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  1. 1

    Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions.

    O'Neill BC; Dalton M; Fuchs R; Jiang L; Pachauri S; Zigova K

    PNAS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Early Edition.. 2010; [6] p.

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of proxy measures in estimating socioeconomic inequalities in malaria prevalence.

    Somi MF; Butler JR; Vahid F; Njau JD; Kachur SP

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Mar; 13(3):354-364.

    The objectives were to present and compare socioeconomic status (SES) rankings of households using consumption and an asset-based index as two alternative measures of SES; and to compare and evaluate the performance of these two measures in multivariate analyses of the socioeconomic gradient in malaria prevalence. Data for the study come from a survey of 557 households in 25 study villages in Tanzania in 2004. Household SES was determined using consumption and an asset-based index calculated using Principal Components Analysis on a set of household variables. In multivariate analyses of malaria prevalence, we also used two other measures of disease prevalence: parasitaemia and self-report of malaria or fever in the 2 weeks before interview. Household rankings based on the two measures of SES differ substantially. In multivariate analyses, there was a statistically significant negative association between both measures of SES and parasitaemia but not between either measure of SES and self-reported malaria. Age of individual, use of a mosquito net, and wall construction were negatively and significantly associated with parasitaemia, whilst roof construction was positively associated with parasitaemia. Only age remained significant when malaria self-report was used as the measure of disease prevalence. An asset index is an effective alternative to consumption in measuring the socioeconomic gradient in malaria parasitaemia, but self-report may be an unreliable measure of malaria prevalence for this purpose. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Planning a national food-based strategy for sustainable control of vitamin A deficiency in Ghana: Steps toward transition from supplementation.

    Amoaful EF

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):361-365.

    In an effort to control the high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in Ghana, which studies have shown to be of public health significance, a number of interventions are being pursued. Periodic, massive-dose supplementation strategy, developed as a short-term life-saving intervention, is currently under way, either as part of the polio eradication program or combined with the existing health delivery system, schools, or community-based infrastructures. This has been successfully accomplished, and therefore the stage is set for the design and implementation of a long-term, sustainable solution. This is important in order to make the transition from a subsidized periodic capsule-distribution effort to a more sustainable food-based intervention, which could supply other vital nutrients as well as vitamin A in the diet. This report describes a proposal for a food-based strategy against a backdrop of low consumption in spite of the relatively high availability of some vitamin A-rich foods in most parts of Ghana. The aim is to improve vitamin A status of vulnerable groups through increased production, availability, and consumption of vitamin A-rich foods. The proposal is therefore to undertake a range of food-based interventions that will include horticultural interventions that aim to increase production and availability of vitamin A-rich foods, such as dark-green leafy vegetables and orange-colored fruits and vegetables and tubers in the diet of Ghanaian households. There will also be a comprehensive behavior change and communication strategy, to raise awareness of the causes and consequences of vitamin A deficiency and the need for consumption of adequate vitamin A-rich foods at the household level. Further emphasis will be placed on efforts to promote consumption of red palm oil, since this oil is generally available and not subjected to acute seasonal shortages. A phased community-based program will be implemented in four districts during the next three years, with the aim of applying lessons learned to the rest of the country. The monitoring framework will cover the planning process, provision of services, utilization of services, and coverage of target groups. These dietary approaches offer long-term sustainable options for improving the quality of family diets and overcoming vitamin A deficiency. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    An integrated primary health-care and provitamin A household food-production program: Impact on food-consumption patterns.

    Faber M; Venter S; Phungula MA; Benade AJ

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):370-375.

