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Your search found 19 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study.

    Unuvar E; Ahmadov H; Kiziler AR; Aydemir B; Toprak S

    Science of the Total Environment. 2007 Mar; 374(1):60-70.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, µg/L). Mercury levels were 0.38±0.5 µg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50±0.64 µg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45±13.8 µg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 µg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level. (author's)
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  2. 2

    [Review of methods of dietary assessment during pregnant] Metodos de avaliacao do consumo alimentar de gestantes: uma revisao.

    Bertin RL; Parisenti J; Di Pietro PF; de Vasconcelos FD

    Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil. 2006 Oct-Dec; 6(4):383-390.

    Physiological pregnancy changes impact nutritional needs and food intake. The adequate use of tools providing knowledge of food consumption during this life cycle is relevant because it enables the diagnosis for possible nutrition deficits and excesses. The objective of the survey was to perform a bibliographic review on food intake assessment methods during pregnancy. The literature reviewed was selected from an electronic database published between 1994 and September 2004 in Brazil and abroad. This article aims at describing and assessing the different methods and main results of studies determining food intake during pregnancy, among them, the following are highlighted: 24 hour recall, food registration, questionnaire on food intake consumption and food history. The results determine that the 24 hour recall method was the one more frequently used, nevertheless, for many times it was not applied beyond a two day investigation period and it did not take weekends into account. The choice for this method is related to pragmatism and a favorable cost benefit ratio. The conclusion is that to obtain reliable results, the choice of method and study design should always be related to the objectives of the enquiry. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Behavior-change trials to assess the feasibility of improving complementary feeding practices and micronutrient intake of infants in rural Bangladesh.

    Kimmons JE; Dewey KG; Haque E; Chakraborty J; Osendarp SJ

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):228-238.

    This study used simple rapid-assessment techniques to test the feasibility of increasing the consumption of complementary foods by infants by asking mothers to increase meal quantity or frequency or by altering the viscosity/energy density of the food. The feasibility of using micronutrient supplements either added directly to food or administered as liquid drops was also examined. The study was conducted in rural Bangladesh and involved four separate short-term behavioral change trials. Depending on the trial, fieldworkers recruited 30 to 45 infants 6 to 12 months of age. Following recommendations to increase the amount of food provided to infants, the mean intakes from single meals increased from 40 ± 23 g on day 1 to 64 ± 30 g on day 7 (p < 0.05). In a second trial, the mean meal frequency increased from 2.2 ± 1.3 on day 1 to 4.1 ± 1.3 on day 7 (p < 0.05). Provision of high-energy-density diets, prepared by decreasing viscosity with a-amylase or by hand-mashing rice and dhal into a paste before feeding, increased single-meal energy consumption from 54 ± 35 kcal to 79 ± 52 kcal or 75 ± 37 kcal (p < 0.05), respectively. Both types of micronutrient supplements were well accepted and used according to recommendations. In conclusion, it was possible to change short-term child-feeding behaviors to promote increased food intake, meal frequency, energy density, and micronutrient consumption. Because each of these interventions lasted for only about 1 week, however, the long-term sustainability of these changes is not known. Moreover, the effect of increased feeding of complementary foods on intakes of breastmilk and total daily consumption of energy and nutrients requires further study. (author's)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    The impact of PROGRESA on food consumption: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 150 (May 2003).

    Hoddinott J; Skoufias E

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(4):379-380.

    Since 1997, PROGRESA has provided cash transfers linked to children's enrollment and regular school attendance and to health clinic attendance. The program also includes in-kind health benefits; nutritional supplements for children up to age five, and pregnant and lactating women; and instructional meetings on health and nutrition issues. In 2000, PROGRESA reached about 40 percent of all rural families and about 11 percent of all Mexican families. This paper explores whether PROGRESA improves the diet of poor rural Mexicans--a major objective of the program. As such, this evaluation provides insights into whether interventions designed to alleviate poverty also succeed in reducing hunger. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Response to "Malnutrition and dietary protein: Evidence from China and from international comparisons".

    Wray J

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(3):291-295.

