Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 19 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development.

    van Braeckel D; Temmerman M; Roelens K; Degomme O

    Lancet. 2012 Jul 14-20; 380(9837):84-85.

    A growing number of findings from different disciplines show that human wellbeing is increasingly threatened by unsustainable population growth. These threats occur at different levels. At the global level, population size is a crucial factor in consumption of resources... Important as it is to decrease the environmental footprint of high-income countries for sustainability reasons, it is also necessary to boost economic development in low-income countries for humanitarian and ethical reasons... Provision of universal access to modern family planning methods is absolutely necessary and urgent - also from a women’s rights perspective - and it will certainly have an inhibiting effect on population growth, but additional efforts will be needed to push back global fertility to replacement level or below. (excerpts)
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2

    The common external tariff of a customs union: alternative approaches.

    Srinivasan TN

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Apr. 32 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 755)

    The most prominent exception to the cardinal 'most favoured nation' principle of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947 is in its Article XXIV relating to Customs Unions (CU's) and Free Trade Areas (FTA's). This article required, first, the general incidence of the duties and regulations of commerce imposed by members of the CU with respect to trade with non-members shall not on the whole be higher or more restrictive than those that were applicable prior to the formation of CU or FTA, and, second, that substantially all the trade among members be free. Neither requirement was very operational, with the phrases 'general incidence' and 'substantially all' being difficult legal concepts to apply. The agreement of 1994 establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) has made "general incidence" precise by defining it import-weighted average of height of barriers but without offering any rationale for the definition. Now that preferential trading arrangements such as FTA's are proliferating, reform of Article XXIV is of importance. This paper describes alternative approaches to the central question of common external tariffs of a CU. Taking off from the work of Kemp and Wan who showed the existence of a common external tariff of CU that keeps the welfare of non-members unchanged while revising that of the CU as compared to the situation prior to the formation of CU, it characterizes such as tariff structure for two leading benchmark examples as consumption-weighted average of pre-union and subsidies in the member countries. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3

    Global population and water: access and sustainability.

    Leete R; Donnay F; Kersemaekers S; Schoch M; Shah M

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)

    UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4

    Caracas statement on environment and development.

    Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Protection (1991: Caracas)


    By the close of an international meeting on socioeconomic development and environmental protection, a statement was prepared by the participants, and is presented as the body of this paper. Parliamentarians and environmental experts were in attendance from Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, the United States, Venezuela, and other governmental and private agencies. Participants acknowledged global threats to the environment and overall quality of life caused by some forms of agrarian development, population growth, poor land use, excessive consumption, energy waste, and inequitably distributed resources. Responding to these threats, strategies and policies for sustainable development while meeting the needs of future generations were developed. Heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection and resource management among parliamentarians, business leaders, communications professionals, and the general community is a priority. Effective international cooperation is also stressed in facing these global-scale challenges. Moreover, developing countries should be accorded favored treatment by developed countries due to incurred ecological debt, while local populations should be actively involved as participants in any development process. Sustainable economic growth of poverty-stricken nations is deeply interrelated with equitable wealth distribution, adequate land use, education, conservation, health, employment opportunities, the advancement of women, and population policy. Successful strategies must consider such interrelationships, and include policy elements accordingly.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5

    Down to the last drop.

    UNESCO SOURCES. 1996 Nov; (84):7.

    This paper discusses the possibilities of facing global water shortages within the next 50 years. The limited freshwater supplies have been attributed to the growing population and wide-scale mismanagement, which paved the way for conflict in the national, regional and commercial levels. In order to avoid this worst possible scenario, there is a need to learn more about the water cycle and the impact of human activities on ecological balance. Aside from that, developing strategies entails a better understanding of the ways in which different cultures perceive and value water so that equitable sharing is achieved. Lastly, this crisis can be confronted only with the availability of best scientific data and nations working closely together to achieve this goal.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6

    Birth control as an international program.

    Tang RF

    POLITICS AND THE LIFE SCIENCES. 1997 Sep; 16(2):222-3.