    Food diversification is a long-term food-based strategy to address vitamin A deficiency. In order to improve the vitamin A status of preschool children in a rural South African community, a home-based food-production program targeting provitamin A-rich foods was integrated with a community-based growth-monitoring system. This integrated system provided the infrastructure needed for nutritional education and promotion of the food-production program. Dietary intake was collected by 24-hour recall at baseline and 12 and 20 months after implementation of the food-production program. At baseline, the median intake of vitamin A was 150 µg RE. One year after implementation, the vitamin A intake increased to 1,133 µg RE in children from households with a project garden and to 640 µg RE in control children. Eight months later, vitamin A intake was 493 µg RE in children from households with a project garden and 129 µg RE in control children. We concluded that a home-based food-production program resulted in a significant increase in vitamin A intake. Home gardens should therefore be promoted, but they should focus on foods needed to address specific nutrient deficiencies. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Experience of World Vision Ethiopia Micronutrient Program in promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods.

    Balcha HM

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):366-369.

    Deficiencies of micronutrients are major health problems in Ethiopia. According to a national survey conducted by the former Ethiopian Nutrition Institute in 1985, the prevalence of Bitot's spots exceeded 1%, and low serum vitamin A levels were found in 16% of preschool children. In a 1997 baseline study by World Vision Ethiopia, the prevalence of Bitot's spots was 6.4% and 7.5% in preschool-children and schoolchildren, respectively. In October 1998, World Vision Ethiopia launched a comprehensive Micronutrient Program with the goal of improving the micronutrient and health status of mothers and children. Promoting the production of vitamin A-rich foods was adopted as one of the strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the target population. Intensive nutritional education was given in the project areas, focusing on community leaders, women's groups, teachers, and students. Vegetable seeds and hand tools were made available for demonstration purposes, and production of vitamin A-rich foods (dark-green leafy vegetables, carrot, beet root, cabbage, and kale) was started in community demonstration plots and schools. Community members began replicating vegetable gardens at the household level. In areas where the climate is suitable, production of vitamin A-rich fruits, such as mango, papaya, and avocado, was also demonstrated to the communities. Seedlings grown in community plots were distributed to households. At the end of the second year (1999), 11,708 backyard gardens, 275 school gardens, and 77 community gardens had developed with the full participation of the community. In addition to improved micronutrient status, vegetable production contributed to household food security and income generation of the community. Our experience shows that production of vitamin A-rich vegetables is well accepted by the community. It is sustainable and cost-effective. The challenge ahead is the need to develop local vegetable seed production, since the availability and cost of imported seeds are a hindrance, particularly for very poor community members. A food-based approach, and particularly production of vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits, should be the mainstay in designing a sustainable micronutrient program in poor developing countries. (author's)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Human energy consumption for meal preparation in rural areas of Himachal Pradesh.

    Vyas N; Sharma A

    Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):1-3.

    Energy has been termed as the fuel of economic progress. It is the prime mover of economic growth and development. Food, fibre, shelter are three basic needs of mankind. As one civilization changed to another, the basic needs also changed. Man has to spent energy in one form or the other to meet these needs. Household activities are one of the most important activities of rural Indian from the point of view of energy expenditure for human life support. It is a well known fact that women are the primary users of human energy required for carrying out various household activities. In a household amongst manifold activities energy is required mainly for meal preparation activity. Therefore it was imperative to study the human energy costs during meal preparation. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Gender-bias in India: the importance of household fixed-effects.

    Subramaniam R

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1995 Sep. 31 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 732)

    This paper presents an analysis of gender patterns in intra-household allocation of resources based on household level consumption data. Invoking the assumption that households seek to equalize the marginal utility of wealth when they allocate resources over the life-cycle, the paper provides a rationale for parental behaviour pertaining to the intertemporal allocation of goods among children. Estimation results based on panel data from India show that controlling for the unobserved marginal utility (household fixed) effect is crucial. Once allowance is made for fixed effects, the results indicate that there is no longer any gender-differential in the allocation of resources. (author's)
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  8. 8

    [Fertility and household standard of living: a new look] Fecondite et niveau de vie des menages: un nouveau regard.

    Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED]

    Rabat, Morocco, Direction de la Statistique, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques [CERED], 1992 Mar. 50 p.

