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  1. 1
    075401

    The hunger report: 1990.

    Chen RS; Bender WH; Kates RW; Messer E; Millman SR

    Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University, Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, 1990 Jun. x, 87 p. (HR-90-1)

    The Hunger Profile differentiates among food shortages, poverty, and deprivation. Food shortage is further reflected in the amounts needed to fulfill nutritional requirements of an entire country's population, to maintain current levels of food consumption, and to prevent starvation or famine. Views are also expressed in terms of a global food shortage food-short countries, food-poor households, and food-deprived individuals. 2% of the world are affected by food shortage and 9-20% are affected by food poverty. 16% of the world's infants are food deprived. 31% of children are underweight/age. 4% are iodine deficient, 13% are deficient in iron, and 15% suffer from vitamin A deficiency. The authors present their views on the state of hunger in 1990, hunger as a weapon of war, food aid and hunger, refugees and hunger, breast-feeding trends, and reducing hunger by 50%. The text of the Bellagio Declaration on Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s is included. Hunger was being used in 1990 as a weapon in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines in Asia; in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania in Africa; in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala in Latin America; and in Armenia and Romania in Eastern Europe. 15% of imports to low-income, food-deficit countries and 44% of imports in developing in developing countries come in the form of food aid. Food aid has decreased 16% since 1985-86. Most food aid comes from the US (57%), the European Economic Community and member countries (20%), and Canada (10%). There is a longterm need to shift from direct food aid to programs that increase access to food for the most vulnerable populations. There has been an increase in cereal food aid since 1973-74; aid is dependent on cereal prices. There must be a balance between longterm and shortterm aid. Food aid is distributed as emergencies (20%), project food aid for maternal and child health programs (25%), and program aid. 5% is directed to target groups. Refugees are a growing population vulnerable to hunger. The most basic rations are given to refugees on an inconsistent basis due to inadequate and hoarded supplies and logistics. Refugee populations are reported by host country for 1989. Breast feeding is declining in general. Commitment, organization, and evaluation are necessary to halve hunger in the 1990s.
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  2. 2
    072406

    A nutrition model for developing nations with special reference to Bangladesh.

    Shams-ur-Rahman; Clarke HR

    BANGLADESH DEVELOPMENT STUDIES. 1991 Sep; 19(3):83-95.

    A linear programming model of nutritional planning, applied to 3 nutrition problems of nutrition planning in 2 villages, Shitalpur and Kulia-Durgapur in southwest Bangladesh is described and results are discussed. The model takes into consideration features identified as affecting nutritional requirements: age and sex, recommended requirements by age and sex, activity level, proportion of lactating women, excess requirement for lactating and pregnant women, and proportion of women pregnant. Other important factors are production of nutrients in the region as affected by assimilable number of nutrients and net yield per acre and number of acres, net usage of nutrients in the region as affected by transfer of crops between regions, and net food import into the region as affected by aid import of food type and exports of food type. Total area of arable land is restriction on production. Consumption = production - net interregional transfers - net foreign trade exports and constraints. It is assumed that any shortfall in domestic production can be met in this supply side analysis. 2 types of policy objectives (self-sufficiency and surplus maximization) are also modeled. The applied model is simplified for the village analysis and the following assumptions are made: there is no trade between villages, transportation cost is not added, and crop yield depends only on land input used in production. The 3 types of nutritional planning problems are that 1) only calorie and protein are considered and arable lands are available year long; 2) calcium and vitamins A, B2, and C (multinutrients) must be met; and 3) inadequate irrigation and flood control technologies limit the amount of land available during the winter and summer months. The Mathematical Programming System and Extension Package (MPSX) was used to solve the simplified model. 8 crops are considered in 10 cropping patterns. The results are that both villages can be net food exporters if all land can be utilized and calorie/protein targets only are the goal. Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional self-sufficiency based on full nutrient intake. With land being used in summer and winter seasons only, only Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional sufficiency and multinutrient food targets. The net value of exports from Kulia-Durgapur is almost equal in value to the net aid requirements of Shitalpur. Multinutrient, objectives affect cropping patterns and shift patterns from cereals to vegetables, and particularly summer vegetables. A policy objective might be set aside a specified amount of arable land for cultivating vegetables.
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