    The author agrees with Kenneth Smail that human overpopulation is of global concern. However, while birth control policy has been implemented in China for more than 20 years, Chinese people rarely consider the population problem from an international perspective. Population growth and size must be limited because the world is running out of food and other resources. The rapid rise in world population is creating problems for all countries because there are just not enough resources. Raw materials are being consumed at an increasing rate and food production cannot keep pace with the rate of population increase. Almost all discussions about population policy in international forums are about if or how population control policy should be carried out in developing countries. However, people in the wealthy, developed countries consume a far greater proportion of the world's resources and produce more pollution than do people in developing countries. Population control policy should therefore be followed in both developed and developing countries.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7

    1989 report on the world social situation.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. xi, 126 p. (ST/ESA/213; E/CN.5/1989/2)

    The introductory section of this report on the world social situation describes the existing setting for social development, slow economic growth and scarce resources worldwide during the 1980s, and principal themes. The report was prepared by the Office for Development Research and Policy Analysis of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat, with contributions from the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the UN Office in Vienna. It explores the changing structure of the family; the advancement of women; food consumption and supply; inequality and poverty; new technologies and their social impact; threats to the environment; social development, security, and disarmament; international cooperation against drug abuse, international terrorism, and AIDS; migrants and refugees; and changing perceptions regarding social development issues. An annex considers the changing social situation in Africa.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8

    [Mankind and water] L'homme et l'eau.

    Collomb P; Levy ML; Belle P

    Paris, France, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED], 1995 Feb. 4 p. (Population et Societes No. 298)

    Water constitutes 80% of the earth's surface. It is an essential factor for development. Of all renewable resources on the planet, fresh water is the most intractable. Fresh water represents only 2.5% of all water in the world. If one includes the fresh water in polar ice caps and glaciers, it makes up 1%. All life on earth has access to only 47,000 sq. km of renewable water each year. Most of this water returns to the sea unused. An eighth falls far away from inhabited areas. So the high limit of renewable water used under technical and actual demographic conditions is 15,000 sq. km/year (2500 sq. m/person/ year). 2.5 l of water/person/day is the amount needed to satisfy just metabolic demands. In developed countries, the demand is 100 l/person/day (e.g., toilets require 8-10 l for each flush). Water consumption ranges from less than 6 to more than 800 sq. m/year/person (52 sq. m/year/person). Fresh water use is as unequal as consumption. California uses 10,000 sq. m of water/persons/year, yet it has a semi-arid climate. It is depleting its groundwater resources. Water consumption has increased 230% between 1950 and 1990. Population growth is increasing the number of countries surpassing water scarcity thresholds. Almost 80 countries now suffer from water shortages during some points of the year. 28 countries are familiar with chronic shortages. Some areas of the world already have universal deterioration of water resources. Access to fresh water is of strategic importance. More than 200 river and lake basins cross international borders. Israel exercises strict control on water usage in Jordan. Bangladesh is asking the international community to finance dams in India and Nepal to control the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers which often bring fatal floods. The solution to these problems will arise from political, economic, and technical cooperation and demographic policy.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9

    ICPD: in whose interest?

    Shiva M

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1994 Jun; 2(3):4-7.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing countries and of women of color must be controlled.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10

    Stabilizing the atmosphere: population, consumption and greenhouse gases.

    Engelman R

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, Population and Environment Program, 1994. 48 p.

    Some human activities produce gases which trap solar heat in the lower atmosphere. Unless the levels of these activities are reduced and controlled, the gases produced will cause average temperatures worldwide to increase with no endpoint in sight. This report is the second in a series on population and critical natural resources which began with an examination of renewable fresh water. Based upon the argument that the atmosphere is a finite global resource threatened by humanity's disposal of greenhouse gases into the air, a model is developed to show how an international agreement may be designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels based upon the principles of equal access to the atmosphere, and how population and consumption dynamics would affect this effort in different ways. Carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas, with industrial emission its major source. This paper therefore looks mainly at industrial carbon dioxide emissions for which there are four decades of country-specific data. Cement production releases the gas as a byproduct of limestone processing and is responsible for 2% of total emissions. Moreover, the paper focuses upon 1990 because it is the latest year for which there is authoritative data for both population and carbon dioxide emission by country for 126 countries with populations of more than one million people. International cooperation between and among both more developed and developing countries is needed to allocate equitable disposal rights. Stabilizing world population at a lower rather than higher level will also increase the likelihood that tolerable levels of individual resource consumption will be compatible with equity and a stable climate, and thus sustainable. Sections discuss atmospheric overload, considering population's role, a stabilization model, and strategies, while appendices list data sources and methodology along with countries' per capita 1990 carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel and cement production.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11

    Towards a water ethic. Viewpoint.

    Postel S

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(2):35-6.

