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In: State of the world, 2004. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society [by] Brian Halweil, Lisa Mastny, Erik Assadourian, Christopher Flavin, Hilary French. New York, New York, W. W. Norton, 2004. 96-119.In 1895, traveling salesman King Camp Gillette came up with the idea of disposable razor blades--a product consumers would have to keep coming back for again and again. Sales soon soared, reaching more than 70 million by 1915, and today Gillette his a company with $10 billion annual turnover. What started out as one business- man's high-profit vehicle for ensuring an endless stream of sales became a widely embraced concept of great endurance-- planned obsolescence. Fast-forward to the present: in mid-2003, the Walt Disney company announced that it would soon test-market a new DVD that is intended to replace rental video discs and cassettes and that stops working after a short, pre-set time. Opening the DVD's airtight package kicks off a chemical countdown that renders the disc unusable after a mere 48 hours. The sophisticated technologies involved may be strictly from the twenty-first century, but the underlying philosophy hews to that time-honored concept pioneered by Gillette and his contemporaries. (excerpt)
INTER-AMERICAN PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN. 1991 Aug; 8(7):1-3.By the close of an international meeting on socioeconomic development and environmental protection, a statement was prepared by the participants, and is presented as the body of this paper. Parliamentarians and environmental experts were in attendance from Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, the United States, Venezuela, and other governmental and private agencies. Participants acknowledged global threats to the environment and overall quality of life caused by some forms of agrarian development, population growth, poor land use, excessive consumption, energy waste, and inequitably distributed resources. Responding to these threats, strategies and policies for sustainable development while meeting the needs of future generations were developed. Heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection and resource management among parliamentarians, business leaders, communications professionals, and the general community is a priority. Effective international cooperation is also stressed in facing these global-scale challenges. Moreover, developing countries should be accorded favored treatment by developed countries due to incurred ecological debt, while local populations should be actively involved as participants in any development process. Sustainable economic growth of poverty-stricken nations is deeply interrelated with equitable wealth distribution, adequate land use, education, conservation, health, employment opportunities, the advancement of women, and population policy. Successful strategies must consider such interrelationships, and include policy elements accordingly.
INTERNATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS. 1986 Jun; 5(6):1-5, 7.As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government. The City of Ottawa is a low-density residential community with an abundance of open space. The unprecedented development boom in the City of Ottawa's industrial, commercial, and residential sectors since 1981 reversed the city's declining population trend and slowed the continuous loss of inner-city residents to suburban neighborhoods and new communities outside the city. Ottawa's population is skewed toward an older population because professionals migrate to the city for work and do not leave as they age. In 1981, 8% of Ottawa's population was over 65 years old; by 2001 this percentage is expected to jump to 20%. Although Ottawa's population declined from 1961 to 1981, the total number of households grew at about 4% annually. The trend toward small household formation is expected to continue with the traditional family taking more and more of a minority position. Average household size declined from 3.2 in 1971 to an estimated 2.2 in 1984. There are approximately 147,100 dwelling units in the City of Ottawa of which 12,000 are nonconventional. A realistic density, excluding government-owned public and open space lands, is 15.6 housing units per acre. About half of all dwelling units are low density. By 1984, the city counted 69 shopping centers with over 4 million square feet of floor space. Ottawa's major employer is the federal government, with about 40% of all jobs within the city being civil service. Employment participation rates have increased signficiantly at just over 70% in 1983, up from 62% in 1971, due largely to increased participation by women. The City of Ottawa leads surrounding areas in per capita income due primarily to the increase in the number of young professionals who make up 1 and 2-person households.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
NPG FORUM. 1990 Jul; 1-6.Cultural evolution has allowed humans to change their behaviors and adapt to new conditions much faster than biological evolution. The most critical of these is the overpopulation trap, caused by the imbalance between the short-term incentives to have children and the longterm social and ecological costs of having too many. This process of short-run incentives getting out of sync with longterm goals has been called social traps, as the decision maker is trapped by the local conditions into making a bad decision viewed from a longer perspective. The biological and cultural incentives to procreate combined with rapid reductions in mortality have changed the long-run ecological cost structure. The elimination of social traps requires intervention by education (about the longterm, distributed impacts), insurance, superordinate authority (legal systems, government, religion), and converting the trap to a trade-off. In a sense, this is an extension of the polluter pays principle. Summary suggestions: establish a hierarchy of goals for national and global ecological economic planning and management, sustainability should be the primary longterm goal, replacing the current GNP growth mania; develop better global ecological economic models about the interrelated impacts of population, per capita resource use, and wealth distribution; adjust current incentives to reflect long-run, global costs, including uncertainty; and allow no further decline in the stock of natural capital by taxing natural capital consumption. The US population in 1986 was about 240 million. Current technology and consumption patterns from renewable energy alone could sustain about 85 million people, or about 35% of the current population, or with a more equitable distribution 170 million at a high quality life style on renewable energy alone.
Austin, Texas, University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center, 1990. 19,  p. (Texas Population Research Center Paper No. 12.02)This paper offers a new perspective on the fertility decline in Brazil, and argues that a number of government policies have had substantial unintended and unanticipated effects on the rapid changes in reproductive behavior that have taken place since 1960. The four policy areas we focus on are consumer credit, telecommunications, social security, and health care....We address the question of how Brazilian development yielded values and norms consistent with controlled fertility. We claim to have identified significant institutional changes that had a direct and immediate bearing on the way people thought about sex and reproduction, and that facilitated the massive adoption of modern contraception. Our approach to the role of the state differs from that of most Brazilians in that we focus on the unintended effects of real policies rather than the intended effects of a non-policy....[Data are from] the 1980 Northeastern Brazil Survey of Maternal Child Health/Family Planning.... This paper was originally presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 56, No. 3, Fall 1990, p. 400).
POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT. 1991 Spring; 12(3):285-96.The author uses Garrett Hardin's thesis concerning population growth and land ownership and their effects on natural resources as a basis for discussing the sociopolitical background determining resource use and conservation. The need for institutions and governments to enact policies that address population and energy problems is stressed. (ANNOTATION)
Interaction between macro-economic activities and demographic changes in selected developing countries.
In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, Springer-Verlag, 1989. 233-50. (Studies in Contemporary Economics)A dynamic macro-economic model is specified assuming that the Government minimizes a loss function and uses government expenditures and money supply as instruments for control. Through this model, the author examines Malthusian theory as well as Simon and Steinmann's theory of population growth and technical progress. (author's)
Does an 'IMF-type' austerity package work? The macroeconomics of agricultural development and food consumption in an economy inside its production possibility frontier?
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn., May 3-5, 1984. 33 p.Add to my documents.
[Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1982] Annuaire statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique, 1982.
Bangkok, Thailand, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. xxviii, 575 p. (ST/ESCAP/235)Add to my documents.
Washington, D.C., Northeast-Midwest Institute, 1981. iv, 111 p.Add to my documents.
Journal of Public Economics. 1982; 18(3):381-397.Add to my documents.
In: Research in population economics, v. 4. Edited by Julian L. Simon and Peter H. Lindert. Greenwich, Conn., JAI Press, 1982. 49-82.Add to my documents.