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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    On the determinants of mortality reductions in the developing world.

    Soares RR

    Population and Development Review. 2007; 33(2):247-287.

    The goal of this article is to examine the determinants of the improvements in life expectancy in the developing world during the period after World War II. Recent estimates suggest that longevity has been a quantitatively vital component of the overall gains in welfare during the twentieth century, both within and across countries. From a research perspective, pinning down the factors determining the observed reductions in mortality may shed light on the interactions between health, human capital, and income, and on their relative importance for economic development and social change. From a policy perspective, it may help maximize the impact of future health interventions in countries that still lag behind in health improvements. In particular, this knowledge may be fundamental in designing policies to enable sub-Saharan Africa to recover from its present circumstances. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China.

    Liu Z; Liu L

    POPULATION RESEARCH (BEIJING). 1988 Dec; 5(4):17-30.

    Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    International cross-section analysis of the determination of mortality.

    Gravelle HS; Backhouse ME

    Social Science and Medicine. 1987; 25(5):427-41.

    An essential ingredient in the evaluation of policies concerning health services is knowledge of the impact of health services and other factors on the health of the population. One method for obtaining this information is from the regression analysis of international cross-section data on mortality rates, health service provision, income levels, consumption patterns, and other variables hypothesised to affect population health. The investigation of the determinants of population health is in many ways akin to the estimation of production functions which describe the relationship between the output of goods or services and the mix of inputs used in their production. The purpose of this paper is to use this analogy to discuss, and provide examples of, the problems which arise with the statistical investigation of mortality rates. Issues raised include simultaneous equation bias, multicollinearity, selection of explanatory variables, omitted variable bias, definition and measurement of variables, functional forms, lagged relationships and temporal stability. These problems are illustrated by replication and re-analysis, using new data, of the well known study by Cochrane, St. Leger and Moore. (EXCERPT)
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  4. 4

    Report on the basic survey of population and development in Southeast Asian countries: India.

    Asian Population and Development Association

    Tokyo, Japan, Asian Population and Development Association, 1986 Mar. 115 p.

    The findings of a 1985 survey concerning population and development problems in India are reported. The survey covered a sample of 280 households in two regions. In the first two chapters, an overview of population dynamics and health issues in India is presented, and various aspects of urbanization are discussed. Tables in the third chapter provide information on the survey sample, including age distribution, place of birth, income and occupational status, consumption of selected durable goods, educational status, delivery of health services, family planning practice, family characteristics and size, married women in the labor force, and migration. A sample of the questionnaire used is included.
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  5. 5

    The Republic of Zambia.

    Hakkert R; Wieringa R

    International Demographics. 1986 May; 5(5):1-9.

    In 1964, at independence, Zambia's economic future looked brighter than that of most other developing countries. Its copper production accounted for 8% of total world production, and only neighboring Zaire outpaced it in the production of cobalt. Its Central Province around Kabwe held rich deposits of both zinc and lead; uranium deposits also had been found, but their projected yield remained undetermined. Since 1974, the decline in the price of copper and the increase in the price of oil have played havoc with Zambia's balance of payments. Copper, which accounted for 40% of the gross national product (GNP) and 98% of all foreign exchange in 1964, shrank to 12% of the GNP in 1978 while still generating most of the foreign exchange. As a result, imports were cut back markedly from $1.5 billion in 1973 to $690 million in 1983. Although this trend is beginning to make a U-turn, Zambia's economic situation is grave. In 1984 the GNP continued to register negative growth and inflation stood at 25%. With its urbanization rate doubling from 21% in 1964 to 43% in 1985, Zambia is now the most urbanized country south of the Sahara. Zambia's 1985 population is estimated to be 6.8 million. Between 1963 and 1969, the average annual population growth rate was 2.5: it was 3.1% between 1969-80. The current birthrate of about 48/1000 is expected to decline only marginally in the next 15 years, but the death rate is declining more rapidly -- from 19/1000 in the late 1960s to 15/1000 in 1985. Life expectancy is expected to rise from the current 51 years to about 58 years. As a result of the high growth rate, Zambia's population is young, with a median age of about 16.3 years. Traditional African values stress the importance of large families. Zambia's total fertility rate was 6.9 in 1985. According to the World Bank, only 1% of married women of childbearing age in 1982 used contraceptives. Although tribal links are weakening, Zambia still counts 73 officially recognized tribes. Together, they speak about 40 different dialects. Zambia now apportions over 15% of its national budget to education. Despite some noticeable progress, the public health structure remains deficient. Principal health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, and, in Northern Province and Luapula Province, sleeping sickness and river blindness. About 2/3 of the labor force, an estimated 2.2 million persons in 1982, still work in agriculture. Female labor force participation is lower in Zambia than in many African nations.
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  6. 6