    We continue to expand a water supply that has ecological and economical limits. Drip irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and use of water=saving plumbing fixtures can help solve our water shortage problem. The core of the predicament is that society is no longer connected to water's life=giving qualities. Modern society does not respect the natural river, the complexity of a wetland, and the intricate web of life. It considers water to be a resource only to control for human consumption. Humans do not realize that they should preserve and protect water. We need guidelines to force us to act appropriately when we must make complex decisions about natural ecosystems whose workings evade us. The ultimate goal of this water ethic should be protection of water ecosystems. Adoption of this integrated, holistic ethic would call for the use of less water when possible and to share what we have. This ethic would be part of a sustainable development code which blends economic goals with ecological criteria. The water ethic would have indicators monitoring the breakdown of ecosystems, therefore allowing us to make corrections to restore ecosystems to health. We see some of this now as Florida tries to restore the Everglades damaged by unsustainable development. We should watch to see whether Botswana will continue to keep economic development from the Okavango Delta. Governments, the World Bank, and other lending institutions should make investment decisions based on ecological sustainability. The water ethic must include a social and political commitment to meet the basic needs of the poor. International relations must also consider equity and fairness when it comes to developing water-sharing terms and treaties. Individuals need to reduce their water consumption and consumption of goods whose manufacture requires water use resulting in water pollution. Population growth needs to slow down considerably to secure out water future.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12

    Issues and questions.

    Kirdar U

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 1-10.

    Even though we have improved human well-being over the last 30 years, poverty continues to thrive. Overproduction, consumption, and poverty pose serious threats to our entire planet and ecological systems. Scientists and policymakers are beginning to understand that elimination of poverty and sustaining the environment are connected in a complex manner. Nevertheless, the financial and policy commitments to change the ecological unsustainable actions needed for short-term survival of the almost 500 million poor people in the world fall behind awareness. Overproduction and consumption, especially in industrialized countries, is a leading reason why the environment continues to deteriorate. In developing countries, the leading reasons are poverty and limited economic opportunities. Thus, as developing countries become more developed, they must integrate environmental protection into development. Rising levels of carbon dioxide caused by combustion of fossil fuels is increasing the earth's temperature, which if left unchecked, will eventually expand our oceans. Deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate in developing countries, due to increased demand for tropical hardwoods by developed countries and the poor expanding land for agricultural purposes. Rapid population growth strains the natural resources of a country, resulting in deforestation, soil degradation, and reduced water supplies. Both industrialized and developing countries agree that global action and cooperation are needed to achieve sustainable development. Convincing lobbying efforts of nongovernmental organizations, conservationist groups, the media, and think-tanks, not governments, are responsible for putting environment and development at the top of the agenda. Governments and citizens recognize that many environmental issues cross international borders, e.g., air and water pollution. A broad consensus on many issues exist for global development, ranging from protection of the atmosphere to protection of human health.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13

    Sharing the earth: cross-cultural experiences in population, wildlife and the environment.

    Waak P; Strom K

    [Washington, D.C.], National Audubon Society, 1992. 166 p.

    16 case studies of wildlife sanctuaries experiencing population pressure are examined as examples of 3 coastal systems, 2 major rivers, and 3 freshwater wetlands. There are 8 paired cases from the US (North Dakota, Nebraska, Texas, Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina) and developing countries (Mexico, Guatemala, Brazil, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia). The project became known as the "Sharing the Earth Project." In most cases the US suffered greater natural resource degradation even though all the developing countries were economically poorer. Each case is unique. The common ground is that the environment is threatened by the effects of human activity; the message is to redirect activity. The lessons learned in trying to save the Platte River in Nebraska are applicable to river habitats in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and other places. The issues are ethics and economics, population growth and resource use, and water and wildlife. The action agenda is 1) to educate governments and private citizens about the interconnections between population and the environment and establish "global-to-local" programs; 2) to increase the level of public awareness about the value of preserving the environment for the present and future; 3) to increase assistance and research for family planning and international population programs which also means improving the education and status of women; 4) to conserve natural resources by protecting wildlife, reducing consumption, and saving water and wetlands; and 5) to be part of the process of establishing national and international world economic policies that are sustainable. People can make a difference. The 2 types of overpopulation are the numbers of people and the consumption of resources by people.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14

    Our country, the planet: forging a partnership for survival.

    Ramphal S

    Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. xxi, 291 p.

    The only person to serve on all 5 independent international commissions on global issues (e.g., the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development) analyzes and compares scientific research to reveal the nature and magnitude of human excesses and their inherent dangers. He proposes recommended solutions from other international organizations. He urges us to achieve these solutions during a new era of enlightened change beginning with an Earth Charter at the June 1992 Conference on Environment and Development. This era depends on political will and the will of the people to accept and adopt long-term programs to protect the planet and to secure equitable access to its resources (i.e., a revolution in human consciousness). Sustainable development is based on needs, particularly those of the Earth's poor, and environmental limits. The rich tend to live in the industrialized countries of the North and account for 25% of the world's population, yet they consume 80% of commercial energy (i.e., burning of fossil fuels). In 1991, the world's worst polluter, the US, did not commit to stabilizing or reducing carbon dioxide output coming from consumption of fossil fuels. Since this consumption is almost entirely responsible for global pollution, the North must curb energy consumption. The author also petitions the North to help the South defeat poverty--the world's worst polluter, because the environment and world development are interconnected. He proposes a multilateral program comparable to the Marshall Plan implemented after World War II. The example of clearing tropical forests for timber exports and farming illustrates how poverty contributes to environmental pollution (e.g., it contributes to the build up of carbon dioxide, thereby threatening our atmosphere).
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15

    New approaches for environmental management.

