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Your search found 35 Results

  1. 1
    350446
    Peer Reviewed

    Why do people choose what they choose? And, do they use what they choose? E&T's Top Policy Paper 2010.

    Booth B

    Environmental Science and Technology. 2011 Apr 1; 45(7):2522.

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  2. 2
    192631
    Peer Reviewed

    A comparison of smoking behaviors among medical and other college students in China.

    Zhu T; Feng B; Wong S; Choi W; Zhu SH

    Health Promotion International. 2004; 19(2):189-196.

    A survey of students’ smoking in China (n = 1896), comparing medical students with college students in nonmedical majors, was carried out to determine whether a medical education has a preventive effect on smoking uptake. The survey, sampling students from 12 universities in three cities, found no significant differences between medical and non-medical students in smoking prevalence (40.7% versus 45.1% for males, 4.4% versus 6.0% for females), in ‘ever smoked’ groups, in ‘ever smoked 100 cigarettes’ groups or in years of smoking. For both student groups, smoking prevalence increased with age and with years of college. However, one significant difference was found among the smokers: medical students were more likely to be occasional smokers than were non-medical students (75.3% occasional smokers among medical students who smoked versus 60.6% among non-medical students). These results suggest that a medical education had little effect on these students’ decisions to smoke, but that it may have modified their consumption level. Future studies are needed to ascertain factors affecting the decision to smoke and to identify possible early adopters of a nonsmoking culture in China. Action on a societal level is urgently needed to change Chinese social norms regarding smoking. (author's)
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  3. 3
    257489

    Leaving the countryside: rural-to-urban migration decisions in China.

    Zhao Y

    AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1999 May; 89(2):281-6.

    This paper employs a simple theoretical model of labor allocation within rural households, given existing land arrangements in an attempt to explain why rural Chinese do not fully participate in labor migration. It first explores the mechanisms by which individual, household, and community characteristics affect the migration decision. Empirical results are then presented to substantiate the derived hypotheses. The paper further explores the question of whether the migration decision is permanent by analyzing the responses of household consumption to income from migration. (EXCERPT)
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  4. 4
    254878

    Endogenous fertility and the consumption tax.

    Kobayashi Y

    JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 47(3):313-20.

    The differential incidence between the consumption tax and the labour income tax is examined in a model where altruistic parents decide the number of children endogenously. In contrast with past results, the consumption tax is not neutral and exerts distortional effects. As a result, welfare gets worse off through the tax reform of switching from a labour income tax to a consumption tax. This provides the argument about the treatment of bequests under a consumption tax. (EXCERPT)
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  5. 5
    253154

    Migration as a consumption activity.

    Wallace SB; DeLorme CD; Kamerschen DR

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1997; 35(1):37-58.

    While a generalized utility maximization approach to migration decisionmaking is not innovative, the principal extensions of this paper involve the search for an instrument capable of measuring changes in utility levels consistent with all preferences (i.e., with all forms of utility functions), requiring only data on observed behaviour. Our approach is to construct a Location-Specific Utility Index (LSUI), whose component variables serve as proxies for the arguments in [U.S.] households' utility functions....The testable hypothesis is formulated as follows: Assuming constant household preferences and expansion of the household's feasible set over time, the household's utility level is greater following the migration decision....The results are compared with the households' migration decisions. The empirical evidence shows that migration may reasonably be modelled as a consumption activity by households to maximize utility. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  6. 6
    091853

    Challenging the planet: connections between population and the environment.

    Population Action International

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 1993. [2], 28, [1] p.

    Population Action International's (PAI) colorful brochure on environmental awareness focuses on the lessons of the past, the state of environmental science, the challenge of population growth, the path to stabilization, and group efforts. The story of environmental awareness unfolds with selected statements and pictures germane to seven points of view. The backside of each picture documents important statistics in table, graph, or chart form. 1) The view is expressed that human beings are adaptable and ingenious. Rapid population growth is viewed as posing challenges to the earth's capacity to support a variety of life forms and a decent quality of life. 2) Environmental trends reflect both the patterns of population growth and the patterns of consumption and technology use. Inequalities of power and wealth influence these patterns. 3) The conclusion is that past environmental impacts are disastrous to humans when thresholds are reached. 4) The view is held that all individual human action impacting on the environment must be considered in full for a comprehensive analysis of the population and environmental links. 5) The consequence of slowing population growth is the gift of time for preserving the environment and alleviating poverty. 6) Quality of life is improved when people are given the choice to make their own reproductive decisions. 7) Top priorities are assigned to closing the gap between rich and poor and reducing overconsumption. PAI aims to show a commitment to research, advocacy, and resources for stabilizing world population by offering universal reproductive freedom. PAI states its goals of access to safe affordable, voluntary family planning services and opportunities for women. The environmental program offers a profile of recent research and policy advice and disseminates the information in a timely and accessible way. Groups are encouraged to address population issues and take action to provide conditions conducive to population decline without jeopardizing an individual's reproductive rights. The aim is identified as establishment of a worldwide network of activists and organizations who exchange information and channel political power for constructive action.
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  7. 7
    092338

    Parental consumption decisions and child health during the early French fertility decline, 1790-1914.

