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Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 2007 Dec; 5(2):85-95.The term "environmental refugees" describes a new kind of mass human casualty caused by negative ecological impacts during the last decades. It has been estimated that 25 million environmental refugees are on the move worldwide due to environmental problems, 50 million are left homeless by cyclones, floods and earthquakes, 90 millions are displaced by infrastructural projects. These figures are expected to increase sharply in the next few decades due to the impacts of global warming and the consequence of sea level rise by 2050. Yet, the unfortunate environmental victims are refused refugee status and are not granted assistance and protection by the international community. Why is the number of environmental victims on the increase? Why are they left unassisted? Who should be responsible for what they have been suffered from? What should be done to limit the hardship being suffered by environmentally displaced people? This paper will attempt to answer these questions. (author's)
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, 2006 Mar.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-999; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00)The pharmaceutical and medical supply system for Ministry of Health hospitals in Jordan is bureaucratic and centralized. Routine paperwork consumes staff time that ideally would go to patient care, procurement does not necessarily match medical needs, pharmacists have little access to the latest information, and resources are limited. This assessment looks at the pharmaceutical system in terms of structure, process, and outcomes to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Drug utilization is measured against internationally established indicators. Based on its findings, the assessment makes recommendations that are intended to lead to improvements in patient care, administrative procedures, use of staff, and financial resources. (author's)
CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE. 1995 Jan; 16(1):11-4.In the US, the Native American Women's Health Education Resources Center, the Latina Roundtable on Health and Reproductive Rights, the National Women's Health Network (NWHN), and the National Black Women's Health Project joined together to request that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) impose a moratorium on the use of the contraceptive injectable Depo-Provera. These consumer advocates maintain that Depo-Provera has never been proved to be safe. These same groups issued early warnings about potential problems with the removal of the Norplant, and their efforts led to new patient information inserts for Norplant which include reports of adverse reactions to the implants which were not revealed by clinical studies. The consumer groups agree that Depo-Provera is an effective contraceptive but express serious reservations about its potential side effects, including the possibility of an increase in breast cancer among users, a link to osteoporosis, and a risk of low birth rate for infants exposed in utero. The USFDA is following its usual protocol with Depo-Provera and is continuing to monitor any adverse health effects. In the meantime, the consumer groups are pressing for universal use of informed-consent forms which follow a minimum standard. Such a form is used by the NWHN and is reproduced as a companion to this article.
Alternative population projections and the food and agriculture economy of the developing countries in ESCAP.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 75-82. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58.)UN projections for the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region indicate that its population size could grow to between 3095 and 3330 million by the year 2000. From the point of view of feeding this larger population, the region cannot be regarded as a single unit because 1) the countries have different growth rates, 2) very substantial improvements in food are necessary in some countries to eliminate undernutrition, and 3) past population growth trends may not continue. China, unlike the other countries in the region, will very likely become 100% self-sufficient in food and still provide a substantial increase in per capita consumption. The middle income countries show even higher per capita gains in consumption but have a population growth rate of 2.4%; their growth rates are expected to remain quite high in the next 2 decades. If trends in overall economic growth and food consumption continue, these countries could gain per capita food supplies so that serious undernutrition will not be present, under both high and low population growth variants, but the low growth variant will stop further declines in cereals self-sufficiency. The low income countries present a mixed picture. In some of them a continuation of trends would produce gains in per capita food supplies that will help reduce undernutrition. In others, both nutrition and food consumption will probably deteriorate.
Chapel Hill, N.C., Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1981. iv, 46 p.Add to my documents.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Health, food and nutrition in Third World development. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 61-76. (International Development Resource Books No. 6)Chronic malnutrition, in contrast to famine, is a grossly neglected but very serious problem in developing countries. Efforts must be made to acquaint authorities with the seriousness of the problems, to identify the causes of chronic malnutrition, and to develop effective programs to deal with the problem. Chronic undernourishment or subtle hunger receives little attention because 1) nutrition is a relatively new science; 2) those most seriously malnourished, i.e., poor women and children, have little power or influence; and 3) politicians are more likely to support programs with highly visible results, and the results of improving nutrition are subtle and not always immediately detectable. Attention should be directed to the problem by conducting epidemiological studies to demostrate that the growth and development of children is highly dependent on good nutrition. Indices for measuring growth and development are available and studies could be designed to show how these indices vary by social class or by geographical region. Other studies could demostrate how morbidity and mortality rates for nutrition related diseases can be reduced by improving nutrition. Weak points in the food chain which contribute to the problems of chronic malnutrition are delineated and include such factors as low agricultural production, deficient transportation systems, and the low food purchasing power of large segments of the population. Governments should be encouraged to develop national food policies, and the ministries of agriculture, health, education, and social welfare should be encouraged to play a role in combating chronic malnutrition. The protein deficit crisis in developing countries can be averted by 1) increasing the production of animal proteins, fish and marine resources, and food crops, especially protein-rich crops; 2) expanding research programs to improve the protein quality of cereals, to increase the yield of forage crops, and to develop new protein sources; 3) reducing the unnecessary loss of food by improving storage, transport, and processing procedures; 4) promoting the use of formulated protein foods and educating the public about protein production and consumption; 5) developing programs to improve the protein intake of the most disadvantaged segments of the population and to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases which prevent the full utilization of protein by the body; and 6) promoting training in agriculture, food science, and nutrition. A reduction in population growth and an increase in economic growth would also contribute toward a decline in chronic malnutrition.
Assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries: incompatible paradigms and competing social systems.
Social Science and Medicine. 1984; 19(4):373-84.This paper addresses conceptual issues underlying the assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries as practiced by foreign development agencies coping with a potentially destabilizing unmet social demand. As such, these agencies mediate the gap between existing health care structures patterned around the narrow needs of the ruling classes and the magnitude of public ill-health which mass movements strive to eradicate with implications for capitalism at large. It is in this context that foreign agencies are shown to intervene for the reassessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countires with the objective of defending capitalism against the delegitimizing effects of its own development, specifically the persistence of mass disease. Constrained by this objective, the interpretations they offer of the miserable state of health prevailing in developing countries and how it could be improved remains ideological: it ranges between "stage theory" and modern consumption-production Malthusiansim. Developing countries are entering into a new pattern of public health which derives from their unique location in the development of capitalism, more specifically in the new international division of labor. Their present position affects not only the pattern and magnitude of disease formation but also the effective alleviation of mass disease without an alteration in the mode of production itself. In the context of underdevelopment, increased productivity is at the necessary cost of public health. Public health improvement is basically incompatible with production-consumption Malthusianism from which the leading "Basic Needs" orientation in the assessment and implementation of health care priorities derives. Marx said that "countries of developing capitalism suffer not only from its development but also from its underdevelopment." (author's modified)