    Mohrmann JC

    Development. 1992; (2):17-21.

    A Vice President of the Society for International Development discusses practical ways to manage the environment by developing and executing an ecologically sustainable policy on food and energy. Despite the abundance of international declarations and guidelines since 1972, many ecological tragedies have taken place: drought in Africa; chemical leak in Bhopal, India; and nuclear fallout from a nuclear reactor in Chernobyl in the former USSR. Deforestation; burning of fossil fuels; release of methane from rice planting, cattle farming, and waste dumps; release of chlorofluorocarbons are all contributing to the rising temperature of the planet's atmosphere. Reforestation is needed to break down excess carbon dioxide. Local development projects and universal development strategies are needed to solve this great ecological problem. The only sustainable solution to the food problem includes a definition of ecological limits for international and national agricultural policies and development and use of agricultural techniques that guarantee a sustainable food supply. In industrialized countries, farmers must reduce agricultural overproduction and use less intensive production methods to protect soil and ground water. We must begin rational consumption of energy and using alternative forms of energy such as wind, water, and sun. These efforts require considerable financial, human, and technical resources through international cooperation. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to implement various alternative supply models. We must return to regional and local planning and action and also establish an orderly transfer of technology and research by improving education, communication, and training. This transfer cannot be a 1-way transfer, however. The European Common Market is an example of international cooperation to address common problems.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16

    Energy issues and opportunities.

    Reddy AK

    In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 363-95. (World Resources Institute Book)

    Policymakers in developing countries must orient environmentally sound energy strategies toward their needs so that they rely only on themselves for those needs. Policymakers in developed countries should make their energy strategies be economically stable, environmentally safe, and strategically secure. The domination of oil worldwide is a relatively recent occurrence. In 1973, the oil exporting countries imposed an embargo which raised oil prices, caused an oil scarcity, and panicked oil markets. This forced many developed nations to cut back on oil consumption but oil resources will still deplete. People in developing countries depend on fuelwood which they are depleting rapidly. Oil prices exclude most of the population here. This results in deforestation, erosion, and desertification in developing countries. Nuclear power is an energy source that poses concerns over reactor safety and radioactive waste disposal in developed countries. Fossil fuel use degrades the planet. Vital interests of developed countries in outside territories make for global insecurity and a threat of nuclear war. This condition results in nuclear weapons proliferation. Thus they need to lessen their dependence on foreign oil and develop their own energy sources. Yet energy is needed now to grow and to distribute crops to stave off malnutrition. To reduce energy demands, population growth must slow down, but energy is needed to stimulate population decline. Thus nations must adopt energy strategies to bring about sustainable development worldwide. These strategies should disassociate energy consumption from gross national product and incorporate improvements in efficiencies of energy end use technologies. National policies must bring energy prices in line with marginal costs to allow markets to work better. Governments should also eliminate subsidies to energy producers. Energy service industries which market conservation technologies and services would also conserve energy. International cooperation is needed to improve energy conservation and cease nuclear proliferation.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17

    Global warming: what we know and what we can do.

    Smil V

    POPULI. 1991 Jun; 18(2):35-45.

    Global warming is not an issue that can be dismissed off hand. Conversely, there is not an overwhelming body of scientific evidence to direct us on a definite course of action. What is known with great certainty is that CO2 has acted in the past as a control over global temperature; exponential increases in fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 250ppm to over 350ppm. This translates into a 0.4% annual increase. Also, the concentration of other anthropogenic gases that absorb shortwave radiation more so than CO2 are rising at a much faster rate. Their total contribution is about equal to that of CO2. From this base what had been extrapolated is a prediction of crisis; however, the magnitude and time frame are uncertain. Sea levels are predicted to rise from between 20cm-1 meter. Weather patterns are expected to shift, but how and where is unknown. What is more important than these general problems is how regional and local areas will be effected. For example, the Netherlands will hardly notice a 20cm rise in sea level, but Bangladesh will be devastated. Land currently used for agricultural production may dry up or be blown away, but since the hydraulic cycle will be speeded up, currently arid land could become fertile. The fundamental problem is that while there is a great deal of uncertainty about global warming, its solution involves many of the most important issues of national and international policy. In an effort to reduce CO2 production, the 7 richest nations must significantly reduce their CO2 production. Conversely, the 7 nations that will contribute 50% of the projected increase in world population will have to drastically reduce their population growth rates. These 2 issues reflect the dual nature of consumption. In the rich nations per capita consumption uses 80% of the fossil fuels, in the poor the growing numbers of people lead to growing fossil fuel consumption. Clearly there are 2 ways to reduce CO2 emissions: reduce per capita consumption, and reduce the total number of people that consume.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18

    The state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries.

