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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Human energy consumption for meal preparation in rural areas of Himachal Pradesh.

    Vyas N; Sharma A

    Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):1-3.

    Energy has been termed as the fuel of economic progress. It is the prime mover of economic growth and development. Food, fibre, shelter are three basic needs of mankind. As one civilization changed to another, the basic needs also changed. Man has to spent energy in one form or the other to meet these needs. Household activities are one of the most important activities of rural Indian from the point of view of energy expenditure for human life support. It is a well known fact that women are the primary users of human energy required for carrying out various household activities. In a household amongst manifold activities energy is required mainly for meal preparation activity. Therefore it was imperative to study the human energy costs during meal preparation. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Demographic influences on female labor supply.

    Sengupta P

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1986. 209 p.

    This research investigates the effects of household age-sex composition on the labor supply of women in [a developing country] setting. It is based on a new approach of modelling the economic consequences of variation in the individual and family life cycle developed by Lee (1983). It is posited that each person is capable of producing four types of effects: (1) generate demand for consumer goods...(2) supply time to market activity...(3) create demand for home production...and (4) supply time to housework....These per capita effects depend on the age and sex of each person and are regarded as exogenous, determined partly by biological needs and partly by socio-cultural norms....The empirical results of this research, derived from Malaysian Family Life Survey data (1976-77), have generally confirmed the usefulness of the basic approach described above. This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley. (EXCERPT)
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  3. 3

    Accounting for nonmarket activities in the distribution of income: an empirical investigation.

    Kusnic MW; DaVanzo J

    Santa, Monica, California, Rand Corporation, 1984 Sep. 28 p. (Rand Paper P-7070)

    This study used data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey to test the hypothesis that traditional income measures that exclude household production activities underestimate the well-being of the poor and overstate inequality. Mean levels of 9 components of income were considered. When net transfer payments, the value of services provided by living in a home one owns, in-kind income, and the imputed value of cottage industry production were added to the 3 standard components of household income (wage income, business income, and capital and interest income), average annual household income was increased by 17%. Another 17% increase occurred when the value of housework was added to total observable income. Finally, inclusion of the value of cooking and child care yielded a composite measure of actual income whose mean exceeded the mean of the 3 standard measures of household income by 56%. As the definition of income is broadened, inequality unambiguously falls. The income share of the poorest quintile of the sample increased by more than 40% when the various in-kind forms of income were added. Although a failure to consider nonmarket sources of income leads to a serious understatement of the well-being of the poorest 20% of the population, a failure to adjust for variation in leisure consumption leads to an overstatement. Malaysian poor appear to compensate for their low market income by producing many goods and services for their own consumption, a practice that implies above average working hours and a sacrifice in the area of leisure consumption. When incomes are standardized to eliminate variation in hours of leisure, measures of income inequality are sensitive to the number of hours chosen for standardization: generally, the larger the average number of work hours on which one standardizes, the lower the estimate of inequality. This finding suggests that much of what has been described as increasing equality due to economic growth may be spurious.
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  4. 4

    Two-income families.

    Thomas WV

    In: The women's movement: agenda for the '80s. Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 1981. 61-80.

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  5. 5

    Microeconomic effects of women entering the labor force.

    Reagan BB

    In: Women and the world of work. Edited by Anne Hoiberg. New York, N.Y., Plenum Press, 1982. 203-221.

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  6. 6

    Market work, housework and child care: buying archaic tenets, building new arrangements.

    Strober MH

    In: Women: a developmental perspective. Edited by Phyllis W. Berman and Estelle R. Ramey. Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1982. 207-219.

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  7. 7

    New men.

    Prescott E

    American Demographics. 1983 Aug; 5(8):16-21, 45.

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