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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000 Jul; 72(1):203-204.The discussion between Bray and Popkin and Willett has strong implications for the prevention of obesity, a challenge for many countries. As in China and other developing countries, in Brazil, obesity is increasing rapidly. Data from Brazil do not support the hypothesis that dietary fat plays a major role in obesity. Population-based national surveys from Brazil show that for the period of 1974-1989, obesity [defined as a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30] increased by 92% among men and by 70% among women. In 1975 the mean percentage of dietary energy from fat in Brazil was 26%. In a recent population-based survey conducted in Rio de Janeiro (there are no data available from a national survey), the percentage of energy from fat was 26.6% among men and 28% among women. Over this same time period, the prevalence of obesity in the country rose to the level found in Rio de Janeiro. Thus, a minimal increase in the percentage of energy from fat, at least in men, was associated with a striking increasing in obesity. Also, the prevalence of persons consuming >30% of total energy as fat is not high. In Rio de Janeiro, intake of >30% of total energy as fat varied from 33% among young men to 25% among old men. For women, this percentage varied from 39% to 26%. (excerpt)
Public Health Nutrition. 2005; 8(6A):706-715.The objective was to show that current rates of global population growth, production and consumption of food, and use of living and physical resources, are evidently not sustainable. To consider ways in which nutrition and allied sciences can respond to this great challenge of the twenty-first century. Past, current and future projected trends in production and consumption patterns are examined. These show that overall present and projected patterns cannot be sustained; and also show increasing unacceptable inequity between and within rich and poor regions and countries. Nutrition science classically focuses on nutrients in relation to human physiology, metabolism, growth, health and disease. The social and environmental conditions of the modern, interconnected, market-oriented world, and the consequences for food production and consumption, are extending the research and policy agenda with which nutrition science must now urgently engage. Historically, much attention has been paid to eliminating nutritional deficiency states, and this remains an important task. In modern urban populations ‘malnutrition’ encompasses new forms of dietary imbalance, especially excesses of certain nutrients. These contribute to various non-communicable diseases and, particularly, to overweight/obesity and its attendant metabolic derangements and disease risks. As a mass phenomenon the current surge in obesity has no historical precedent. The escalating impact of humankind on the natural environment, with its ramifications for present and future food production, is also unprecedented. The essential challenge for nutrition science is to develop new understanding and strategies to enable a balance between promoting, equitably, the health of humans while sustaining the long-term health of the biosphere. Extension of nutrition science and food policy to meet those goals will be aided by understanding better how dietary conditions shaped the biological evolution of humankind. The fundamental long-term task is to integrate human health with the health of the biosphere. (author's)
Prevalence of obesity, weight perceptions and weight control practices among urban college going girls.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2003 Oct-Dec; 28(4): p..Research questions: 1. What is the prevalence of obesity among college girls in Ernakulam? 2. What are the perceptions and practices about weight and weight control among them? Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of obesity by anthropometry. 2. To obtain an insight on weight perceptions and compare actual with perceived weight. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and participants: Urban college girls, age group of 17-18 years residing in Ernakulam. Sample size was 200. Statistical analysis: Percentages and mean. Results: Prevalence of overweight by standard weight-for-height and BMI (>23) was 24%. Overall, 65% of subjects worried about body weight of whom 46% were underweight. 41% of subjects reported missing breakfast on weekdays. There was a distinct difference between the actual and perceived weight status. Conclusions: Strange weight control practices are rampant among the subjects. (author's)