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Feminist Economics. 2017 Oct 2; 23(4):62-89.Violence against women (VAW) is now acknowledged as a global problem with substantial economic costs. However, the current estimates of costs in the literature provide the aggregate loss of income, but not the macroeconomic loss in terms of output and demand insofar as they fail to consider the structural interlinkages of the economy. Focusing on Vietnam, this study proposes an approach based on the social accounting matrix (SAM) to estimate the macroeconomic loss due to violence. Using Vietnam’s 2011 SAM, the study estimates the income and multiplier loss due to VAW. From a policy point of view, the study argues that the macroeconomic loss due to VAW renders a permanent invisible leakage to the circular flow that can potentially destabilize, weaken, or neutralize the positive gains from government expenditure on welfare programs.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Mar; 13(3):354-364.The objectives were to present and compare socioeconomic status (SES) rankings of households using consumption and an asset-based index as two alternative measures of SES; and to compare and evaluate the performance of these two measures in multivariate analyses of the socioeconomic gradient in malaria prevalence. Data for the study come from a survey of 557 households in 25 study villages in Tanzania in 2004. Household SES was determined using consumption and an asset-based index calculated using Principal Components Analysis on a set of household variables. In multivariate analyses of malaria prevalence, we also used two other measures of disease prevalence: parasitaemia and self-report of malaria or fever in the 2 weeks before interview. Household rankings based on the two measures of SES differ substantially. In multivariate analyses, there was a statistically significant negative association between both measures of SES and parasitaemia but not between either measure of SES and self-reported malaria. Age of individual, use of a mosquito net, and wall construction were negatively and significantly associated with parasitaemia, whilst roof construction was positively associated with parasitaemia. Only age remained significant when malaria self-report was used as the measure of disease prevalence. An asset index is an effective alternative to consumption in measuring the socioeconomic gradient in malaria parasitaemia, but self-report may be an unreliable measure of malaria prevalence for this purpose. (author's)
[Review of methods of dietary assessment during pregnant] Metodos de avaliacao do consumo alimentar de gestantes: uma revisao.
Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):383-390.Physiological pregnancy changes impact nutritional needs and food intake. The adequate use of tools providing knowledge of food consumption during this life cycle is relevant because it enables the diagnosis for possible nutrition deficits and excesses. The objective of the survey was to perform a bibliographic review on food intake assessment methods during pregnancy. The literature reviewed was selected from an electronic database published between 1994 and September 2004 in Brazil and abroad. This article aims at describing and assessing the different methods and main results of studies determining food intake during pregnancy, among them, the following are highlighted: 24 hour recall, food registration, questionnaire on food intake consumption and food history. The results determine that the 24 hour recall method was the one more frequently used, nevertheless, for many times it was not applied beyond a two day investigation period and it did not take weekends into account. The choice for this method is related to pragmatism and a favorable cost benefit ratio. The conclusion is that to obtain reliable results, the choice of method and study design should always be related to the objectives of the enquiry. (author's)
Response to "Malnutrition and dietary protein: Evidence from China and from international comparisons".