    ["Zero growth" of population and its consequences for the West] Nulevoi rost naseleniya i ego posledstviya dlya stran Zapada

    Oskolkova O

    Memo: Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya. 1985; (8):41-54, 159.

    The consequences of the decline in fertility in Western Europe and Northern America are analyzed. The author first describes current demographic trends and suggests that the trend toward population decline is probably irreversible. Consideration is given to determinants of fertility such as industrialization, urbanization, women's economic activity, educational standards, health services, social security, demographic policy, and income. Factors affecting Western fertility are identified as inflation, unemployment, and spiritual impoverishment. The existence of various schools of thought in Western countries concerning the implications of these trends is noted. These include the fear of the environmental impact of further population growth and the fear of the consequences of population decline. The author concludes that a period of stable population growth will mean a decline in the available labor force, an increase in the age of the labor force, an increase in the number of pensioners, a change in the structure of demand, and other problems for capitalist societies. (summary in ENG)
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  7. 7

    [Colombia in statistics, 1985] Colombia Estadistica 85.

    Colombia. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica [DANE]

    Bogota, Colombia, DANE, 1984 Dec. 580 p.

    This volume contains recent and earlier statistics on a variety of social and economic topics in Colombia. The work opens with a description in Spanish and English of general background on the geography, population, economy, and government and administrative structure of Colombia, followed by geographic and economic profiles of each of the country's 23 departments, 4 intendencies, and 5 commisaries. Chapter 3, on demography, provides population figures from censuses dating back to 1770; age and sex distributions from the 1951, 1964, and 1973 censuses; results of studies of the population resident in private housing; data on birth registration between 1976-82; and discussion of various aspects of the demography of Latin America. The following chapters consider educational status, illiteracy, and educational needs and facilities at the primary, secondary, and higher level; labor force participation rates by sex and geographic areas and unemployment; results of the National Food, Nutrition, and Housing Survey of 1981; health resources and services; the civil and criminal justice systems; and information on elections and returns for various elections. The remaining 14 chapters provide data on significant areas of economic activity, including agriculture and animal husbandry, manufacturing and industry, construction and housing, prices, salaries and income, public finance, national accounts, mining and energy, social organization including cooperatives and community action groups, transportation, external commerce, internal commerce, tourism, and communications.
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  8. 8

    The demand for primary health care services in the Bicol region of the Philippines.

    Akin JS; Griffin CC; Guilkey DK; Popkin BM

    [Unpublished] 1985. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, Massachusetts, March 28-30, 1985. Also published in: Economic Development and Cultural Change 34(4):755-82. 1986 Jul. 26, [21] p.

    Mortality is assumed to be strongly reduced by medical care, however, the effects of medical services on health are often underestimated because some of the same factors which lead to an increased demand for primary health care (PHC) services are also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Consequently, understanding the determinants of the demand for medical services is important for evaluating health outcomes. This paper estimates the parameters of a simple model of the demand for health services using data from the Bicol Multipurpose Survey data from the Philippines. The parameters of the demand for key components of PHC--outpatient, prenatal, delivery, well-child, and infant immunizations--are estimated. Findings suggest that the quality of the care may be very important, but that economic factors as deterrents to using medical care--inaccessibility, cash costs, and lack of income--may not be of paramount importance. Finally, it is shown that the provision of free services in rural areas may not insure that the services reach the poorest people. (author's modified)
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