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In: Commons without tragedy. Protecting the environment from overpopulation -- a new approach, edited by Robert V. Andelson. London, England, Shepheard-Walwyn, 1991. 83-108.Absolute private ownership of land has been traced to ancient Near East civilizations, including the Canaanites, the Phoenicians, and later to Carthage whose land laws were adopted later by the Romans. Eventually the modern Western world revived land ownership laws and applied them to the atmosphere, ocean beds, and Antarctica through pollution permits and mining licenses. The socially unjust and inefficient system of land tenure of the West is the source of the population concerns of the late 20th century, the abuse of the environment, and crises in terms of lopsided distribution of income and wealth. Private land ownership increased productivity, but it overexploited the environment and was not the sole curse to achieve progress. Some demographers maintain that poverty causes population problems by inducing high birth rates. There is also the hypothesis that large-scale poverty is the result of private land ownership. The concept of land rent and decisions regarding its distribution is detailed in the context of the current debate on environmental policy. The World Bank showed that the developing world, with 80% of the global population, is responsible for only 7% of carbon dioxide emissions. The links between land tenure, demographic problems, and other environmental problems are further examined. The political branch of the rural real estate business hastened the demise of the family farm in the United States. Latin America has the longest history of private land ownership, with the results of land left idle and massive poverty despite higher productivity on small plots. The South is repeating the same ruinous and wasteful tactics of devalued land ownership as the North as done (including the USSR prior to perestroika). The western model of economic growth has increased poverty on the Indian subcontinent owing to avoidance of the land tax. The African situation is similar with increasing numbers of people being crammed into inferior land.
Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):41-54.Intergenerational exchanges may have powerful effects on the long run growth of the economy in terms of both physical and human wealth accumulation per capita and of population growth. This discussion explores the choice structure underlying the relations between generations with particular attention directed to the interaction of intergenerational wealth flows and parental control of the activities of offspring. Key to the analysis is the treatment of families as collections of individuals with potentially strong interdependence of utilities but with distinct preferences and economic constraints. Parental control of offspring is an economic outcome, subject to shifts in market opportunities and the volume and form of intergenerational wealth flows. This view of the family process opens up a wide range of problems to economic analysis, including age of independence of offspring, extent of child labor, and pension value of offspring. In addition, it recasts family decisions in such areas as schooling, marriage, and fertility in a potentially useful way. The 1st section discusses a formal model of family control and intergenerational consumption shares as a function of initial resource endowments and levels of altruism. A simple economy in which income is the only economic good is considered. The discussion then describes a more general model of the family allocation process, which allows exchange as well as gift relationships among family members. A 2nd good, labeled child services, is introduced. It assumes that the younger generation holds property rights in this service flow. If the younger generation controls income as well as child services, a gift or altruism process will occur. If the older generation controls income, an exchange process within an altruistic framework will occur. A bargaining model of this family exchange is elaborated, and implications for household structure are derived. Recognition that intergenerational transfers involve a complex mixture of gifts and exchanges, induced by altruism and self-interest, suggests that a variety of economic and family models may be recast. Macroeconomic models based on unidirectional intergenerational concepts may be usefully reconsidered in a broader framework. The models discussed also point the way to a more complete analysis of the system of family, government, and market.
American Demographics. 1982 Jun; 4(6):16-19, 42.Add to my documents.
International Demographics. 1983 Dec; 2(12):4-9.Add to my documents.