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New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1992 Apr. 24 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 660)The purpose of this paper is to examine the demand characteristics of cigarettes in Turkey. Aggregate time series data for the 1960-1988 period are used in estimation. Income and price elasticities of cigarette demand are obtained. The effect of health warning is estimated to reduce cigarette consumption by about 9 percent since the inception of warnings in 1982. Imports of cigarettes have been allowed since 1984 in addition to advertising of cigarettes in the non-electronic media. The effect of health warnings are found to be stronger than the opposing effect of advertising. The results also suggest that public education about adverse health effects of smoking may be more effective in reducing consumption and less regressive on consumer incomes than raising the price of cigarettes. (author's)
Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition in Rwanda.
Washington, D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute, 1991. 123 p. (Research Report 85)This research reports on the effects of increased commercialization on production, household real income, family food consumption, expenditures, on nonfood goods and services, and the nutritional status of the population in Rwanda. The process by which household food consumption and nutritional status are affected by commercialization is described with emphasis on identifying the major elements and how each element is influenced by the change. The issue was whether agricultural production systems and efficient use of resources can be sustained under population pressure. The study area was the commune of Giciye in Gisenyi district in northwestern Rwanda. The area is mountainous and has very poor quality and acidic soils, with a deficiency of phosphorus. Population increase averaged 4.2%/year. There is a high prevalence of underconsumption and malnutrition. Subsistence food production is becoming increasingly more difficult. New activities include production of tea and expansion of potato production. There is beer processing from sorghum and off-farm employment. The forces driving commercialization are identified, followed by a discussion of the production and income effects of the commercialization process, the consumption relationships and effects, the consumption/nutrition/health links, and the longterm perspectives on rural development. The research design, theory, and data base are described. The conclusions were that increasing the rate of change in agricultural technology for subsistence crops would not maintain even the current levels of poverty; there must be reductions in population growth. The recommended strategy is to encourage diversification of the rural economy with specialization in both agriculture and nonagricultural products and to improve the human capital and infrastructure base. Labor productivity needs to be increased as well as employment expansion. Labor-intensive erosion control methods such as terracing are recommended as a resource investment, which are assumed to take into account women and their time constraints. Tea production which is considered a women's crop has offered off-farm employment opportunities. Consideration must be given to land tenure policy and issues of compensation for loss of land during the commercialization process. Health and sanitation measures are needed concurrently with economic development.
[Unpublished] .  p.This worldwide review of smoking trends and of efforts to reduce smoking is based on information obtained from American embassy officials, government officials of specific countries, and published sources. It was prepared by the Office on Smoking and Health of the US Public Health Service for presentation at the 4th World Conference on Smoking and Health, convened in Stockholm in 1979. This review updates the information which was included in a similar review conducted in 1973. A brief regional summary of smoking trends and a more detailed summary of smoking trends in each of 36 countries is provided. The country summaries contain information, whenever available, on smoking trends, antismoking efforts, tobacco production, nicotine and tar levels, and smoking and cigarette advertising restrictions. In many developed countries, antismoking campaigns and the imposition of restrictions on smoking in public places and on tobacco advertising has led to a decline in smoking, even among teenagers. In most countries the decline among males was sharper than among females. The Scandinavian countries, in particular, waged intensive antismoking campaigns, and their efforts have had a marked impact on the public's smoking habits. In Sweden the goal is to create a smoke free environment within 25 years, and an intensive effort is being made to educate the country's youth about the negative consequences of smoking. As a result of these efforts, the percent of 16 years old Swedes who smoke declined between 1971-77 from 41%-25% among boys and from 47%-40% among girls. In the European region, the proportion of males who smoke is declining; however, more than 1/2 of the male population continues to smoke and smoking is increasing among teenagers and women in several European countries. In Asia as a whole, 40% of the male population smokes, and in some countries, e.g., Japan and the Philippines, the proportion of males who smoke reaches 70%. The Chinese are probably the heaviest smokers in the world. China is also the world's largest producer of cigarettes. In 1977, the Chinese manufactured 775 billion cigarettes while the US, the 2nd largest producer of cigarettes, produced 666 billion. In Africa, data on smoking is scarce. Available information suggest that the proportion of smokers in the population is probably similar to that in more developed regions of the world, but that per capita comsumption is much lower in Africa than in other areas simply because people cannot afford to purchase many cigarettes. As income in these countries increases, smoking will probably increase. Most African countries have made no effort to combat smoking. In Latin America as a whole, 18% of the female population and 45% of the male population smokes. In these countries smoking is more common among blue collar workers and less educated individuals than among other occupational groups and among more educated persons.