    The relationship between household expenditure and fertility in Morocco is examined using data from the 1984-1985 National Survey on Consumption and Household Expenditure (ENCDM). The results indicate that fertility declines as household expenditure increases. Female education and economic activity appear to be the primary determinants associated with lower fertility. (ANNOTATION)
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  9. 9

    [The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985

    Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique

    Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.

    This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Temporary stability of urban food and nutrition security: the East Jakarta study.

    Wasito E; Pritasari; Susilowati D; Iswarawanti DN; Schultink W

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 10 Suppl:S29-S33.

    The food and nutrition situation in households of East Jakarta was assessed in 1993/94 and 1998/99 with the aim of identifying the determinants of potential problems and the dynamics of change. In 1993/94, the nutritional status of approximately 73% of children under 5 years of age and 60% of mothers was within the normal range, although underweight and overweight were prevalent in almost all households. Between 1998 and 1999, there was a sharp increase in fathers reporting unemployment. The consumption of animal food sources decreased, whereas the consumption of food derivatives such as oils and sugar remained high. Approximately 90% of the population obtained drinking water from wells. By 1998, the public garbage collection system had almost completely collapsed in East Jakarta. Between 1993 and 1998, the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections in children aged under 5 years increased dramatically, from 8 and 44% to 24 and 70%, respectively. The urban environment has undergone significant changes. In Indonesia, as a whole, many achievements in the improvement of household food security and care have been lost due to the economic and political crisis. The statistical association between mothers' and fathers' education and the nutritional status of their children that was observed in 1993/94 did not appear in the 1998 survey. It seems that the education-related coping mechanisms of the parents were inadequate to deal with the rapid deterioration in the economic and political situation. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Consumption patterns by income groups and carbon-dioxide implications for India: 1990-2010.

    Parikh J; Panda M; Murthy NS

    International Journal of Global Energy Issues. 1997; 9(4-6):237-55.

    This paper highlights consumption pattern differences across income classes in India, namely the top 10%, middle 40% and the bottom 50% of the population in rural and urban areas. The analysis is based on an input-output model that uses consumption expenditure distribution data from various sources. It examines direct and indirect demand on resources and carbon-dioxide emissions due to consumption of each of these income classes. Out of a total of 167 metric tons carbon (mtC) of carbon emissions in 1989-90, 62% was due to private consumption, 12% from direct consumption by households and remaining 50% due to indirect consumption of intermediates like power, steel and cement, while the rest was attributed to investment, government consumption and exports. The analysis reveals that the consumption of the rich is oriented more towards energy using sectors like electricity and transport, and uses relatively more resources in the form of minerals and metal products. The net effect is that the rich have a more carbon intensive lifestyle. The per capita direct and indirect emission level of the urban rich is about 15 times that of the rural poor and yet about the same as the world average. In a scenario where private consumption expenditure is expected to reach twice the 1990 level by 2010, carbon-dioxide emissions are projected to rise to 502 mtC. The low purchasing power of the poor results in their dependence on nature and the environment. This points to the conclusion that poverty is unsustainable. (author's)
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  12. 12

    Leaving the countryside: rural-to-urban migration decisions in China.

    Zhao Y

    AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1999 May; 89(2):281-6.

    This paper employs a simple theoretical model of labor allocation within rural households, given existing land arrangements in an attempt to explain why rural Chinese do not fully participate in labor migration. It first explores the mechanisms by which individual, household, and community characteristics affect the migration decision. Empirical results are then presented to substantiate the derived hypotheses. The paper further explores the question of whether the migration decision is permanent by analyzing the responses of household consumption to income from migration. (EXCERPT)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Household commodity demand and demographics in the Netherlands: a microeconometric analysis.

    Kalwij A; Alessie R; Fontein P

    JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1998; 11(4):551-77.

    We investigate the effects of demographics, household expenditure and female employment on the allocation of household expenditure to consumer goods. For this purpose we estimate an Almost Ideal Demand System based on Dutch micro data. We find that interactions between household expenditure and demographics are of significant importance in explaining the allocation to consumer goods. As a consequence, consumer goods such as housing and clothing change with demographic characteristics from luxuries to necessities. (EXCERPT)
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender and savings in rural India.

