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Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006 Jul; 23(7):700-708.In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk, AFM/1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected groups of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM/1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM/1 ( median 13.5 pg ml, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43) Non-working status (p=0.018, odds ration (OR) =2.87), obesity (p=0.004, OR=3.0), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.028 OR =3.57), contributed to the occurrence of AF in breast milk. AFM/1 contamination of breast milk was frequent, albeit at moderate levels. Growth and development of the infant is rapid and thus it is possible that AF exposure through breast milk has a significant health effect. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1997. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 27-29, 1997. , 25 p.The authors review and analyze available anthropometric and food consumption data to dispel the notion that women and children are routinely discriminated against in intrahousehold food allocation throughout the developing world. Little evidence was found that the youngest children tend to get less than their fair share of household food supplies. Researchers recording food consumption data have often omitted infant breast milk consumption, making it seem as though infants and young children are being underfed. Moreover, female children do not consistently have poorer growth than male children, even in india. Among Indian elites, however, there is strong evidence that women are discriminated against in the allocation of both food and health care. Adult women actually have better diets than adult men, except when lactating or pregnant. These findings suggest that, in the interest of both maternal and child health, nutrition and nutrition education interventions be targeted to pregnant and lactating women rather than to the broad population of women and children.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn., May 3-5, 1984. 37 p.Add to my documents.