    The opportunity to comment on the paper by Jamison and his colleagues [1] is most welcome. My perspective, and biases, on the issues they discuss are based largely on work in pediatrics and community health in Turkey, Colombia, and Thailand during a period of 17 years. In addition, I was privileged to visit China in 1973 as a member of the Early Childhood Development Delegation, one of the earliest US delegations to visit China, when I was able to pay particular attention to growth in children under five years of age [2-4]. Nutrition, growth, and mortality in young children have been major concerns throughout my career. Dr. Jamison has studied health issues having to do with China for many years, and this is an interesting contribution. There is no need here to repeat the study design, but the three populations from which data were used for the study, must be mentioned. They include: Data from a sample of urban adults, aged 18 to 25 years, from 13 provinces of China, in 1979: information on average heights and weights for men and women and on average income and availability of energy and protein; Data from a sample of adult men and women from 64 rural counties: information on heights and weights plus data on income, energy availability, and protein share from 26 provinces, around 1983; Data from 41 populations of men and 33 populations of women in 40 and 32 countries, respectively: information on average heights, as well as income, energy, protein share, and ethnic group, around 1960. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Food-consumption patterns in Central West Africa, 1961 to 2000, and challenges to combating malnutrition.

    Honfoga BG; van den Boom GJ

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24(2):167-182.

    We discuss food-consumption patterns in Central West Africa from 1961 to 2000 and some implications for combating malnutrition. The availability of food in the region improved in the 1960s, declined sharply in the 1970s and the early 1980s, and has shown a modest positive trend since the mid-1980s. Notwithstanding obvious progress over the past decades and in the region as a whole, food availability today remains below the required levels for large parts of the population and appears unstable over time, particularly in the Sahelian zone. On average, diets in this zone contain fewer than 2,200 kcal, compared with almost 2,500 kcal in the coastal zone. Conversely, protein deficiency is more common in the coastal zone, where a typical diet contains only 45 g of protein, compared with 60 g in the Sahelian zone. Furthermore, consumption is showing a dietary shift toward cereals, while yield growth lags far behind population growth. The associated import dependency and pressure on land seem to gain significance regardless of the region's agro-ecological capacity to increase and to substitute cereal imports for locally produced food. Moreover, food consumption appears responsive to income changes (calorie-income elasticity ranges from 0.25 to 0.62), while, in turn, it has a significant impact on nutritional outcomes (stuntingcalorie elasticity of -1.42). We conclude that combating malnutrition requires first broad-spectrum income growth, and next specific policies that promote the yield and the contribution to diets of nutritious food produced within the region. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Determinants of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk in a selected group of Egyptian mothers.

    Polychronaki N; Turner PC; Mykkanen H; Gong Y; Amra H

    Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006 Jul; 23(7):700-708.

    In Egypt, there is a paucity of biomarker data on aflatoxin (AF) exposure. The study assessed the level and frequency of breast milk, AFM/1 as a biomarker of maternal exposure. Breast milk samples were collected from a selected groups of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers of children attending the New El-Qalyub Hospital, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt, during May-September 2003. Following aflatoxin extraction, AFM/1 levels were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Approximately 36% of mothers tested positive for AFM/1 ( median 13.5 pg ml, interquartile range (IQR) 10.27-21.43) Non-working status (p=0.018, odds ration (OR) =2.87), obesity (p=0.004, OR=3.0), high corn oil consumption (p = 0.028 OR =3.57), contributed to the occurrence of AF in breast milk. AFM/1 contamination of breast milk was frequent, albeit at moderate levels. Growth and development of the infant is rapid and thus it is possible that AF exposure through breast milk has a significant health effect. (author's)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of rural pregnant women.

    Chawla PK; Kaur R; Sachdeva R

    Journal of Human Ecology. 2004; 15(1):51-55.

    The unfortunate state of nutrition in countries like India is attributed to several factors. Poverty and low purchasing power are no doubt major factors contributing to malnutrition, lack of awareness and paucity of information also aggravate the problem. There are three population groups who suffer from the ill effects of malnutrition. These vulnerable segments are preschool children, expectant and nursing mothers. An expectant and nursing mother needs to be provided adequate nutritional intake for maternal and foetal tissue growth and her own usual maintenance requirements. An acute or chronic deprivation of dietary intake may result in poor pregnancy outcome. In India almost one third of babies born are low birth weight mainly attributable to poor maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy. Nutrition counselling is one of the prerequisites for improving the nutritional status of any group. The prenatal patient represents an ideal opportunity for nutrition counselling, since at that time more than any other time, she may be highly motivated to understand and accept advice. Hence the present study was conducted to see the impact of nutrition counselling on food and nutrient intake and haematological profile of pregnant women. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Food items consumed by students attending schools in different socioeconomic areas in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Temple NJ; Steyn NP; Myburgh NG; Nel JH

    Nutrition. 2006 Mar; 22(3):252-258.