    Deolalikar A; Rose E

    JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS. 1998; 11(4):453-70.

    In this study we use data from rural India to examine the impact of the birth of a boy relative to the birth of a girl (i.e., the `gender shock') on the savings, consumption and income of rural Indian households. We find that the gender shock reduces savings for medium and large farm households, although there is no evidence that the shock affects savings for the landless and the small farm households. We also estimate the effect of the shock on income and consumption for the former group in order to determine the source of the drop in savings. (EXCERPT)
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  15. 15

    Dynamics of demographic development and its impact on personal saving: case of Japan.

    Ando A; Moro A; Cordoba JP; Garland G

    RICERCHE ECONOMICHE. 1995 Sep; 49(3):179-205.

    A dynamic model of the demographic structure of Japan is summarized. It is capable of tracing the dynamic development of the Japanese population, including the distribution of families by age, sex, and marital status of the head, as well as by the number and age of children and other dependents. This model is combined with specification of the processes generating family income and consumption, and then used to generate the pattern of aggregate income, saving and asset accumulation for the period 1985-2050 under alternative fertility assumptions. The results suggest that the saving-income ratio for Japan will increase slightly in the immediate future as the number of children per family declines sharply, and then falls moderately as the proportion of older persons in the population increases. Qualitative results depend critically on the labour force participation rate of older persons and on the probability of older persons merging into younger households. (EXCERPT)
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  16. 16

    Migration as a consumption activity.

    Wallace SB; DeLorme CD; Kamerschen DR

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1997; 35(1):37-58.

    While a generalized utility maximization approach to migration decisionmaking is not innovative, the principal extensions of this paper involve the search for an instrument capable of measuring changes in utility levels consistent with all preferences (i.e., with all forms of utility functions), requiring only data on observed behaviour. Our approach is to construct a Location-Specific Utility Index (LSUI), whose component variables serve as proxies for the arguments in [U.S.] households' utility functions....The testable hypothesis is formulated as follows: Assuming constant household preferences and expansion of the household's feasible set over time, the household's utility level is greater following the migration decision....The results are compared with the households' migration decisions. The empirical evidence shows that migration may reasonably be modelled as a consumption activity by households to maximize utility. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  17. 17

    Population, households, and carbon dioxide emissions.

    MacKellar FL; Lutz W; Prinz C; Goujon A

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1995 Dec; 21(4):849-65, 922-3, 925.

    The model linking environmental impact to population, affluence, and technology, or I = PAT, is reformulated in terms of households (i.e., I = HAT) as opposed to persons....Taking growth of global energy consumption as an example, the authors find that I = PAT attributes 18 percent of the annual increase (in absolute terms) over the period 1970-90 to demographic increase in more developed regions, whereas I = HAT attributes 41 percent because the number of households grew faster than the number of persons. The I = PAT and I = HAT models also give rise to substantially different projections of [carbon dioxide] emissions in the year 2100. The authors conclude that decomposition and projection exercises are sensitive to the unit of demographic account chosen. Until more is known about the nature of the many activities that give rise to environmental impacts, it would be unwise to draw far-reaching conclusions from one choice of model without a substantive justification of that choice. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  18. 18

    Household demographic characteristics, consumption pressure, labor utilization, and land use among settler households on the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon frontier.

    Marquette CM

    [Unpublished] 1995. Revised version of paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Francisco, California, April 6-8, 1995. [2], 25 p.

