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Your search found 9 Results

  1. 1

    [Review of methods of dietary assessment during pregnant] Metodos de avaliacao do consumo alimentar de gestantes: uma revisao.

    Bertin RL; Parisenti J; Di Pietro PF; de Vasconcelos FD

    Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):383-390.

    Physiological pregnancy changes impact nutritional needs and food intake. The adequate use of tools providing knowledge of food consumption during this life cycle is relevant because it enables the diagnosis for possible nutrition deficits and excesses. The objective of the survey was to perform a bibliographic review on food intake assessment methods during pregnancy. The literature reviewed was selected from an electronic database published between 1994 and September 2004 in Brazil and abroad. This article aims at describing and assessing the different methods and main results of studies determining food intake during pregnancy, among them, the following are highlighted: 24 hour recall, food registration, questionnaire on food intake consumption and food history. The results determine that the 24 hour recall method was the one more frequently used, nevertheless, for many times it was not applied beyond a two day investigation period and it did not take weekends into account. The choice for this method is related to pragmatism and a favorable cost benefit ratio. The conclusion is that to obtain reliable results, the choice of method and study design should always be related to the objectives of the enquiry. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Ecuadorian Andean women's nutrition varies with age and socioeconomic status.

    Macdonald B; Johns T; Gray-Donald K; Receveur O

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):239-247.

    An agricultural project in Highland Ecuador provided a model context to better understand the nutrition of rural women. The adequacy of women's nutrition and the strength of associations with age and socioeconomic status were studied in 104 rural households over four rounds (two seasons) during the 1995-1996 agricultural year using a cross-sectional with repeated-measures design. Women were at high risk for micronutrient deficiencies (calcium, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B12) due to low intakes of animal products. Two distinct constructs representing socioeconomic status were identified: modern lifestyle and farming wealth. In multivariate models, farming wealth was associated with quality of women's diet (animal protein adjusted for energy, p = 0.01). Diet quality, in turn, was positively associated with anthropometric status (p = 0.02). Women over the age of 50 weighed approximately 3.7 kg less than younger women and consumed less energy (300 kcal) and micronutrients (p < 0.05). Age was positively associated with respiratory morbidity (p = 0.01). These findings, while directly relevant to a specific context, suggest the need for cross-cultural studies to identify the extent of, and factors contributing to, the risk of nutritional inadequacy in postreproductive women in developing countries. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Behavior-change trials to assess the feasibility of improving complementary feeding practices and micronutrient intake of infants in rural Bangladesh.

    Kimmons JE; Dewey KG; Haque E; Chakraborty J; Osendarp SJ

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):228-238.

    This study used simple rapid-assessment techniques to test the feasibility of increasing the consumption of complementary foods by infants by asking mothers to increase meal quantity or frequency or by altering the viscosity/energy density of the food. The feasibility of using micronutrient supplements either added directly to food or administered as liquid drops was also examined. The study was conducted in rural Bangladesh and involved four separate short-term behavioral change trials. Depending on the trial, fieldworkers recruited 30 to 45 infants 6 to 12 months of age. Following recommendations to increase the amount of food provided to infants, the mean intakes from single meals increased from 40 ± 23 g on day 1 to 64 ± 30 g on day 7 (p < 0.05). In a second trial, the mean meal frequency increased from 2.2 ± 1.3 on day 1 to 4.1 ± 1.3 on day 7 (p < 0.05). Provision of high-energy-density diets, prepared by decreasing viscosity with a-amylase or by hand-mashing rice and dhal into a paste before feeding, increased single-meal energy consumption from 54 ± 35 kcal to 79 ± 52 kcal or 75 ± 37 kcal (p < 0.05), respectively. Both types of micronutrient supplements were well accepted and used according to recommendations. In conclusion, it was possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviors to promote increased food intake, meal frequency, energy density, and micronutrient consumption. Because each of these interventions lasted for only about 1 week, however, the long-term sustainability of these changes is not known. Moreover, the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods on intakes of breastmilk and total daily consumption of energy and nutrients requires further study. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of rural pregnant women.

    Chawla PK; Kaur R; Sachdeva R

    Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):51-55.