    We investigated the food consumption patterns of adolescent students at schools. Our findings are intended to reveal the overall nutritional quality of foods eaten by students at school, including foods brought to school and foods purchased at school. A questionnaire was completed by 476 students, mostly from grades 7 and 10, from 14 schools in Cape Town, South Africa. The schools were representative of the various ethnic groups and socioeconomic strata of the population. The questionnaire requested information on eating habits at school, foods brought to school and food purchases, and breakfast consumption before school. We also tested whether students knew which foods are healthy and which are less healthy choices. The students were mostly 12 to 16 y of age (mean age 14.5 y). The large majority had breakfast before school (77.8%) and ate at school (79.7%). Food was brought to school by 41% to 56%, whereas 69.3% purchased food at school, mainly at the school store (tuck shop). Predefined “unhealthy” foods brought to school outnumbered “healthy” ones by 2 to 1. Among students who purchased food at school, 70.0% purchased no healthy items, whereas 73.2% purchased two or more unhealthy items. With six foods 84% of students correctly stated whether they were healthy or unhealthy; however, with cola drinks, samoosas (deep-fried pastry with spicy filling), and pies, only 47% to 61% knew that these were less healthy choices. Students’ scores on this question were unrelated to whether they purchased healthy or unhealthy foods. Students who attended schools of high socioeconomic status were twice as likely to bring food to school (64.7% versus 31.0%, P < 0.001), scored higher marks on the quiz of healthy versus unhealthy foods (P < 0.01), but were no more likely to purchase healthy food. The large majority of food eaten by adolescent students in Cape Town is classified as being unhealthy choices. This applies to foods brought to school and food purchases. Consideration needs to be given to policy measures to improve this situation and to improve education of students and their parents. (author's)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Dietary Westernisation: conceptualisation and measurement in Mauritius. [" L'occidentalisation diététique " : conceptualisation et évaluation à Maurice]

    Uusitalo U; Sobal J; Moothoosamy L; Chitson P; Shaw J

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Sep; 8(6):608-619.

    The aims of the study were to provide information that will contribute to conceptualising what is called ‘dietary Westernisation’, and to provide an example of measuring it on an individual level. Food consumption frequency and demographic data on adults in Mauritius were examined in 1988, 1992 and 1998. In 1992, a 24-hour recall was also included. The cross-sectional samples consisted of 1115 (age 25–74 years) Mauritians in 1987/88, 1917 (age 30–74 years) in 1992 and 2239 (age 20–74 years) in 1998. Principal components analysis was carried out on daily consumption frequencies of 10 indicator foods (white rice, white bakery bread, pulses, processed meat, poultry, fresh/frozen fish, butter, margarine, whole milk and skimmed/low-fat milk). Correlations between dietary patterns and selected food consumption frequencies were examined in each survey year. Four dietary patterns were identified as being related to dietary Westernisation. The Traditional dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of Indian breads, salted/smoked fish and sugar-sweetened tea. The Western dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of cakes/pastries, meat and many Western fast foods like burgers, but, surprisingly, also by brown bread, breakfast cereals and salad. The Bread/butter dietary pattern predominantly described more frequent consumption of bread compared with rice. The Margarine/milk dietary pattern was inconsistently related with staple foods. Younger, educated and wealthier Mauritians appeared to adopt Western dietary patterns earlier. This study suggests that relatively few indicator foods are needed for measuring dietary Westernisation. Dietary Westernisation in a non-Western country may also include shifts towards voluntary consumption of healthier foods. (author's)
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    [Food consumption by pregnant adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil] O consumo alimentar de gestantes adolescentes no Município do Rio de Janeiro.

    de Barros DC; Pereira RA; da Gama SG; Leal MC

    Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2004; 20 Suppl 1:S121-S129.

    The increase in teenage pregnancy has been viewed with concern by public health experts. Food consumption to help maintain high nutrient demands has been identified as one of the most relevant components. This study aims to present the habitual consumption of food and energy-specific nutrients by pregnant adolescents. A total of 1,180 adolescent mothers were interviewed in maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro, and a simplified questionnaire on semi-quantitative frequency of food consumption was applied. Lower consumption of fruit juice, vegetables, and fruits was observed among adolescent mothers over 15. Adolescent mothers classified in the lowest quartile of consumption lack the minimum recommended consumption of energy and nutrients. An inverse association was found between the number of household members and energy and nutrient consumption. Adolescent mothers who received dietary information and changed their eating habits during pregnancy showed better results concerning the consumption of energy and nutrients. Prenatal care was a key factor for improving the results of pregnancy, emphasizing the importance of providing dietary information. (author's)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of obesity, weight perceptions and weight control practices among urban college going girls.

    Augustine LF; Poojara RH

    Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2003 Oct-Dec; 28(4):[8] p..

