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The impact of PROGRESA on food consumption: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 150 (May 2003).
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(4):379-380.Since 1997, PROGRESA has provided cash transfers linked to children's enrollment and regular school attendance and to health clinic attendance. The program also includes in-kind health benefits; nutritional supplements for children up to age five, and pregnant and lactating women; and instructional meetings on health and nutrition issues. In 2000, PROGRESA reached about 40 percent of all rural families and about 11 percent of all Mexican families. This paper explores whether PROGRESA improves the diet of poor rural Mexicans--a major objective of the program. As such, this evaluation provides insights into whether interventions designed to alleviate poverty also succeed in reducing hunger. (excerpt)
Response to "Malnutrition and dietary protein: Evidence from China and from international comparisons".
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(3):291-295.The opportunity to comment on the paper by Jamison and his colleagues  is most welcome. My perspective, and biases, on the issues they discuss are based largely on work in pediatrics and community health in Turkey, Colombia, and Thailand during a period of 17 years. In addition, I was privileged to visit China in 1973 as a member of the Early Childhood Development Delegation, one of the earliest US delegations to visit China, when I was able to pay particular attention to growth in children under five years of age [2-4]. Nutrition, growth, and mortality in young children have been major concerns throughout my career. Dr. Jamison has studied health issues having to do with China for many years, and this is an interesting contribution. There is no need here to repeat the study design, but the three populations from which data were used for the study, must be mentioned. They include: Data from a sample of urban adults, aged 18 to 25 years, from 13 provinces of China, in 1979: information on average heights and weights for men and women and on average income and availability of energy and protein; Data from a sample of adult men and women from 64 rural counties: information on heights and weights plus data on income, energy availability, and protein share from 26 provinces, around 1983; Data from 41 populations of men and 33 populations of women in 40 and 32 countries, respectively: information on average heights, as well as income, energy, protein share, and ethnic group, around 1960. (excerpt)
Food-consumption patterns in Central West Africa, 1961 to 2000, and challenges to combating malnutrition.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(2):167-182.We discuss food-consumption patterns in Central West Africa from 1961 to 2000 and some implications for combating malnutrition. The availability of food in the region improved in the 1960s, declined sharply in the 1970s and the early 1980s, and has shown a modest positive trend since the mid-1980s. Notwithstanding obvious progress over the past decades and in the region as a whole, food availability today remains below the required levels for large parts of the population and appears unstable over time, particularly in the Sahelian zone. On average, diets in this zone contain fewer than 2,200 kcal, compared with almost 2,500 kcal in the coastal zone. Conversely, protein deficiency is more common in the coastal zone, where a typical diet contains only 45 g of protein, compared with 60 g in the Sahelian zone. Furthermore, consumption is showing a dietary shift toward cereals, while yield growth lags far behind population growth. The associated import dependency and pressure on land seem to gain significance regardless of the region's agro-ecological capacity to increase and to substitute cereal imports for locally produced food. Moreover, food consumption appears responsive to income changes (calorie-income elasticity ranges from 0.25 to 0.62), while, in turn, it has a significant impact on nutritional outcomes (stuntingcalorie elasticity of -1.42). We conclude that combating malnutrition requires first broad-spectrum income growth, and next specific policies that promote the yield and the contribution to diets of nutritious food produced within the region. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):466-.Fortification of appropriate foods is an important component of a comprehensive food-based approach toward sustainable control of micronutrient malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency disorders. There are several aspects to be considered and issues to be resolved before investing in food fortification. Key issues discussed by participants included the following: Need for food-consumption survey data to identify micronutrient problems, target groups for interventions, and appropriate food vehicle(s) that could be fortified, including staple foods, complementary foods, and post-weaning foods; Importance of evaluating risks of fortification versus doing nothing and communicating information to policy makers and the scientific community. (excerpt)
