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[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
WORLD DEVELOPMENT. 1996 Dec; 24(12):1811-27.This study examines the well-being of female-headed households (FHHs) in Uganda. Data were obtained from the first nationally representative sample survey, the 1992 Integrated Household Survey. 2729 households were classified as female-headed. 25.8% of households and 22.2% of individuals in Uganda were female household heads. Well-being was measured by consumption, income, assets, housing, time use, education, and health. Only around 1% of the poor were urban FHHs. FHHs were not significantly poorer as measured by consumption or low income. There were few differences between food consumption in male-headed households (MHHs) and FHHs. FHHs had significantly lower food consumption only in urban areas. People in FHHs worked longer hours in the busiest 12 hours of each day than in MHHs. Men in FHHs worked longer hours. Women in FHHs worked shorter hours than women in MHHs. Urban women in FHHs worked longer hours than those in MHHs. FHHs had less cultivable land and greater landlessness. FHHs in rural areas were significantly less likely to own their homes. FHHs had better built housing but inferior sanitation. In urban areas, FHHs were less likely to live in an independent house. Girls in FHHs were slightly less likely to be enrolled in school. Enrollment rates for boys were the same regardless of the gender of the household head. Female heads received less education than male heads. Mortality rates were nearly a third higher in FHHs. Adults in FHHs were less likely to seek medical care, but men in urban areas were more likely than women to be sent for treatment. Vaccination rates were higher in FHHs. Although women received less schooling, women did not receive less returns for schooling. Findings suggest that without remittances FHHs would be significantly poorer. Women in Uganda should not be targeted for poverty reduction interventions.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE. 1996 Jul; 44(4):793-815.The determinants of female family headship in Jamaica are examined, with particular reference to the economic forces that lead to female headship. "The first section provides a sociological review of the Jamaican family structure, Section II outlines an economic model of household headship and considers some of its testable implications, Sections III and IV discuss the sample and present the results of the estimation procedure, and Section V concludes the discussion." The author concludes that "estimates from the structural probit model provide support for a theory that outside opportunities, or threat points, influence the household formation decision of adult women in Jamaica. An increase in the expected level of their own consumption and their children's welfare, associated with being a household head, significantly increases the probability of becoming a head." (EXCERPT)
Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Population Institute, 1987. 34 p. (HOMES Research Report No. 2)This report documents research on consumer expenditures in Thailand. The most recent survey of household expenditures in Thailand, the 1981 Socio-economic Survey, is analyzed to determine how rising income and changes in household characteristics affect resource allocation. The resulting statistical analysis is them combined with household projections and alternative scenarios about economic growth to forecast consumer expenditure to the year 2005. Per capita disposable expenditure is expected to rise as a consequence of general improvements in the standard of living in Thailand. The base forecast assumes that per capita expenditure will grow at 4% per annum due to increases in productivity. In addition, per capita expenditure per household will change in response to changing demographic characteristics. For example, declines in family size lead to additional increases in per capita expenditure depending on the age and sex of the members. Overall, per capita expenditure by intact family households is forecast to grow at 5% per year depending on the age of the household head. The greatest increases are for intact households with large families and low per capita expenditure in 1980. For example, in 1980, for intact households headed by males 45-49 years of age, per capita expenditure was around 520 baht; by 2005 it is forecast to be around 1900 baht, representing an annual growth rate of 5.2%. The smallest increases are forecast for households with few children living at home, i.e., households with older heads. As a result of this differential growth pattern, earnings per capita exhibit fairly small variation by age of head in 2005. Total monthly private expenditures are forecast to rise from a value of 26 billion baht per month in 1980 to nearly 133 billion baht per month in 2005, representing a growth rate of about 6.5% per year. The most rapid growth of private expenditures, 7.1% per year, is forecast for the 1980-1985 interval. By the end of the forecast interval, 2000-2005, the rate of growth has slowed to 5.9% per annum. (author's modified)
APPLIED ECONOMICS. 1987 Nov; 19(11):1,483-95.The authors analyze the effects on consumption in the United States of 11 demographic variables, including "regional location and the urban/rural base of the household, its age, size, race, sex and marital characteristics, and the education and the employment status of the household head and the spouse." Data are from the 1972-1973 Consumer Expenditure Survey. The expenditure functions are first specified, followed by descriptions of the data sources and the empirical estimates of expenditure functions for various items of consumption spending. (EXCERPT)
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WIRTSCHAFTS- UND SOZIALWISSENSCHAFTEN. 1987; 107(1):67-84.The inward and outward directed behaviour of a patriarchal family is analyzed by assuming self-interested behaviour of the patriarch, subject to the constraints imposed by the members of the family and by the budget. Hypotheses are derived concerning (1) the allocation of labour within the family, (2) family size, (3) the length of time in office and (4) the consumption standard after retirement of the patriarch, and (5) the redistribution (taxation) among the family members. They are confronted with 'sociological' antitheses based on role and tradition. The evidence from the literature on China tends to support the economic hypotheses. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1985. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, Massachusetts, March 28-30, 1985. 36 p.Important questions of theory and policy turn on the measurement of intergenerational transfers and determination of their net direction and magnitude, yet no serious effort has been made to estimate these. This discussion shows that when the conceptual issues are clarified, it is possible to draw on existing data and research to quantify the transfers, establish their net direction, and evaluate the externalities to childbearing arising from transfers. Samuelson anticipated that increased fertility would lead to large positive benefits from intergenerational transfers, on the assumption that children's consumption could be ignored. Arthur-Micnicoll though that effects would be substantially negative when children's costs were included in the reckoning. Without explicit guidance one might choose the average expenditure per child in a 2 child family, or the average expenditure on the 3rd child. These differ importantly. The first is about 30% more than the third, while the second is about .67 of the third; the first and second differ by a factor of two. The setup used by Arthur-McNicoll and by Lee required that the average and marginal costs be equal, and satisfaction of accounting identities would require that the first concept be used. Analysis revealed that none of these three is totally apporpriate, but that the third is most nearly so. The correct procedure is to use the third concept for the within household effect, and for the between household effect to use household consumption by age of head, which implicitly reflects any influence that number and age of children actually have on household consumption. When this is done, it is possible to measure, at least approximately, the transfer effects of more rapid growth, and the externalities to childbearing to which they give rise. The results indicate that the net direction of transfers is from the younger to older ages. A 1% increase in the population growth rate now leads to a 4.4% increase in life cycle consumption. Taking the results at face value, there are net upward transfers in the US, particularly if attention is restricted to between household transfers.
American Demographics. 1982 Jun; 4(6):16-19, 42.Add to my documents.
American Demographics. 1983 Aug; 5(8):16-21, 45.Add to my documents.