    Research questions: 1. What is the prevalence of obesity among college girls in Ernakulam? 2. What are the perceptions and practices about weight and weight control among them? Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of obesity by anthropometry. 2. To obtain an insight on weight perceptions and compare actual with perceived weight. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and participants: Urban college girls, age group of 17-18 years residing in Ernakulam. Sample size was 200. Statistical analysis: Percentages and mean. Results: Prevalence of overweight by standard weight-for-height and BMI (>23) was 24%. Overall, 65% of subjects worried about body weight of whom 46% were underweight. 41% of subjects reported missing breakfast on weekdays. There was a distinct difference between the actual and perceived weight status. Conclusions: Strange weight control practices are rampant among the subjects. (author's)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Seasonal dietary stress in Peruvian children. [Estrés nutricional estacional en los niños peruanos]

    Graham MA

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2003 Feb; 49(1):24-27.

    This article examines the seasonal variation in energy intake among young children in a farming community in southern Peru. Caloric intakes among young children fall to their lowest annual level during the post-harvest season even though food and cash resources are at their highest levels. Among toddlers (1–3 years) the decline is statistically significant (p = 0.006). Their energy intake meets only 65.6 per cent of their predicted requirement during the post-harvest season. In contrast to the literature, dietary stress for young children is not greatest in the pre-harvest season. Also, household food availability does not accurately indicate dietary risk among young children in this community. (author's)
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  14. 14

    [Review of methodologies applied in studies on food consumption] Revision de las metodologias aplicadas en estudios sobre el consumo de alimentos.

    Menchu MT

    Guatemala City, Guatemala, Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama [INCAP], 1992 May. 64 p.

    Food consumption surveys carried out by trained personnel are the best source of data on the diet and food habits of populations. This work is intended as a reference on organization and execution of diet studies. The work is based on a literature review and extensive personal experience in studies conducted in Central America using different methodologies. Studies at the population level oriented toward food and nutrition planning are emphasized rather than diet studies for therapeutic purposes. The first chapter contains general information on food consumption at the national, household, and individual levels, the purposes of food consumption studies, and difficulties resulting from such factors as variability between and within individuals, seasonality, determination of quantities of food, conversion of food to nutrients, and statistical management of the data. Types of food consumption studies are differentiated according to the sample unit, type of data, and reference period. Criteria for selection of a methodology are defined, including objectives, the target population, required data and degree of precision, possible sources of error, and availability of resources. Requirements for food consumption studies are then discussed, including clearly defined objectives, information on composition of local foods, daily dietary recommendations, a plan for data analysis, and personnel requirements. The third chapter describes studies of availability of food, including inventory and acquisition of food in the household; studies of actual food consumption, including frequency of consumption, the 1-day record, daily record, and direct weighing; and studies at the institutional level, including inventory and direct weighing. The discussion of each method includes its definition and description, limitations, and suggestions for application.
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  15. 15

    Assessing the food situation in North Korea.

    Kim WK; Lee H; Sumner DA


    This article assesses the long-term food situation in North Korea, by estimating corn and rice grain production and consumption for a "normal" year. Estimates are based on information on cropped areas, geographical conditions, seed varieties, imports, daily rations, and per capita meat consumption. Since the 1950s, government agricultural policy emphasized modernization of the rural sector. Coastal areas and swamplands were converted to arable land. Irrigation schemes and electrification were completed during the 1970s. Agriculture was mechanized by 1975. Fertilizer use increased. New investments and inputs were reduced during the 1980s. Rice and corn are rationed by the government according to a formula that considers age, occupation, and location. Rations tend to be larger for adults, high ranking officials, and physical laborers. The authors estimated that annual direct food grain consumption was about 1.6 million tons of rice and 2.8 million tons of corn. Mean consumption, based on 1960 estimates, was considered to be about 7 kg/person, or 149,800 metric tons for a population of 21.4 million. 584,220 metric tons of feed grain are required to produce 149,800 metric tons of meat at 3.9 kg of grain/kg of meat. Total grain use ranged 4985-5720 thousand tons, depending upon imports. Grain share of total diet was about 87% of total calories. Total corn production was an estimated 5220 kg/hectare. Shortages in a normal year may be about 12% of normal consumption, unless imports compensate for the deficits. North Korea suffers from a lack of foreign exchange and a policy that limits grain imports.
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  16. 16

    Gender, reproductive status, and intrahousehold food distribution.

    Millman SR; DeRose LF

    [Unpublished] 1997. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 27-29, 1997. [2], 25 p.