Experience of World Vision Ethiopia Micronutrient Program in promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):366-369.Deficiencies of micronutrients are major health problems in Ethiopia. According to a national survey conducted by the former Ethiopian Nutrition Institute in 1985, the prevalence of Bitot's spots exceeded 1%, and low serum vitamin A levels were found in 16% of preschool children. In a 1997 baseline study by World Vision Ethiopia, the prevalence of Bitot's spots was 6.4% and 7.5% in preschool-children and schoolchildren, respectively. In October 1998, World Vision Ethiopia launched a comprehensive Micronutrient Program with the goal of improving the micronutrient and health status of mothers and children. Promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods was adopted as one of the strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the target population. Intensive nutritional education was given in the project areas, focusing on community leaders, women's groups, teachers, and students. Vegetable seeds and hand tools were made available for demonstration purposes, and production of vitamin A-rich foods (dark-green leafy vegetables, carrot, beet root, cabbage, and kale) was started in community demonstration plots and schools. Community members began replicating vegetable gardens at the household level. In areas where the climate is suitable, production of vitamin A-rich fruits, such as mango, papaya, and avocado, was also demonstrated to the communities. Seedlings grown in community plots were distributed to households. At the end of the second year (1999), 11,708 backyard gardens, 275 school gardens, and 77 community gardens had developed with the full participation of the community. In addition to improved micronutrient status, vegetable production contributed to household food security and income generation of the community. Our experience shows that production of vitamin A-rich vegetables is well accepted by the community. It is sustainable and cost-effective. The challenge ahead is the need to develop local vegetable seed production, since the availability and cost of imported seeds are a hindrance, particularly for very poor community members. A food-based approach, and particularly production of vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits, should be the mainstay in designing a sustainable micronutrient program in poor developing countries. (author's)
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2006; 89(5):706-713.A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of the Northeastern region in Thailand. The study aimed to investigate factors influencing nutritional status and to explore the pattern of snack consumption. Subjects were 85 normal and 85 undernourished pre-school children with ages ranging from 2-6 years old. The authors collected demographic data including socio-economic status and family background by using an interview administered questionnaire. A 5-day food record was used to evaluate nutritional intake. The results indicated that children in both groups preferred crispy snacks between breakfast and lunch. Energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium and sodium intake derived from snacks and overall intake were significantly lower in undernourished children than those in normal children (p-value < 0.01). The results indicated that energy intake in pre-school malnourished children (2-3 years) as percentage of recommended daily allowance was lower than the recommended level. High sodium intake was observed in the presented study children and the results supported the observation that snack foods contribute to excessive sodium intake. The present results have highlighted the impact of snack consumption. Programmes aimed at increasing nutritional knowledge and information for parents and guardians are important. Furthermore, promotion of nutritious snack consumption among children is important. (author's)
Public Health Nutrition. 2005; 8(6A):706-715.The objective was to show that current rates of global population growth, production and consumption of food, and use of living and physical resources, are evidently not sustainable. To consider ways in which nutrition and allied sciences can respond to this great challenge of the twenty-first century. Past, current and future projected trends in production and consumption patterns are examined. These show that overall present and projected patterns cannot be sustained; and also show increasing unacceptable inequity between and within rich and poor regions and countries. Nutrition science classically focuses on nutrients in relation to human physiology, metabolism, growth, health and disease. The social and environmental conditions of the modern, interconnected, market-oriented world, and the consequences for food production and consumption, are extending the research and policy agenda with which nutrition science must now urgently engage. Historically, much attention has been paid to eliminating nutritional deficiency states, and this remains an important task. In modern urban populations ‘malnutrition’ encompasses new forms of dietary imbalance, especially excesses of certain nutrients. These contribute to various non-communicable diseases and, particularly, to overweight/obesity and its attendant metabolic derangements and disease risks. As a mass phenomenon the current surge in obesity has no historical precedent. The escalating impact of humankind on the natural environment, with its ramifications for present and future food production, is also unprecedented. The essential challenge for nutrition science is to develop new understanding and strategies to enable a balance between promoting, equitably, the health of humans while sustaining the long-term health of the biosphere. Extension of nutrition science and food policy to meet those goals will be aided by understanding better how dietary conditions shaped the biological evolution of humankind. The fundamental long-term task is to integrate human health with the health of the biosphere. (author's)
Nutrient intake and consumption of supplementary nutrition by severely malnourished children in two ICDS projects in Rajasthan state.
