics, on Korean economic development for the 15-year period beginning in 1963 are assessed. The equations of the econometric model are estimated using either ordinary least squares of the 1st order autoregressive process. The empirical results show human capital formation to have been a significant and pervasive factor in recent South Korean economic development. Human capital formation, as proxied by indexes of formal educational attainment in the sectoral labor forces, was an important influence on real sectoral outputs and investments and in the growth of Korean exports. In addition, to the extent increases in education are associated with declines in fertility, human capital formation contributed to the substantial reductions in the growth rate of the Korean population, leading to favorable burden of dependency shifts and enhancing the ability of the Korean economy to generate the savings necessary for rapid growth and structural change. (author's)
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  10. 10

    [Bolivia: framework for population policy] Bolivia: marco referencial sobre politicas de poblacion.

    Carafa CR

    In: Luz y sombra de la vida: mortalidad y fecundidad en Bolivia [Light and dark of life: mortality and fertility in Bolivia], by Carlos Carafa, Gerardo Gonzalez, Valeria Ramirez, Rene Pereira, and Hugo Torrez La Paz, Bolivia, Proyecto Politicas de Poblacion, 1983. 1-42.

    Bolivia's population policy must be framed within 3 contexts: an economic and family structure which conditions production and reproduction; as part of Latin America, which is characterized by dependent development, structural heterogeneity, and social differentiation; and as a particlar socioeconomic structure with specific population dynamics. As a peripheral country subordinate to the developed capitalist nations, Bolivia has undergone a process of social differentiation. Mining, which has shaped the economy and society, is declining. Agriculture dominates in terms of jobs, but peasant farms cannot compete with agribusiness. A weak manufacturing sector and increasing urbanization have created vast underemployment and a swollen tertiary sector. Urban-rural disparities have widened. Only 2% of all rural health care needs are met; water and sewerage services are similarly deficient. As the main investor and largest employer, the government can guide development, but its policies have favored agroindustrial interests at the expense of the small farmer. These realities suggest the following working hypotheses: 1) the size, structure and growth of the population determines both the supply of labor and the demand for goods and services. 2) Bolivia's unbalanced occupational structure heightens class differences and disparities in life chances; reproductive patterns reflect the population's social and material circumstances. 3) Outmigration is the peasantry's response to the crisis of the rural areas; migratory movement follow economic activity. 4) Mortality and fertility differentials reflect socioeconomic and cultural differences; rural families see children as assets; 5) The costs fo bearing and raising children do not affect reproductive decisions among the peasantry. 6) Early marriages, low use of contraceptives, low education all interact to raise the fertility of peasant women; these factors are weaker among salaried workers. 7) Urbanization unleashes a number of changes which depress fertility; traditional values are eclipsed by the costs of childbearing. 8) Mortality risks are higher in the rural areas and affect all subgrups; urban areas exhibit greater variation. 9) Disparities in death and fertility rates suggest that different subgroups are at different stages of the demographic transition. Bolivia as a whole is in the 1st stage of this process.
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