    The unfortunate state of nutrition in countries like India is attributed to several factors. Poverty and low purchasing power are no doubt major factors contributing to malnutrition, lack of awareness and paucity of information also aggravate the problem. There are three population groups who suffer from the ill effects of malnutrition. These vulnerable segments are preschool children, expectant and nursing mothers. An expectant and nursing mother needs to be provided adequate nutritional intake for maternal and foetal tissue growth and her own usual maintenance requirements. An acute or chronic deprivation of dietary intake may result in poor pregnancy outcome. In India almost one third of babies born are low birth weight mainly attributable to poor maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy. Nutrition counselling is one of the prerequisites for improving the nutritional status of any group. The prenatal patient represents an ideal opportunity for nutrition counselling, since at that time more than any other time, she may be highly motivated to understand and accept advice. Hence the present study was conducted to see the impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of pregnant women. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Breastfeeding practices and nutritional status of children at high altitude in Ladakh [letter]

    Cvejic E; Ades S; Flexer W; Gray-Donald K

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1997 Dec; 43(6):376.

    In collaboration with the Children Fund's Leh nutrition project, a nutritional survey of 12 villages of the Wanla area in Ladakh, India, was undertaken. Height, mid-arm circumference (MAC), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were measured and the presence of edema was noted. Measurements were obtained for 152/198 children aged less than 8 years. Information on length of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of other foods, and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables was obtained from their mothers. The percentage of children classified as stunted (height-for- age z-score < 2 SD NCHS) was 53 per cent at less than 1 year but greater than 80 per cent after this age. The mean height-for-age z-score was --3.2. Mid-arm muscle area was below the 15th percentile for 30 per cent of those under 2 years, but approximately 80 per cent of the older children fell below this cut-off. A very similar pattern was seen with skin-fold thickness. Both height and muscle area were below the 5th percentile for 25 per cent of male children and 14 per cent of female children, indicating that these children were likely to be chronically malnourished. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Secondary data analyses of dietary surveys undertaken in South Africa to determine usual food consumption of the population.

    Steyn NP; Nel JH; Casey A

    Public Health Nutrition. 2003 Oct; 6(7):631-644.

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to generate a reference table of food items and average amounts of these items consumed by South Africans, for the Department of Health. The reference table was required to be representative of foods and beverages eaten frequently by children and adults from all age and ethnic groups in order for the Department of Health to test for contaminants in these foods. Design: The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) served as a framework for compiling data on children since this was a national representative survey of 1–9-year-old children undertaken in South Africa in 1999. However, there has never been a national dietary survey on adults in South Africa. Consequently the data had to be extrapolated from existing isolated surveys on adults. Secondary data analysis was conducted on existing dietary databases (raw data) obtained from surveys undertaken on adults in South Africa between 1983 and 2000. Available datasets were regional and independent, and were not individually representative of the South African diet. It was therefore necessary to use different statistical methods, including factor analyses, weighting and correlations, to generate ethnic and geographic representative data for adults. Two methods were used: Method 1, which corresponded with results of the NFCS (over-sampled for low socio-economic status), and Method 2, which was based on ethnic proportions of the population. Results: The secondary data analyses generated food items most commonly consumed by the South African adult population (Method 1) in descending frequency of usage and average (mean) amount per day: maize porridge (78%/848 g), white sugar (77%/27 g), tea (68%/456 g), brown bread (55%/165 g), white bread (28%/163 g), non-dairy creamer (25%/6 g), brick margarine (21%/19 g), chicken meat (19%/111 g), full-cream milk (19%/204 g) and green leaves (17%/182 g). In 6–9-yearolds, maize porridge (72%/426 g), sugar (76%/23 g), tea (51%/258 g), full-cream milk (35%/171 g) and white bread (33%/119 g) were eaten most frequently. Similarly, in 1–5-year-olds, the foods consumed most frequently were maize porridge (80%/426 g), sugar (76%/21 g), tea (44%/224 g), full-cream milk (39%/186 g) and white bread (24%/83 g). In order to evaluate the validity of the adult data generated, kilojoule values of the individual food items (per capita) were compared with food balance sheets (FBSs). The comparison was favourable except that the FBSs had a higher overall energy intake per capita of between 22 and 28%. Conclusion: Reference tables of commonly consumed foods and beverages were generated at minimal cost based on secondary data analyses of past dietary surveys in different South African populations. (author's)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    [Urban-rural differences in food intake of poor families in Guatemala] Diferencias urbano-rurales en la ingesta de alimentos de familias pobres de Guatemala.