Indian Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 36(8):799-802.In India, severe protein energy malnutrition is one of the important factors associated with high infant and child mortality rate. Thus, direct intervention in the form of supplementary nutrition (SN) is provided through ICDS scheme to malnourished children for improving their nutritional status. However, data regarding the status of receipt of consumption of SN by severely malnourished children in the ICDS scheme is lacking. As such, a study was undertaken in two urban ICDS projects of Rajasthan to evaluate the nutrient intake and consumption pattern of SN by severely malnourished children. The nutritional status of all the children in 6 months-6 year age group in 50 angan-wadi centers was assessed by weight for age criteria as per the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Classification. Overall, the results show that the calorie intake of severely malnourished children was found to be low and insufficient in all the three age groups, in spite of registration for delivery of supplementary nutrition. It is also noted that the distribution of double supplementary nutrition to severely malnourished children was not according to the guidelines. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the guidelines for distribution and consumption of SN for management of severe malnutrition through the ICDS scheme.
CARRYING CAPACITY NETWORK FOCUS. 1997; 7(1):37-9.The subject of demographic entrapment is taboo in most UN agencies and in academia because of the upheaval that would occur if entrapment were acknowledged. Demographic entrapment occurs if a population has exceeded or is projected to exceed the combination of the carrying capacity of its own ecosystem and its ability to trade for its needs or to migrate to other ecosystems. Demographic entrapment leads populations to become progressively stunted physically (as is occurring in Malawi) or starve, die from disease, or implode in social chaos (Rwanda). Disentrapment can theoretically occur if communities increase the carrying capacity of their ecosystem, develop an export community, increase migratory opportunity, reduce population growth, or combine these measures. The major method of escaping entrapment seems to be reducing population growth by promoting one-child families. If developed countries urge developing countries to adopt this policy, developed countries should adopt it also because per capita consumption of natural resources in developed countries is perhaps 50 times greater than in developing countries. Discussion of demographic entrapment remains taboo because of fear that such discussion would challenge: 1) the materialistic, consumeristic, market economy that is the current foundation of global society; 2) the consumption and employment patterns of developed countries; 3) human rights notions about reproduction, anti-abortion attitudes, and pronatalist views; and 4) false assumptions about universal economic development. Countries (like Malawi) where entrapment is causing widespread malnutrition should receive interim food aid tied to population reduction. Developed countries should promote development of sustainable lifestyles that include having one-child families and consuming photon-efficient diets. UN agencies must face the uproar that will occur upon acknowledgement of entrapment in order to call for simultaneous reproductive and lifestyle changes throughout the world.
In: Gender, health, and sustainable development: perspectives from Asia and the Caribbean. Proceedings of workshops held in Singapore, 23-26 January 1995 and in Bridgetown, Barbados, 6-9 December 1994, edited by Janet Hatcher Roberts, Jennifer Kitts, and Lori Jones Arsenault. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995 Aug. 285-90.This paper presents an overview of some of the issues pertaining to nutrition in the Caribbean region: food production, food availability, food consumption, poverty, culture, and nutrition-related health problems. It is concluded that sustainable development should assure survival and the ability to be healthy. Research and programs are lacking in the attention given to the management and control of obesity and chronic diseases. Prevention of chronic diseases requires the adoption of healthy life styles and life skills in all population groups regardless of age, sex, or social status. Policy directions and the national allocation of resources are necessary for developing and implementing health education programs. Program strategies must involve multidisciplinary disciplines and personnel. The International Conference on Nutrition recommends further activity on improving household food security, preventing and managing infectious diseases, caring for the deprived and nutritionally vulnerable, promoting healthy diets and life styles, protecting consumers through improved food quality, preventing micronutrient deficiencies, researching nutrition situations, and including nutrition objectives within development plans. Little research, other than a small study in Jamaica, is available on the health impact of women's agricultural work in the Caribbean, particularly on pesticide and agricultural chemical exposure. Caribbean countries rely heavily on food imports to meet basic food needs. Currently there is adequate food availability at the national level. Poverty is a major cause of undernutrition and women in female-headed households are a particularly vulnerable group. Food consumption data in the Caribbean are inadequate for a variety of reasons. Indigenous food that is nutritionally of high quality is rejected as "poor people's food." The leading causes of death in the Caribbean include anemia, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, cancers, and diabetes.
Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University, Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, 1990 Jun. x, 87 p. (HR-90-1)The Hunger Profile differentiates among food shortages, poverty, and deprivation. Food shortage is further reflected in the amounts needed to fulfill nutritional requirements of an entire country's population, to maintain current levels of food consumption, and to prevent starvation or famine. Views are also expressed in terms of a global food shortage food-short countries, food-poor households, and food-deprived individuals. 2% of the world are affected by food shortage and 9-20% are affected by food poverty. 16% of the world's infants are food deprived. 31% of children are underweight/age. 4% are iodine deficient, 13% are deficient in iron, and 15% suffer from vitamin A deficiency. The authors present their views on the state of hunger in 1990, hunger as a weapon of war, food aid and hunger, refugees and hunger, breast-feeding trends, and reducing hunger by 50%. The text of the Bellagio Declaration on Overcoming Hunger in the 1990s is included. Hunger was being used in 1990 as a weapon in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines in Asia; in Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania in Africa; in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala in Latin America; and in Armenia and Romania in Eastern Europe. 15% of imports to low-income, food-deficit countries and 44% of imports in developing in developing countries come in the form of food aid. Food aid has decreased 16% since 1985-86. Most food aid comes from the US (57%), the European Economic Community and member countries (20%), and Canada (10%). There is a longterm need to shift from direct food aid to programs that increase access to food for the most vulnerable populations. There has been an increase in cereal food aid since 1973-74; aid is dependent on cereal prices. There must be a balance between longterm and shortterm aid. Food aid is distributed as emergencies (20%), project food aid for maternal and child health programs (25%), and program aid. 5% is directed to target groups. Refugees are a growing population vulnerable to hunger. The most basic rations are given to refugees on an inconsistent basis due to inadequate and hoarded supplies and logistics. Refugee populations are reported by host country for 1989. Breast feeding is declining in general. Commitment, organization, and evaluation are necessary to halve hunger in the 1990s.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY. 1992 May; 51(1):93-104.An overview for Southeast Asia is provided for population growth, food availability and consumption patterns and trends in nutritional health; and example of the interaction between the economy and food consumption and nutrition in the Philippines is given. The conclusion is that Southeast Asia, to a great extent, has managed to sustain child welfare improvements through satisfactory rates of economic growth. Countries in Africa and Latin America have not been so fortunate. The exceptions in Southeast Asia are the Philippines, Vietnam, Democratic Kampuchea, and Laos; whatever economic or nutritional gains were made in the late 1970's or early 1980's were hampered due to high population growth rates and economic declines. In the Philippines, there has been political uncertainty, a very heavy debt burden (38.1, in 1989, for debt service), and a decline in Gross National Product. After 1988, economic recovery slowed and Mt. Pinatubo erupted. The result was farm land loss to volcanic ash and greater hardship conditions for the poor and nutritionally vulnerable. Food consumption surveys show increases in consumption in 1982 with a diversified diet and a significant decline in 1987 in mean daily per capita energy, protein, and nutrient intake. The prevalence of underweight preschool children declined from 21.9% in 1978 to 17.2% in 1982, and then increased to 17.7% in 1987. Regional anthropometric measurements and incidence of underweight children aged 0-6 years in 1989-90 showed improvement. Severe chronic malnutrition also improved between 1987-90, which paralleled economic improvements. The population of Southeast Asia has doubled over the past 30 years; food supply has also increased. At the national level, no country shows food shortages. Countries without enough cushion to allow for food losses or distribution problems are Democratic Kampuchea, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, most of which also may be deficient in consumption of oils and fats. Infant mortality (IM) has declined slightly throughout the region, but particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Low-birth-weight babies were the most numerous in Laos. IM rates are similar to other countries in Africa and South Asia , with the exception of Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. Nutritional improvement has been the highest in Thailand and Indonesia.
Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition in Rwanda.