    This study is based on a unique data set on 413 settler households in the Northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon frontier (Napo and Sucumbios provinces) during 1990. It builds on the previous research of Pichon and Bilsborrow and considers the impact of household demographic characteristics on consumption pressure, land use, and labor utilization among settler households. The study area represents an area of growth due to migration of small farmers. The theoretical framework of the study firmly supports Chayanov's proposition that household demographic structure is important in determining settler economic activity by shaping household consumption needs and labor capacity (adult male consumption units [AMCUs] and adult male labor units [AMLUs]). Consumption pressure is computed by dividing consumption needs by labor capacity. The sample is composed of 58.8% nuclear families, 35.8% extended families, and 5.3% one-person households. About 33% of households are at stage 3 of the life cycle. Nuclear households average about 6.0 persons, while extended households average about 8.4 persons. Nuclear households have the highest consumption pressure during early life cycle stages and are more abrupt. The explanation given is that early life cycle stages include children with consumption needs and no labor capacity. Extended households have the highest consumption pressure at later life cycle stages due to grandchildren's consumption. Extended households have higher absolute levels of labor capacity (179.1 compared to 192.2 AMLUs per year at all stages). Use of household labor capacity at each stage is higher among nuclear families. Increases in cleared land areas occur in both household types at early stages. The size of the clearing is the same for both types of households. Pasture areas are greater among nuclear households. Regression results confirm descriptive findings. Cleared areas are affected by labor use. Nondemographic factors affecting cleared areas have stronger effects among nuclear families. Further analyses and collection of longitudinal data are suggested.
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  19. 19

    [Estimating the changing cost of children? A change in society, and a citicism of some concepts] Chiffrer une evolution du cout de l'enfant? Changement de societe, mise en cause des concepts.

    Ekert-Jaffe O

    POPULATION. 1994 Nov-Dec; 49(6):1,389-418.

    This is a review of the literature on the costs of having and raising children. The author notes that "initially, when the aim was to fight against poverty and maintain family living standards, research was directed to setting nutritional and budget standards. Subsequent research methods were based on household behaviour which was decreasingly focused on satisfying their basic needs. From 1964, economic models were based on the welfare of parents who make both economic and fertility decisions. The latest research tests the compatibility of the models with observed consumer behaviour. It shows that household consumption does not give any information on welfare in different types of households at a point of time, but gives a full comparison of trends in these welfare levels after setting their value at a point by convention." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    The measurement of household cost functions: revealed preference versus subjective measures.

    Kapteyn A


    The author examines how household cost functions depend on the composition of a household. "In the paper I formally establish the connection between subjective measures and the cost function underlying the AID [Almost Ideal Demand] system. The subjective measures fully identify cost functions and the expenditure data do this partly. This makes it possible to test the null hypothesis that both types of data are consistent with one another, i.e. that they measure the same thing. I use two separate data sets to set up a test of this equivalence. The outcomes are somewhat mixed and indicate the need for further specification search. Finally, I discuss some implications of the outcomes." (EXCERPT)
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  21. 21

    [Serbian household structure according to socioeconomic characteristics] Sastav domacinstva Srbije po socio-ekonomskim karakteristikama.

    Raduski N

    STANOVNISTVO. 1992; 30-31:117-33.

    The author investigates "changes in the socio-economic structures of household and family, economic life, consumption and the general system of social values [in Serbia, Yugoslavia, since World War II]. During the process of accelerated desagrarization, intense spatial mobility related to the transfer of farmers to non-agricultural activities and to cities had a key role in changing the size of household units, their structure and social stratification. The social and demographic implications of such changes are multidimensional, affect the society as a whole and its macro institutions have a recurrent influence on the family." (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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  22. 22

    Children at risk: the role of family structure in Latin America and West Africa.

    Desai S

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Dec; 18(4):689-717.

    Many studies explore the relationship between income and nutrient intake. The focus upon households as a whole emerges from a research tradition rooted in the theoretical model of the family and the household proposed by the new household economics which has strongly influenced recent research on the family in both developed and developing countries. This mode, however, is overly simplistic where applied uniformly to diverse cultures. The author therefore considers the validity of these assumptions of uniform applicability with respect to the family forms and the nutrient available to children found in selected countries in Latin America and West Africa. The author uses demographic and health survey data from Ghana, Mali, Senegal, northeast Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic with models of the family proposed by this new household economics to derive hypotheses regarding food available to young children in various household and family arrangements. It is concluded that these models unrealistically predict food and health care available to children because they assume that income or opportunity given to 1 family member translates into improvement in the welfare of all other members. The level of altruism toward children instead varies across cultures, families, and households. The author points out that these findings demonstrate the urgent need to develop alternative models of the family and notes that Nash's bargaining models have presented the most persistent challenge to neoclassical models of the family.
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  23. 23

    World development report 1993. Investing in health.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.