    The authors review and analyze available anthropometric and food consumption data to dispel the notion that women and children are routinely discriminated against in intrahousehold food allocation throughout the developing world. Little evidence was found that the youngest children tend to get less than their fair share of household food supplies. Researchers recording food consumption data have often omitted infant breast milk consumption, making it seem as though infants and young children are being underfed. Moreover, female children do not consistently have poorer growth than male children, even in india. Among Indian elites, however, there is strong evidence that women are discriminated against in the allocation of both food and health care. Adult women actually have better diets than adult men, except when lactating or pregnant. These findings suggest that, in the interest of both maternal and child health, nutrition and nutrition education interventions be targeted to pregnant and lactating women rather than to the broad population of women and children.
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  17. 17

    Food and nutritional adequacy in Ghana.

    Alderman H; Higgins P

    Washington, D.C., Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program, 1992 May. vii, 61 p. (Working Paper 27; USAID Cooperative Agreement AFR-000-A-0-8045-00)

    The Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program analyzed data from the 1987-1988 Ghana Living Standards Survey to examine levels and composition of food sources in different areas of Ghana and to introduce these observations into the context of food and nutrition policy in Ghana. The researchers focused on food consumption rather than nutrition. Even though there was considerable substitution between commodities, grain prices determined calorie availability at the household level, especially in the savannah zone where prices of millet, sorghum, and maize were important. Nationwide, the net effect of an increase in maize price was a reduction in household calories and it was largest in the savannah zone. Increases in cassava prices tended to reduce available calories in forest regions. The price of cassava was almost always lower than grains. Cassava was also available throughout the year. Government programs that improve cassava production or reduce the cost of transport of cassava or the amount of spoilage of cassava will significantly increase household calorie availability. Increases in pest infestations of cassava will reduce food energy availability. A price increase of rice and yams would increase calorie availability because households will substitute these expensive foods with cheaper calorie sources. The Ghanaian diet is diverse. Female-headed households had lower household expenditures and did not allocate more resources to food than male-headed households. Expenditure patterns and low nutrition levels in the savannah accounted for this difference. Various methodological issues may have brought about inaccurate conclusions, however. They are omission of information on the rate of stock utilization; lack of indication of month's price; unfixed recall period; and no data on prices and quantities of purchased goods together. Nevertheless, this study supports the belief that cross-sectional surveys can be used to obtain information on price response.
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  18. 18

    World development report 1993. Investing in health.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.

    The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    [Urban-rural differences in food intake of poor families in Guatemala] Diferencias urbano-rurales en la ingesta de alimentos de familias pobres de Guatemala.

    Alarcon JA; Adrino FJ


    Differences in diet and nutrient consumption among impoverished families in urban and rural areas of Guatemala were analyzed using data from 2 surveys conducted in 1987. A sample of 200 families in the marginal community of El Milagros in Guatemala City inhabited largely by rural in-migrants and a sample of 900 families of agricultural wage workers from 195 rural communities in the northwestern altiplano participated in the nutritional study. Poverty, poor health conditions, and high rates in malnutrition among the children characterized both samples. The method of 24-hour recall in single interviews was used in both areas. The urban families were visited in July-August 1987 and the rural families in October-November. Reported consumption of foods of animal origin, milk products, eggs, and meats was over twice as high in urban areas as measured by average consumption and by the percentage of families reporting consumption Maize consumption was very high in rural but not urban areas. 97% of rural families prepared their own tortillas, tamales, and atole, and only 5% bought them prepared. In the marginal urban area by contrast, 31% of families prepared their own maize and 82% bought prepared maize derivatives primarily tortillas and tamales. Consumption of beans was higher in urban areas, largely because their cultivation is impossible in the high altitude communities of the altiplano. The average adult caloric consumption of 3194.3 in rural areas exceeded the 2637.5 of urban areas. But in both cases calorie consumption was below recommended levels. The urban total represented 86% of the daily recommendation of 3050 calories for a moderately active adult, while the rural total was equivalent to 91% of the daily recommendation of 3500 for very active adults. The average daily protein intake of 82.9 g in urban and 87.8 g in rural areas exceed the daily adult recommendation of 68 g. Almost 70% of caloric intake among rural adults came from maize, compared to 27% in urban areas. Wheat bread, beans, and sugar together accounted for 41% of total calories in urban areas. Almost 70% of protein in rural areas was contributed by maize and beans, while in urban areas over 30% was from foods of animal origin, 25% from beans, and 21% from maize. Despite their lower caloric consumption, urban families enjoyed more diversified diets and higher levels of calcium and vitamin A consumption. But vitamin A consumption met only 62% of the daily requirement in urban areas and 43% in rural areas, while iron consumption met less than 80% of the daily need in either area.
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