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute, 1991. 123 p. (Research Report 85)This research reports on the effects of increased commercialization on production, household real income, family food consumption, expenditures, on nonfood goods and services, and the nutritional status of the population in Rwanda. The process by which household food consumption and nutritional status are affected by commercialization is described with emphasis on identifying the major elements and how each element is influenced by the change. The issue was whether agricultural production systems and efficient use of resources can be sustained under population pressure. The study area was the commune of Giciye in Gisenyi district in northwestern Rwanda. The area is mountainous and has very poor quality and acidic soils, with a deficiency of phosphorus. Population increase averaged 4.2%/year. There is a high prevalence of underconsumption and malnutrition. Subsistence food production is becoming increasingly more difficult. New activities include production of tea and expansion of potato production. There is beer processing from sorghum and off-farm employment. The forces driving commercialization are identified, followed by a discussion of the production and income effects of the commercialization process, the consumption relationships and effects, the consumption/nutrition/health links, and the longterm perspectives on rural development. The research design, theory, and data base are described. The conclusions were that increasing the rate of change in agricultural technology for subsistence crops would not maintain even the current levels of poverty; there must be reductions in population growth. The recommended strategy is to encourage diversification of the rural economy with specialization in both agriculture and nonagricultural products and to improve the human capital and infrastructure base. Labor productivity needs to be increased as well as employment expansion. Labor-intensive erosion control methods such as terracing are recommended as a resource investment, which are assumed to take into account women and their time constraints. Tea production which is considered a women's crop has offered off-farm employment opportunities. Consideration must be given to land tenure policy and issues of compensation for loss of land during the commercialization process. Health and sanitation measures are needed concurrently with economic development.
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. 1992 Oct 21; 9-10, 12.Discussion of world food supply identifies the reasons for shortages, based on the opinions of various food experts, as maldistribution of wealth and income, population growth, limits to production, shortage of usable land, global warming, air pollution, and civil war. In 1992, farmers produced enough food to feed the world's 5.3 billion population, but starvation and hunger occur because people cannot afford to buy enough or because of armed conflict. To meet the growing demands of expected population increases, productivity must increase by 3 times within 50 years to feed 9-12 billion people. Although Dennis Avery from the Hudson Institute is optimistic, the Population Crisis Committee's International Human Suffering Index shows Mozambique as suffering the most with a population growth of 2.7% while Denmark with zero growth suffers the least. 786 million still go hungry today. The agronomists' solution is to lesson the political conditions that lead to conflicts, to make agriculture sustainable, to enhance farm productivity with modern techniques, and encourage economic development. The political challenges are exemplified in the case of Tenneco West's investment in mechanized agriculture in northern Sudan which doubled agricultural productivity but civil war disrupted activities. Famine in Africa is due to war, i.e., Somalia in the present context. 11% of the earth's land surface is cultivated (3.7 billion acres). Lester Brown of the Worldwatch Institute pessimistically points out that the farmland base stopped growing in 1980, air pollution can reduce crop yields by 10%, and part of the world's food output is not sustainable. Avery states that a billion acres of African wetlands and another billion of savanna could be changed over to agriculture, that African farmers could triple corn production using high yield varieties, but Africa will have a "slow, desperately difficult struggle." Dr. Harwood at Michigan State says that global warming might increase yields as well as contribute to flooding. Dennis Leopold from the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University suggests that a balance must be reached between the farmer and the community, and large farms may not be the best. World trade is low compared with production and consumption, yet countries like Indonesia clear 1.5 million acres of jungle for crop production regardless of the environmental degradation.
In: Strategies for Third World development, edited by John S. Augustine. New Delhi, India, Sage Publications, 1989. 16-33.In spite of the many differences in developing countries, all promote policies aimed at improving resource allocations, increasing the value of public and private corporations, preparing domestic savings, locating access for market exports, and supporting investment activities. Poverty and unemployment are indigenous to rural areas in developing countries. Planners' and policymakers' objectives are to promote policies for growth, arrange exports and imports, deal with the interdependence and economic dependence in trade relations, to develop agricultural policies, alleviate poverty and unemployment, and to provide food security. Each task is discussed, e.g., growth policies must balance an appropriate mix of stabilization and structural adjustment. Growth can be accomplished through increased domestic savings, an appropriate rate of monetary growth, a stable exchange rate, and reduced budget deficits. Efficiency of investment can be increased with encouraging private domestic and foreign investment and reducing administrative controls and tax system distortions. Military spending reductions and increased investment in irrigation, drainage, and extension of public services and agricultural support make better use of public savings. Optimizing use of scarce resources of capital and foreign exchange contribute to social and economic improvement. Insulation from the fluctuations in growth trends in other countries reduces vulnerability. Self-reliance is promoted. In coping with inequalities in income distribution, poverty, and unemployment, developing counties have focused on growth in gross national product (GNP). Production and investment need to be reorganized in order to have a wider effect on income distribution and achieve social justice. Employment must be increased for neutral personal tax-subsidy schemes to work. Production planning targeted to the rural poor and geared to consumption planning can help to alleviate hunger and poverty. In balancing production, consumption, and employment, it is important to consider that increasing the level of employment beyond free market equilibrium requires a certain level of subsidy, and increasing the level of distributive consumption may led to lower investment for future growth and employment.
