Your search found 6 Results
In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 207-17.One way of assessing consumption is to consider whether a consumption choice or pattern may be beneficial or detrimental to a person's own well-being, which is apart from its effect on institutions, other people and the world. What role should goods and services play if our lives are to go well? What kinds of consumption are good for us? In seeking to answer these questions, the author begins by assessing the notions of materialism and antimaterialism. He states that getting clear on how these rival norms go wrong will help establish a more adequate consumption norm and a better conception of “well-being” In a subsequent exploration of the concept of well-being, it is noted that to be and to do well, is to function and to be capable of functioning in certain humanly good ways. This conception provides the basis for a general consumption norm. It is cited that one consumption pattern or choice is better than another if it does better in protecting and promoting a person's well-being. Such a consumption norm has sufficient content to rule out the one-sidedness of materialism and antimaterialism, and to permit "balancing acts", depending on a person's specific abilities, opportunities, and choices. Thus, wise consumption requires knowledge of ones' self and ones' society as well as choice in the light of that knowledge.
In: Consumption, population, and sustainability: perspectives from science and religion, edited by Audrey R. Chapman, Rodney L. Petersen, and Barbara Smith-Moran. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 2000. 39-47.This paper examines questions about the impact of human population growth, technology, and consumption patterns on the environment, and considers to what extent science can provide answers. It notes that the impact of population growth is compounded by the fact that the greatest increase is taking place in poor countries, worsening the alarming rates of hunger, poverty and environmental degradation. Such problems limit the possibilities of achieving sustainable economic development and improving the quality of life. Moreover, it is noted that high rates of natural resource consumption and pollution, primarily in affluent countries, exert strong demographic pressures. In this regard, the inequality between poor and rich countries underlies the population- consumption-environmental crisis. In assessing the state of the environment and options for solving the problems, science has made various contributions such as knowledge, promotion of awareness of the interdependence of life forms, and provision of long-term global view. However, science has little likelihood of providing answers to critical issues due to the difficulty in measuring the interrelationships between human population and environment.
In: Ethics for a small planet: new horizons on population, consumption, and ecology, [by] Daniel C. Maguire and Larry L. Rasmussen. Albany, New York, State University of New York Press, 1998. 67-141. (SUNY Series in Religious Studies)This essay considers sustainability, population, and development as the defining features of the future of the human species. These issues shape how humans live in a sustainable relationship with the rest of the earth and how humans live with human power as displayed in society and nature. The essay sets the context by recounting the history of the Western and male-led globalization that has occurred in the past five centuries and has upended both culture and nature. It then discusses the hope that humans are entering the world's fourth great revolution, the ecological revolution that is necessary to ensure survival. This leads to a look at the first three revolutions: neolithic agricultural revolutions; the Industrial Revolution, industrial culture, and development and corporations; and the Information Revolution. The essay then considers the notion of sustainable development and distinguishes it from "sustainable society" or "sustainable community" and defines the general principles of a sustainable community as a realization that 1) solutions grow from place, 2) ecological accounting informs design, 3) design should follow a "cradle-to-cradle" rather than a "cradle-to-grave" framework, 4) everyone is a designer, and 5) nature must be made visible. The essay ends with the reminder that faith will be required as a source of renewable moral-spiritual vigor to accomplish the fashioning of a sustainable community on a small planet.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1991; 12(3):347-55.The issues of health, development and population are all interrelated. There large, rapidly growing population can adversely affect both health and development. currently 95% of the population growth is occurring in the development world. Progress in development creates opportunities to improve health and reduce population through education and contraception. The general health of the population affects development because people need to be healthy in order to work and contribute to socioeconomic progress. By the year 2000 40% of the developing world's projected population of 5 billion will be under 25. It is now recognized that reducing the population is in everyone's best interest as the size it has reached is already having a negative effect on the world economy and health. In order to be successful the developed nations need to increase development assistance for international family planning to US$9 billion by 2000. In addition the role of women in development must be expanded, for without their inclusion in sustainable development planning, success will not come. Critical areas include education, employment and health care. Also, family planning and maternal/child health should be integrated into the general health care system in order to improve cost effectiveness and efficiency.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1991; 12(3):311-21.Today the effect upon the environment have moral implications. In order to establish a list of priorities for human conduct, it is necessary to understand the value of our own human lives and the value of our ecosystem. Different schools of thought have different priorities that they each try to support. The technocratic individualist (TI) believes that the end of progress and economic expansion, justifies any means. This attitude leads to the exploitation of the earth and violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It leaves the planet bare and lifeless. Current methods employed by the TIs are based on consumptive methods that extract what is needed without any concern for the future. the TIs' methods result in the tragedy of the commons, in which the common people are exploited for the benefit of an elite few. The environmental holist (EH) claims that we must abandon the anthropocentric ethics of the TIs; however, the EHs suffer from both scientific and ethical problems. If we do as the EHS say and respect all life, we can not eat, fight disease, or build shelter. Further, if we value ourselves equally with the rest of the ecosystem, then we could easily justify violating human rights and decent conduct in an effort of avoid doing harm in the ecosystem. The best compromise between these 2 extremes lies in contract ethics. Because we benefited from the people of the past, we have an obligation, through a social contract, to the people of the future. The last element of an acceptable list of priorities of conduct lies in the distinction between strong and weak rights. Strong rights are those necessary for our survival, weak rights are those that give our lives meaning. Thus our ethical priorities should be: (1) duty to recognize strong human rights: (2) duty to protect environmental interests; (3) duty to recognize weak human rights.
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR BEVOLKERUNGSWISSENSCHAFT. 1987; 13(1):11-28.The author considers implications of anticipated global population growth, giving attention to economic conditions, the environment, education, employment, consumption, developing countries' trade balances, and economic development. The need for intensive family planning efforts in developing countries is stressed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) (ANNOTATION)