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(3):291-295.The opportunity to comment on the paper by Jamison and his colleagues  is most welcome. My perspective, and biases, on the issues they discuss are based largely on work in pediatrics and community health in Turkey, Colombia, and Thailand during a period of 17 years. In addition, I was privileged to visit China in 1973 as a member of the Early Childhood Development Delegation, one of the earliest US delegations to visit China, when I was able to pay particular attention to growth in children under five years of age [2-4]. Nutrition, growth, and mortality in young children have been major concerns throughout my career. Dr. Jamison has studied health issues having to do with China for many years, and this is an interesting contribution. There is no need here to repeat the study design, but the three populations from which data were used for the study, must be mentioned. They include: Data from a sample of urban adults, aged 18 to 25 years, from 13 provinces of China, in 1979: information on average heights and weights for men and women and on average income and availability of energy and protein; Data from a sample of adult men and women from 64 rural counties: information on heights and weights plus data on income, energy availability, and protein share from 26 provinces, around 1983; Data from 41 populations of men and 33 populations of women in 40 and 32 countries, respectively: information on average heights, as well as income, energy, protein share, and ethnic group, around 1960. (excerpt)
GENUS. 1998 Jul-Dec; 54(3-4):25-34.This paper presents an approach to the problem of optimum population avoiding the standard absolute repugnant solution as well as the marginal repugnant solution. Economists confront a variety of problems involving population size that is endogenously determined and can be either indirectly or directly regulated. The problem implies that an increase in each individual income leads to a drop in the optimal level of consumption. A concept axiomatized by Blackorby et al. was utilized to surmount the problem that required a critical level of use. However, critical level was not exogenous according to the assumption, but linked to the marginal contribution of each newcomer to the total resource constraint of a society.
REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS. 1999 Feb; 81(1):41-9.This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality [in India], by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children. In order to avert the issue of selection bias due to underreporting of births of girls, a methodology is employed that does not require data on births by gender. The results indicate that favorable rainfall shocks increase the ratio of the probability that a girl survives to the probability that a boy survives. (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1997. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 27-29, 1997. 18,  p.Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) collect indicators of housing quality, access to water and electricity, and ownership of selected consumer durables. To gauge the performance of those indicators, data sets are needed which include the indicators themselves and the measures they are meant to represent, household consumption or income levels. The authors review the statistical properties of models which rely upon proxy variables. No new theoretical results are presented. The performance of DHS-like indices as proxies for per adult household consumption is then assessed, followed by the presentation of models of fertility and child mortality incorporating consumption. The resulting estimates are then compared to those derived from indices. DHS-style indices were found to be very weak proxies for consumption per adult.
[Unpublished] 1995. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Francisco, California, April 4-6, 1995. , 18,  p.The Becker-Barro (1988) dynastic model has several testable implications: real interest rates and the infant mortality rate should have a positive effect on fertility, while the scale of the social security program and the growth rate of real consumption per capita should have negative effects on fertility. The authors subject all four implications to empirical testing, using US quarterly time-series data. With the exception of the growth rate of real consumption per capita, they find support for the Becker-Barro model; in particular, both the short and long-term real interest rate have statistically and substantively significant positive effects on fertility. (author's)
JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1994; 7(4):333-50.The author examines how household cost functions depend on the composition of a household. "In the paper I formally establish the connection between subjective measures and the cost function underlying the AID [Almost Ideal Demand] system. The subjective measures fully identify cost functions and the expenditure data do this partly. This makes it possible to test the null hypothesis that both types of data are consistent with one another, i.e. that they measure the same thing. I use two separate data sets to set up a test of this equivalence. The outcomes are somewhat mixed and indicate the need for further specification search. Finally, I discuss some implications of the outcomes." (EXCERPT)
Social Science and Medicine. 1992 Apr; 34(8):837-42.Researchers analyzed data from 117 countries taken from 2 1988 World Bank publications to determine the relative importance of health care resources in predicting infant mortality within developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Overall the variance of infant mortality, accounted by only socioeconomic resources, was 32.8% in underdeveloped (p<.01), 34.3% in developing countries (p<.05), and 60.6% in developed countries (p<.1). Further almost all these variables had constant directions of relationship with infant mortality across the 3 subgroups. For example, GNP and education were always negatively associated with infant mortality and urbanization and water were always positively associated with infant mortality. In fact, water had the greatest effect in developing countries and the smallest in underdeveloped countries. Further education was the only statistically significant socioeconomic variable in underdeveloped and developing countries (p<.05). Energy was inversely related with infant mortality in underdeveloped and developing countries, but positively related with it in industrialized countries. Further calorie had an inverse relationship with infant mortality in underdeveloped countries, but a positive relationship in developing and developed countries. In terms of health resources, the variance of infant mortality was not significant and was only an additional 8.6% of that above the variance explained by socioeconomic resources in underdeveloped countries, 5.6% in developing countries, and 3.3% in industrialized countries. Yet the association between inhabitants/ physician was consistent across all subgroups. Further the physician's role in reducing infant mortality was greatest in developing countries. The other 2 health care variables were inhabitants/nurse and inhabitants/hospital bed. In addition, as life expectancy increased, the effects of health care resources on infant mortality fell.
