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Behavior-change trials to assess the feasibility of improving complementary feeding practices and micronutrient intake of infants in rural Bangladesh.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):228-238.This study used simple rapid-assessment techniques to test the feasibility of increasing the consumption of complementary foods by infants by asking mothers to increase meal quantity or frequency or by altering the viscosity/energy density of the food. The feasibility of using micronutrient supplements either added directly to food or administered as liquid drops was also examined. The study was conducted in rural Bangladesh and involved four separate short-term behavioral change trials. Depending on the trial, fieldworkers recruited 30 to 45 infants 6 to 12 months of age. Following recommendations to increase the amount of food provided to infants, the mean intakes from single meals increased from 40 ± 23 g on day 1 to 64 ± 30 g on day 7 (p < 0.05). In a second trial, the mean meal frequency increased from 2.2 ± 1.3 on day 1 to 4.1 ± 1.3 on day 7 (p < 0.05). Provision of high-energy-density diets, prepared by decreasing viscosity with a-amylase or by hand-mashing rice and dhal into a paste before feeding, increased single-meal energy consumption from 54 ± 35 kcal to 79 ± 52 kcal or 75 ± 37 kcal (p < 0.05), respectively. Both types of micronutrient supplements were well accepted and used according to recommendations. In conclusion, it was possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviors to promote increased food intake, meal frequency, energy density, and micronutrient consumption. Because each of these interventions lasted for only about 1 week, however, the long-term sustainability of these changes is not known. Moreover, the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods on intakes of breastmilk and total daily consumption of energy and nutrients requires further study. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):466-.Fortification of appropriate foods is an important component of a comprehensive food-based approach toward sustainable control of micronutrient malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency disorders. There are several aspects to be considered and issues to be resolved before investing in food fortification. Key issues discussed by participants included the following: Need for food-consumption survey data to identify micronutrient problems, target groups for interventions, and appropriate food vehicle(s) that could be fortified, including staple foods, complementary foods, and post-weaning foods; Importance of evaluating risks of fortification versus doing nothing and communicating information to policy makers and the scientific community. (excerpt)
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 2(1):43-45.In India. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are present throughout the country. Out of 275 districts surveyed by Government of India institutions, Indian Council of Medical Research and Central Goiter Survey Teams in different States and Union Territories, 235 have been found to be endemic for iodine deficiency disorders (Tiwari et al., 1998; I.C.M.R., 1989) Deficiency of Iodine, which is among the body's essential micro nutrients, is both easy and inexpensive to prevent. Iodine is an essential element for normal growth and development in animals and humans. It is required for synthesis of the thyroid hormones i.e., thyroxine (T(-4)) and tri-iodothyronine (T(-3)). Thyroid hormones bring about a wide variety of vital physiological processes such as early growth and development of the brain and body in man. Scientific studies in India and elsewhere have shown that nutritional iodine deficiency causes deficiency of thyroid hormones during foetal life and childhood. A normal healthy thyroid gland of an adult human contains 8-12 mg iodine. This can be reduced to as low as 1 mg or less in iodine endemic areas (Ranganathan and Reddy, 1995). (excerpt)
Nutrient intake and consumption of supplementary nutrition by severely malnourished children in two ICDS projects in Rajasthan state.
Indian Pediatrics. 1999 Aug; 36(8):799-802.In India, severe protein energy malnutrition is one of the important factors associated with high infant and child mortality rate. Thus, direct intervention in the form of supplementary nutrition (SN) is provided through ICDS scheme to malnourished children for improving their nutritional status. However, data regarding the status of receipt of consumption of SN by severely malnourished children in the ICDS scheme is lacking. As such, a study was undertaken in two urban ICDS projects of Rajasthan to evaluate the nutrient intake and consumption pattern of SN by severely malnourished children. The nutritional status of all the children in 6 months-6 year age group in 50 angan-wadi centers was assessed by weight for age criteria as per the Indian Academy of Pediatrics Classification. Overall, the results show that the calorie intake of severely malnourished children was found to be low and insufficient in all the three age groups, in spite of registration for delivery of supplementary nutrition. It is also noted that the distribution of double supplementary nutrition to severely malnourished children was not according to the guidelines. Hence, there is a need to emphasize the guidelines for distribution and consumption of SN for management of severe malnutrition through the ICDS scheme.