    Alarcon JA; Adrino FJ


    Differences in diet and nutrient consumption among impoverished families in urban and rural areas of Guatemala were analyzed using data from 2 surveys conducted in 1987. A sample of 200 families in the marginal community of El Milagros in Guatemala City inhabited largely by rural in-migrants and a sample of 900 families of agricultural wage workers from 195 rural communities in the northwestern altiplano participated in the nutritional study. Poverty, poor health conditions, and high rates in malnutrition among the children characterized both samples. The method of 24-hour recall in single interviews was used in both areas. The urban families were visited in July-August 1987 and the rural families in October-November. Reported consumption of foods of animal origin, milk products, eggs, and meats was over twice as high in urban areas as measured by average consumption and by the percentage of families reporting consumption Maize consumption was very high in rural but not urban areas. 97% of rural families prepared their own tortillas, tamales, and atole, and only 5% bought them prepared. In the marginal urban area by contrast, 31% of families prepared their own maize and 82% bought prepared maize derivatives primarily tortillas and tamales. Consumption of beans was higher in urban areas, largely because their cultivation is impossible in the high altitude communities of the altiplano. The average adult caloric consumption of 3194.3 in rural areas exceeded the 2637.5 of urban areas. But in both cases calorie consumption was below recommended levels. The urban total represented 86% of the daily recommendation of 3050 calories for a moderately active adult, while the rural total was equivalent to 91% of the daily recommendation of 3500 for very active adults. The average daily protein intake of 82.9 g in urban and 87.8 g in rural areas exceed the daily adult recommendation of 68 g. Almost 70% of caloric intake among rural adults came from maize, compared to 27% in urban areas. Wheat bread, beans, and sugar together accounted for 41% of total calories in urban areas. Almost 70% of protein in rural areas was contributed by maize and beans, while in urban areas over 30% was from foods of animal origin, 25% from beans, and 21% from maize. Despite their lower caloric consumption, urban families enjoyed more diversified diets and higher levels of calcium and vitamin A consumption. But vitamin A consumption met only 62% of the daily requirement in urban areas and 43% in rural areas, while iron consumption met less than 80% of the daily need in either area.
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  8. 8

    Guyana: better-fed children.

    Van der Vynckt S

    UNESCO SPECIAL. 1988; (15):1-4.

    In 1987, an UNESCO project, with the financial support of the Norwegian Ministry of Development Co-operation, was launched in Guyana (796,750 inhabitants), to promote the development of the home market for locally produced foods, and alleviate malnutrition through education. This, in a country where, especially in rural areas, 22% of 5 years old children suffer from malnutrition. The results of a 1st set of studies focused on consumer behavior, and demand analysis, were made public in March 1988. The results of a 2nd series of studies aimed at determining how the agro-industrial sector can best meet the demand for local food products, at identifying food processing possibilities, and improving marketing practice, are to be presented in December 1988. Nutrition education has been given to mothers with small children, receiving dietary advice, and basic information on child growth, in the course of their visits to the clinic. In addition, a series of video-cassettes has been shown in the clinic, and a series of radio messages has been aired nationwide. Even more innovative has been the use of the usual techniques of commercial marketing. The use of "social marketing" has yielded good results in developing countries, and it is hoped that the UNESCO project in Guyana will serve as an example to other countries facing similar food supply problems.
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  9. 9

    Urban-rural food and nutrition consumption patterns in Indonesia.

    Chernichovsky D; Meesook OA

    [Unpublished] 1985. 20 p.

    This paper examines general patterns of urban-rural food and diet consumption in Indonesia. Diet is a critical element in the welfare of urban dwellers, especially newcomers from rural areas. Food prices are likely to be higher in urban areas; with the same levels of income, urban dwellers are likely to be worse-off. Customary diets may be upset by differential food prices. For any given level of income, city life offers more options which compete with food consumption for household income, and may be detrimental to the diet. There is nothing in the urban environment that can support one's diet, whereas food gathering is common in rural areas where people are close to food sources. The data used are from the 1978 National Socioeconomic Survey. The authors compare levels of expenditure as well as food and nutrition consumption in urban and rural areas in an attempt to establish dietary and nutritional patterns. In spite of the relative affluence of the urban population, it does not fare better than the rural population in terms of diet. Urban diets are more expensive in absolute terms; relative prices also bias consumption away from grains which are rich in calories towards other foods which are rich in protein and fat. Price differentials between the areas appear to outweigh the income differentials as far as food consumption is concerned. As a result, the urban population is on average better-off in terms of the consumption of protein and vitamin C, and worse-off in terms of calories and other micronutrients.
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