    The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
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  24. 24

    Work, consumption and authority within the household: a Moroccan case.

    Maher V

    In: Of marriage and the market: women's subordination internationally and its lessons. 2nd ed., edited by Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz, and Roslyn McCullagh. London, England, Routledge, 1984. 117-35.

    The organization of work and consumption patterns of men and women was explored within the household among Berber-speaking people of the Middle Atlas region using data from a study of a cluster of hamlets which are attached to a small (11,000) Arabic-speaking town. The town's population consists of administrators, teachers, traders, and two battalions of soldiers. Approximately 2/3 of the hamlet populations is engaged in agriculture. There is a sexual division of labor in the hamlets between adult men and women. Women's work consists of the care of animals; the cultivation of subsistence crops; the processing and cooking of agricultural products; and the care of the house and its children, the aged and the sick. Women do not have access to money, so they are confined to qualitatively differentiated social roles. Women do not even control the income from their agricultural work. Female inheritance constitutes a threat for the patrilineal males. The husband becomes full guardian of his wife by paying bridewealth and may control her social contacts and her relations with her family of origin. In this survey, 52% of hamlet marriages ended in divorce compared with 28% of the town bridewealth-paying unions. At the time of divorce, a woman a claim only her personal belongings and half of that year's wheat crop. According to the etiquette followed when there are guests, and as a family routine, men and women eat separately. The neglect of children's special needs means that 70% of all deaths occur among children <14 years old. The marriage contract stipulates that a wife has a right to food, lodging, and a given sum of money for clothes. Anything else, such as medical expenses, are paid for by the woman's family of origin. In the province, only 10% of the girls of school age went to school. Since women are separated from money, their position worsens as household cash income increases, because of the diffusion of wage-earning and the more frequent sale of agricultural products. Women work more, consume relatively less, and are increasingly controlled by men.
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  25. 25

    The consequences of adult ill-health.

    Over M; Ellis RP; Huber JH; Solon O

    In: The health of adults in the developing world, edited by Richard G.A. Feachem, Tord Kjellstrom, Christopher J.L. Murray, Mead Over, Margaret A. Phillips. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. 161-207.

    The consequences of adult ill-health are greater than previously believed. These consequences go beyond suffering and grief and consist of indirect adverse effects on society which increase the cost of adult ill-health in developing countries. At the household level, family and friends try to reduce the effects of an illness or injury afflicting an adult household member. Work colleagues increase their workload to pick up the slack of the ill or injured colleague. An unhealthy labor force results in slow work schedules and less specialization of employee job descriptions. These coping processes reduce the effects of illness, but are costly. Yet traditional empirical studies do not examine them. Anticipatory coping mechanisms to mitigate adverse consequences of adult ill-health include formal and nonformal insurance mechanisms, both of which bear high costs. Informal insurance mechanisms include high fertility and extended families and social networks. Formal mechanisms are investment and savings and formal health insurance. Further, adult ill-health harms children more than child ill-health harms adults. thus, the total ill-health burden of children is greater than originally surmised. Household costs of adult ill-health are effect on production and earnings, on investment and consumption, and on household health and consumption and psychic costs. At least 70% of hospital resources in developing countries goes to adult and elderly patients. A considerable proportion of primary care costs is also dedicated to adults. Even though researchers agree that disease affects income, this effect is preceded and overshadowed by the effect of disease on health status, of health status on functional capacity, and of functional capacity on productivity. In conclusion, adult ill-health restricts development in societies burdened by adult ill-health.
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