    Mollett JA

    FOOD POLICY. 1986 Nov; 11(4):278-84.

    This review of the state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries underlines the need for much greater public commitment to agricultural development. Within the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), 44 member nations, exibiting immense geographic and economic diversity, have come together recently to begin to cooperate on increasing food production. It is difficult to generalize about food production conditions in Islamic nations, but basically, within the OIC, total arable land increased from 159 to 167 ha in the 1970s, a small amount unevenly distributed over the group. Dry-land farming has not received enough public attention, and the dependence on cereals grown under rainfed conditions leaves the population vulnerable to fluctuation. Many of the poorer nations have not given the priority to land improvement that has been successful in Egypt, Pakistan, and some other countries. The economic burden of food imports has become lighter in some countries, although in all it continues to be serious. Net cereal imports to Islamic countries rose from 21 to 39 million tons from 1975-83. An overall increase in the per capita dietary energy supplies masks broad differences between the wealthier and poorer nations of the OIC, and between more and less priviledged populations within the societies. A small proportion of financial commitments to agriculture (15%) come from Islamic community donors; this is not a leading program priority. Often spending has been for large capital-intensive projects depending on imported skills and inputs. As a group, the OIC must plan to take advantage of their technical and environmental diversity, and work together to avoid inefficient dispersal of personnel and other resources. Tabular data show selected indicators of agricultural development (e.g. % of food imported, food production growth), average annual rate of food production change related to population growth, per capita dietary energy supplies, and external assistance commitments.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19

    [Hunger and disease in less developed countries and en route to development (the Third World). Proposal for solutions] Hambre y enfermedades en los paises menos adelantados y en vias de desarrollo (Tercer Mundo). Propuesta de soluciones.

    Piedrola Gil G

    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. 1984; 101(1):39-96.

    The extent, causes, and possible solutions to problems of hunger, inequality, and disease in developing countries are discussed in this essay. Various frameworks and indicators have been proposed for identifying the poorest of nations; currently, 21 African, 9 Asian, and 1 American nation are regarded as the poorest of the poor. The 31 least developed countries, the 89 developing countries, and the 37 developed countries respectively have populations of 283 million, 3 billion; infant mortality rates of 160, 94, and 19/1000 live births; life expectancies of 45, 60, and 72 years; literacy rates of 28, 55, and 98%; per capita gross national products of $170, and $520, and $6230; and per capita public health expenditures of $1.70, $6.50, and $244. Developing countries in the year 2000 are expected to have 4.87 billion of the world's 6.2 billion inhabitants. The 3rd world contains 70% of the world's population but receives only 17% of world income. 40 million persons die of hunger or its consequences each year. Economic and social development is the only solution to problems of poverty and underdevelopment, and will require mobilization of all present and future human and material resources to achieve maximum possible wellbeing for each human being. Among principal causes of underdevelopment in the 3rd World are drought, illness, exile, socioeconomic disorder, war, and arms expenditures. Current food production and a long list of possible new technologies would be adequate to feed the world's population, but poor distribution condemns the world's people to hunger. Numerous UN agencies, organizations, and programs are dedicated to solving the problems of hunger, underdevelopment, and disease. In 1982, 600 billion dollars were spent in armanents, of $112 for each of the world's inhabitants; diversion of these resources to development goals would go a long way toward solving the problem of underdevelopment. The main problem is not lack of resources, but the need to establish a new and more just economic and distributive order along with genuine solidarity in the struggle against underdevelopment. Several steps should be taken: agricultural production should be increased with the full participation of the developng nations; the industrialized or petroleum-producing nations should aid the poor states with at least .7% and up to 5% of their gross national products for the struggle against drought, disease, illiteracy, and for the green revolution and new agropastoral technologies; prices paid to poor countries for raw materials should be fair; responsible parenthood, education, women's rights, clean drinking water, environmental sanitation and primary health care should be promoted; the arms race should be halted, and the North-South dialogue should be pursued in a spirit of goodwill and cooperation.
    Add to my documents.