Binghamton, New York, Food Products Press, 1992. xv, 444 p.The text is an expansive collection of information on everything related to global food production, agricultural production and processing and consumption, nutrition, and current food issues. Global food production includes information on world population and food production, global food production, global food marketing, and global food problems and foreign aid. 1) Global food production is further delineated by discussion about the croplands, changes in agricultural resources, photosynthesis, water resources, the changing atmosphere and its effect on crops, land productivity potential, managing agricultural production, and multiple dimensions of the world food problem. Annual world food production is 4 billion tons for a population of 5.2 billion, but 20% are hungry every day due to differences in production and distribution. Rapid population growth will reduce the productive food land/person by 50% form levels 35 years ago. The view is that new croplands will be expanded to meet the needs and more intensive farming practices bill be employed. New food processing techniques will be invented and adopted. Infrastructure development will contribute to an improvement. A smaller number of farmers will produce more food. 2) Agricultural production is discussed in terms of crop and plant production, animal production (livestock, wildlife, and insects), global fish and shellfish production, food processing industries, and food distribution and consumption and food and energy losses. Rates of food loss vary by country, i.e., 1-8% in the US but 25% in the former Soviet Union. A production value of >1 billion dollars would be derived from a 1% increase n yield. 3) Nutrition and the individual is concerned with the essential human nutrients and the consequences of malnutrition. 4) Current food issues pertain to biotechnology and agricultural production, chemicals in the food supply, global warming, and research, policies, and actions on world food. The appendix identifies career opportunities in international agriculture.
BANGLADESH DEVELOPMENT STUDIES. 1991 Sep; 19(3):83-95.A linear programming model of nutritional planning, applied to 3 nutrition problems of nutrition planning in 2 villages, Shitalpur and Kulia-Durgapur in southwest Bangladesh is described and results are discussed. The model takes into consideration features identified as affecting nutritional requirements: age and sex, recommended requirements by age and sex, activity level, proportion of lactating women, excess requirement for lactating and pregnant women, and proportion of women pregnant. Other important factors are production of nutrients in the region as affected by assimilable number of nutrients and net yield per acre and number of acres, net usage of nutrients in the region as affected by transfer of crops between regions, and net food import into the region as affected by aid import of food type and exports of food type. Total area of arable land is restriction on production. Consumption = production - net interregional transfers - net foreign trade exports and constraints. It is assumed that any shortfall in domestic production can be met in this supply side analysis. 2 types of policy objectives (self-sufficiency and surplus maximization) are also modeled. The applied model is simplified for the village analysis and the following assumptions are made: there is no trade between villages, transportation cost is not added, and crop yield depends only on land input used in production. The 3 types of nutritional planning problems are that 1) only calorie and protein are considered and arable lands are available year long; 2) calcium and vitamins A, B2, and C (multinutrients) must be met; and 3) inadequate irrigation and flood control technologies limit the amount of land available during the winter and summer months. The Mathematical Programming System and Extension Package (MPSX) was used to solve the simplified model. 8 crops are considered in 10 cropping patterns. The results are that both villages can be net food exporters if all land can be utilized and calorie/protein targets only are the goal. Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional self-sufficiency based on full nutrient intake. With land being used in summer and winter seasons only, only Kulia-Durgapur can achieve nutritional sufficiency and multinutrient food targets. The net value of exports from Kulia-Durgapur is almost equal in value to the net aid requirements of Shitalpur. Multinutrient, objectives affect cropping patterns and shift patterns from cereals to vegetables, and particularly summer vegetables. A policy objective might be set aside a specified amount of arable land for cultivating vegetables.