BANGLADESH DEVELOPMENT STUDIES. 1991 Sep; 19(3):83-95.A linear programming model of nutritional planning, applied to 3 nutrition problems of nutrition planning in 2 villages, Shitalpur and Kulia-Durgapur in southwest Bangladesh is described and results are discussed. The model takes into consideration features identified as affecting nutritional requirements: age and sex, recommended requirements by age and sex, activity level, proportion of lactating women, excess requirement for lactating and pregnant women, and proportion of women pregnant. Other important factors are production of nutrients in the region as affected by assimilable number of nutrients and net yield per acre and number of acres, net usage of nutrients in the region as affected by transfer of crops between regions, and net food import into the region as affected by aid import of food type and exports of food type. Total area of arable land is restriction on production. Consumption = production - net interregional transfers - net foreign trade exports and constraints. It is assumed that any shortfall in domestic production can be met in this supply side analysis. 2 types of policy objectives (self-sufficiency and surplus maximization) are also modeled. The applied model is simplified for the village analysis and the following assumptions are made: there is no trade between villages, transportation cost is not added, and crop yield depends only on land input used in production. The 3 types of nutritional planning problems are that 1) only calorie and protein are considered and arable lands are available year long; 2) calcium and vitamins A, B2, and C (multinutrients) must be met; and 3) inadequate irrigation and flood control technologies limit the amount of land available during the winter and summer months. The Mathematical Programming System and Extension Package (MPSX) was used to solve the simplified model. 8 crops are considered in 10 cropping patterns. The results are that both villages can be net food exporters if all land can be utilized and calorie/protein targets only are the goal. Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional self-sufficiency based on full nutrient intake. With land being used in summer and winter seasons only, only Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional sufficiency and multinutrient food targets. The net value of exports from Kulia-Durgapur is almost equal in value to the net aid requirements of Shitalpur. Multinutrient, objectives affect cropping patterns and shift patterns from cereals to vegetables, and particularly summer vegetables. A policy objective might be set aside a specified amount of arable land for cultivating vegetables.
Life cycle savings and consumption constraints: theory, empirical evidence, and fiscal implications.
JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1991; 4(3):233-55.Recent tests of both the pure and the extended life cycle hypothesis have generated inconclusive results on the life cycle behavior of the elderly. We extend the life cycle model by introducing a constraint on the physical consumption opportunities of the elderly which, if binding, imposes a consumption trajectory declining in age. This explains much of the received evidence on the elderly's consumption and savings behavior, in particular declining consumption, and increasing savings and wealth with increasing age. Our analysis of [Federal Republic of Germany] data gives additional support to our theory. We finally draw the implications of the theory on the incidence of consumption and income (wealth) taxes, and on the recent (inconclusive) tests of intergenerational altruism. (EXCERPT)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1986. 209 p.This research investigates the effects of household age-sex composition on the labor supply of women in [a developing country] setting. It is based on a new approach of modelling the economic consequences of variation in the individual and family life cycle developed by Lee (1983). It is posited that each person is capable of producing four types of effects: (1) generate demand for consumer goods...(2) supply time to market activity...(3) create demand for home production...and (4) supply time to housework....These per capita effects depend on the age and sex of each person and are regarded as exogenous, determined partly by biological needs and partly by socio-cultural norms....The empirical results of this research, derived from Malaysian Family Life Survey data (1976-77), have generally confirmed the usefulness of the basic approach described above. This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley. (EXCERPT)