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Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, 2006 Mar.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-999; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00)The pharmaceutical and medical supply system for Ministry of Health hospitals in Jordan is bureaucratic and centralized. Routine paperwork consumes staff time that ideally would go to patient care, procurement does not necessarily match medical needs, pharmacists have little access to the latest information, and resources are limited. This assessment looks at the pharmaceutical system in terms of structure, process, and outcomes to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Drug utilization is measured against internationally established indicators. Based on its findings, the assessment makes recommendations that are intended to lead to improvements in patient care, administrative procedures, use of staff, and financial resources. (author's)
In: Poverty and rural development: planners, peasants and poverty, edited by K. Puttaswamaiah. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1990. 144-70.Insufficient regular supplies of water prevents increased agricultural production in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, but the possibilities for reducing water consumption to save water in rice field areas are complicated and only moderately optimistic. Sri Lanka's use of tractors as its technology-based solution to cut down on staggering and foster early cultivation was a mistake. Tractorization actually followed traditional buffalo tillage techniques. In addition, necessary institutional reform did not accompany tractorization. 25 years after introduction of mechanization, Sri Lanka addressed the need to improve the performance of institutions in water management and their relations with farmers. One institution reform of water management has been accomplished, the strategy choice for reducing water consumption hinges on the hydrological characteristics of each area, where water is in adequate supply for full drysowing crops and partial cultivation of intermonsoon crops. Variations are tillage on residual moisture and sowing a proportion of the drysowing crop area under nonpaddy crops and either paddy or nonpaddy crops during the intermonsoon period, depending on water availability. Irrigation administrators must be very familiar with delivery systems and committed to managing water to increase crop production. Further, there must be mutual sympathy between irrigation engineers and farmers. In order for appropriate motivation to occur, however, irrigation professionals must recognize the traditional bias towards construction and design and away from water management. Other past problems which must be overcome include poor living conditions in some remote areas leading to professionals being unwilling to work in these areas and widespread high turnover of senior staff. Politicians and irrigation professionals should visit remote schemes more frequently to gain a deeper commitment to water management.
Development. 1992; (2):17-21.A Vice President of the Society for International Development discusses practical ways to manage the environment by developing and executing an ecologically sustainable policy on food and energy. Despite the abundance of international declarations and guidelines since 1972, many ecological tragedies have taken place: drought in Africa; chemical leak in Bhopal, India; and nuclear fallout from a nuclear reactor in Chernobyl in the former USSR. Deforestation; burning of fossil fuels; release of methane from rice planting, cattle farming, and waste dumps; release of chlorofluorocarbons are all contributing to the rising temperature of the planet's atmosphere. Reforestation is needed to break down excess carbon dioxide. Local development projects and universal development strategies are needed to solve this great ecological problem. The only sustainable solution to the food problem includes a definition of ecological limits for international and national agricultural policies and development and use of agricultural techniques that guarantee a sustainable food supply. In industrialized countries, farmers must reduce agricultural overproduction and use less intensive production methods to protect soil and ground water. We must begin rational consumption of energy and using alternative forms of energy such as wind, water, and sun. These efforts require considerable financial, human, and technical resources through international cooperation. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to implement various alternative supply models. We must return to regional and local planning and action and also establish an orderly transfer of technology and research by improving education, communication, and training. This transfer cannot be a 1-way transfer, however. The European Common Market is an example of international cooperation to address common problems.
Report of the Regional Information, Education and Communication Conference, Coconut Grove, Florida, December 6-10, 1987.
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 1988. , 36 p.The purpose of the Regional Information, Education, and Communications Conference, held in Florida in December 1987, was to examine new ideas in information, education, and communication (IEC) with regard to reaching 3 general audiences -- adolescents, the family planning consumer, and the public-at-large -- and to explore the application of these ideas at the family planning association level. An abridged version of the discussions is included in these proceedings. In the session devoted to using the life planning methodology to reach adolescents, several countries gave presentations on their adolescent programs. Grenada, Mexico, Guatemala, Suriname, Chile, and Panama all have special programs for adolescents. The programs include a wide range of medical, educational, and recreational activities. The objective of the session addressing consumer marketing techniques in the family planning field was to encourage family planning organizations to use the consumer marketing approach of matching and promoting their services in relation to consumer needs and preferences. Conference participants were divided into 4 working groups to discuss consumer marketing of clinics. Each group focused on 4 questions: Why are clinics underutilized; what can be done to improve clinic services to that they lend themselves to better marketing; what ideas can be suggested for more effective marketing and promotion of clinic services; and what assistance, if any, should the regional office provide in helping family planning associations embark on clinic marketing programs. The working groups concluded that the principal reasons clinics are underutilized are poor geographical location, inadequate scheduling of visiting hours, and insufficient public information on clinics and the services they provide. The working groups suggested several measures that family planning associations could take to increase utilization of clinic services: offer a diversity of services at low prices; commercialize promotional materials; attend to the comfort of patients and provide incentive to "spread the word;" and determine the problems of each clinic and design a plan on how to offer quality services in an organized manner. The last session of the conference dealt with the importance of public information programs for the family planning associations in creating a positive public image and improving relations with governments.
Manila, Commission on Population and the University of Philippines Population Institute, August 1973. 65pIn the Philippines, because of differential trends in fertility and mortality, the rate of natural increase--which may be viewed as a measure of population growth rate, since migration is negligible--rose to 32 per 1000 in 1960 from 12 per 1000 in 1903. Today 1/2 of the population is under 18 years of age, the completed family size is around 6 children, and the annual growth rate is 3.01%. The population problem of Filipinos, then, is a pressing one. This chartbook shows the effects of rapid population growth on socioeconomic development, and presents the measures taken to curb the growth rate. In 1973, family planning clinics were functioning in all major provinces. The acceptance rates from December 1969 to July 1973 ranged from nearly 400 per 1000 population in Manila to 140 per 1000 population in Southern Mindanao. During the same period, more than 1/2 of the acceptors chose the pill as their first method. Approximately 1 in 6 accepted the condom, 1 in 7 the IUD and 1 in 10 rhythm. The costs per couple year of protection present a general downward trend. From fiscal year 1960 to 1976, the growth rate is expected to decline from 3% to 2.57%.