UNESCO SPECIAL. 1988; (15):1-4.In 1987, an UNESCO project, with the financial support of the Norwegian Ministry of Development Co-operation, was launched in Guyana (796,750 inhabitants), to promote the development of the home market for locally produced foods, and alleviate malnutrition through education. This, in a country where, especially in rural areas, 22% of 5 years old children suffer from malnutrition. The results of a 1st set of studies focused on consumer behavior, and demand analysis, were made public in March 1988. The results of a 2nd series of studies aimed at determining how the agro-industrial sector can best meet the demand for local food products, at identifying food processing possibilities, and improving marketing practice, are to be presented in December 1988. Nutrition education has been given to mothers with small children, receiving dietary advice, and basic information on child growth, in the course of their visits to the clinic. In addition, a series of video-cassettes has been shown in the clinic, and a series of radio messages has been aired nationwide. Even more innovative has been the use of the usual techniques of commercial marketing. The use of "social marketing" has yielded good results in developing countries, and it is hoped that the UNESCO project in Guyana will serve as an example to other countries facing similar food supply problems.
HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1988 Dec; 3(4):325-8.Because Bangladesh has suffered poverty, frequent natural disasters, and rapid population growth, there has been a gradual decline in nutrient intake per individual. Traditional dietary practices have undergone significant changes since 1937, which has contributed to the decline. In 1937, rice was the chief component of the diet at the village level, with protein supplied by lentils, peas, Bengal, green, black and cow gram, and kheshari. But, the daily nutrient intake of poor people was better than that of today. Massive starvation during the famine in 1943 caused a change in dietary practices. People began to eat green leaves, roots, tubers, and many unfamiliar foods because of the scarcity of cereal foods and the sharp increase in the price of rice. In 1970, a cyclone and a flood destroyed crops and people lived on food aid, eating grain, fish protein and milk powder. The war of independence in 1971 caused widespread destitution and 2 million people died. In the refugee camps in India, children ate unfamiliar foods and gradually accustomed themselves to using wheat as their staple diet. In 1974 and 1977, crop failure and another flood caused more changes in dietary pattern. Although nutrition education programs have begun, they have not been of benefit to the rural population. The pattern of nutrient intake has revealed weight faltering in females and levels are below the FAO recommendations for daily energy allowances. Nutrition survey reports from 1975 and 1982 show a gradual deterioration in nutritional status based on weight and height changes for poor children in rural areas. The decline is most evident in the 5-14 year age group, with an accompanying increase in nutrition-related morbidity. Food production, availability, and economic constraints are the most important factors associated with the reduction in nutrient intake. Population density has also played a role in the reduction.
[Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis] Bresil: modernisation agricole et restructuration alimentaire dans la crise internationale.
Tiers-Monde. 1985 Oct-Dec; 26(104):879-98.This study examines the complex relationship of capital accumulation, external debt, and food supply in Brazil, a country which has simultaneously increased its food exports and its unsatisfied demand for food imports in the context of the world economic crisis. In Brazil, the substitution of export cash crops for subsistence crops has been accompanied by a profound but incomplete restructuring of the basic food supply and model of consumption, a restructuring made possible by declining real cost of the new foods. The gap between the extremely rapid evolution of consumption, especially in the urban areas, and the possibilities of concomitant transformation of production is the characteristic feature of the change occuring in Brazil. The current diet of the developed countries evolved over a relatively long period and was based on the declining real cost of basic foodstuffs made possible by increasing labor productivity. Between 1800-1900, the real cost of a kilo of bread was halved, while that of meat remained stable. In France and the US respectively, 80 and 90% of the principal cereals are consumed by animals, while in developing countries most grains are directly consumed. Numerous indices suggest that Brazil has begun to differentiate its food regime in the direction of decreased consumption of cereals, tubers, and legumes, and increased consumption of animal products, with grains increasingly consumed indirectly by animals. Since the early 1970s, Brazil has developed a powerful processed food industry which supports intensive breeding of poultry and, to a lesser extent, pork and milk cattle. However, low income population groups have been forced to reduce their consumption of traditional foodstuffs, whose real prices have undergone relative increases, without achieving a satisfactory level of consumption of the new products. Brazilian food problems result not from insufficient production of food but from the choice of a strongly internationalist model of development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.
[Hunger and disease in less developed countries and en route to development (the Third World). Proposal for solutions] Hambre y enfermedades en los paises menos adelantados y en vias de desarrollo (Tercer Mundo). Propuesta de soluciones.
Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. 1984; 101(1):39-96.The extent, causes, and possible solutions to problems of hunger, inequality, and disease in developing countries are discussed in this essay. Various frameworks and indicators have been proposed for identifying the poorest of nations; currently, 21 African, 9 Asian, and 1 American nation are regarded as the poorest of the poor. The 31 least developed countries, the 89 developing countries, and the 37 developed countries respectively have populations of 283 million, 3 billion; infant mortality rates of 160, 94, and 19/1000 live births; life expectancies of 45, 60, and 72 years; literacy rates of 28, 55, and 98%; per capita gross national products of $170, and $520, and $6230; and per capita public health expenditures of $1.70, $6.50, and $244. Developing countries in the year 2000 are expected to have 4.87 billion of the world's 6.2 billion inhabitants. The 3rd world contains 70% of the world's population but receives only 17% of world income. 40 million persons die of hunger or its consequences each year. Economic and social development is the only solution to problems of poverty and underdevelopment, and will require mobilization of all present and future human and material resources to achieve maximum possible wellbeing for each human being. Among principal causes of underdevelopment in the 3rd World are drought, illness, exile, socioeconomic disorder, war, and arms expenditures. Current food production and a long list of possible new technologies would be adequate to feed the world's population, but poor distribution condemns the world's people to hunger. Numerous UN agencies, organizations, and programs are dedicated to solving the problems of hunger, underdevelopment, and disease. In 1982, 600 billion dollars were spent in armanents, of $112 for each of the world's inhabitants; diversion of these resources to development goals would go a long way toward solving the problem of underdevelopment. The main problem is not lack of resources, but the need to establish a new and more just economic and distributive order along with genuine solidarity in the struggle against underdevelopment. Several steps should be taken: agricultural production should be increased with the full participation of the developng nations; the industrialized or petroleum-producing nations should aid the poor states with at least .7% and up to 5% of their gross national products for the struggle against drought, disease, illiteracy, and for the green revolution and new agropastoral technologies; prices paid to poor countries for raw materials should be fair; responsible parenthood, education, women's rights, clean drinking water, environmental sanitation and primary health care should be promoted; the arms race should be halted, and the North-South dialogue should be pursued in a spirit of goodwill and cooperation.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1981. vii, 115 p. (World Bank staff working paper, no. 473)Add to my documents.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Health, food and nutrition in Third World development. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 61-76. (International Development Resource Books No. 6)Chronic malnutrition, in contrast to famine, is a grossly neglected but very serious problem in developing countries. Efforts must be made to acquaint authorities with the seriousness of the problems, to identify the causes of chronic malnutrition, and to develop effective programs to deal with the problem. Chronic undernourishment or subtle hunger receives little attention because 1) nutrition is a relatively new science; 2) those most seriously malnourished, i.e., poor women and children, have little power or influence; and 3) politicians are more likely to support programs with highly visible results, and the results of improving nutrition are subtle and not always immediately detectable. Attention should be directed to the problem by conducting epidemiological studies to demostrate that the growth and development of children is highly dependent on good nutrition. Indices for measuring growth and development are available and studies could be designed to show how these indices vary by social class or by geographical region. Other studies could demostrate how morbidity and mortality rates for nutrition related diseases can be reduced by improving nutrition. Weak points in the food chain which contribute to the problems of chronic malnutrition are delineated and include such factors as low agricultural production, deficient transportation systems, and the low food purchasing power of large segments of the population. Governments should be encouraged to develop national food policies, and the ministries of agriculture, health, education, and social welfare should be encouraged to play a role in combating chronic malnutrition. The protein deficit crisis in developing countries can be averted by 1) increasing the production of animal proteins, fish and marine resources, and food crops, especially protein-rich crops; 2) expanding research programs to improve the protein quality of cereals, to increase the yield of forage crops, and to develop new protein sources; 3) reducing the unnecessary loss of food by improving storage, transport, and processing procedures; 4) promoting the use of formulated protein foods and educating the public about protein production and consumption; 5) developing programs to improve the protein intake of the most disadvantaged segments of the population and to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases which prevent the full utilization of protein by the body; and 6) promoting training in agriculture, food science, and nutrition. A reduction in population growth and an increase in economic growth would also contribute toward a decline in chronic malnutrition.