    Weir DR

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY. 1993 Jun; 53(2):259-74.

    A theoretical framework followed by an empirical test was used to explain the relationship between heights, nutrient consumption, and real gross domestic product in France between 1790 and 1914. The time series and cross sectional analyses aimed to determine whether there is significant substitution between quantity and quality of children. Data were arrayed by department (90) at nine 10-year intervals, which yields 81 continuous observations and a total sample size of 729. Height data was by single year of birth cohort. Controls were included for the northeast region, where heights were the tallest. Five different reduced form models showed an indirect relationship between fertility and height. The first model showed marital fertility having a strongly negative effect on height and explained 22% of the variance in heights. During 1790-1911 French marital fertility declined from 0.8 to 0.3, which added about 25 mm or an English inch of height. In fact, height did increase by this amount. The second model included time trends and regional patterns of height; the result was a reduction in the magnitude of the coefficient. The third model included real wages, which had a negative impact on height, and the crude death rate which had an independent negative influence on height. The regional effect remained strong. The coefficient of marital fertility remained significant but smaller. Model four, with urbanization included, showed a positive effect. Model five included literacy rates, which were strongly correlated with height. The interpretation is made that literacy investments are directly complementary to investments in better nutrition. Food consumption per capita accounts for only a small portion of the increase in height and regional differences. The effect of food consumption is determined by the role of disease and the allocation of resources within families. Thus, in the nineteenth century, heights and life expectancy improved the hard way: by expanding food consumption `to improve resistance to disease and to compensate for morbidity demands on calories.
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  8. 8
    099165
    Peer Reviewed

    Fertility choice and economic growth: theory and evidence.

    Wang P; Yip CK; Scotese CA

    REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS. 1994 May; 76(2):255-66.

    This proposed theoretical model is based on new models of Barro and Becker and Becker, Murphy, and Tamura and explains the interaction of family decisions about fertility and the macroeconomy in a growth situation. The proposed model captures a dynamic interaction between labor/leisure and fertility choice and a structural fertility preference shock. Endogenous factor are consumption, labor/leisure, and fertility, while exogenous factors are production and utility parameters. The aim was to develop a general equilibrium model which expresses short- and long-term dynamics, to test the impact of economic disturbances on fertility, and to explain the US baby boom and subsequent fertility patterns. Savings in capital accumulation and in labor supply were expected to have ambiguous effects, while improved productivity was expected to increase steady state consumption. The methodology, a structural Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model, was developed by Blanchard and Quah and Ihmed, Ickes, Wang, and Yoo. Structural impacts include disturbances in employment, fertility (theoretical preference shift), and output. Long-term restrictions are based on theory, rather than on ad hoc causal orderings (Sims method) or current responses (Bernanke method). The structural VAR model is estimated using the logged differences of labor, fertility rate, and output. The empirical results are based on analysis of US data (1949-88) on fertility, weekly hours worked, and real gross national product. The model revealed that fertility choice should not be considered exogenous to the labor market or to economic growth. Variance of the forecast error for the fertility rate was significantly explained by employment shocks; the effect was reduced fertility and increased labor force effort. Output responses to fertility and technology shocks were similar to those reported by Shapiro and Watson. In the variance decomposition analysis, output shocks explained about 33% of output variance. Fertility shocks explained about 33% of labor growth and 25% of output growth after the first year. With a lag of one year, about 37% of fertility variance was explained by employment shocks. Concluding remarks underscore the importance of knowing which shock initiated the motion and causal ordering.
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  9. 9
    081327

    Children at risk: the role of family structure in Latin America and West Africa.

    Desai S

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1992 Dec; 18(4):689-717.

    Many studies explore the relationship between income and nutrient intake. The focus upon households as a whole emerges from a research tradition rooted in the theoretical model of the family and the household proposed by the new household economics which has strongly influenced recent research on the family in both developed and developing countries. This mode, however, is overly simplistic where applied uniformly to diverse cultures. The author therefore considers the validity of these assumptions of uniform applicability with respect to the family forms and the nutrient available to children found in selected countries in Latin America and West Africa. The author uses demographic and health survey data from Ghana, Mali, Senegal, northeast Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic with models of the family proposed by this new household economics to derive hypotheses regarding food available to young children in various household and family arrangements. It is concluded that these models unrealistically predict food and health care available to children because they assume that income or opportunity given to 1 family member translates into improvement in the welfare of all other members. The level of altruism toward children instead varies across cultures, families, and households. The author points out that these findings demonstrate the urgent need to develop alternative models of the family and notes that Nash's bargaining models have presented the most persistent challenge to neoclassical models of the family.
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  10. 10
    091552

    Towards a water ethic. Viewpoint.

    Postel S

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(2):35-6.

    We continue to expand a water supply that has ecological and economical limits. Drip irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and use of water=saving plumbing fixtures can help solve our water shortage problem. The core of the predicament is that society is no longer connected to water's life=giving qualities. Modern society does not respect the natural river, the complexity of a wetland, and the intricate web of life. It considers water to be a resource only to control for human consumption. Humans do not realize that they should preserve and protect water. We need guidelines to force us to act appropriately when we must make complex decisions about natural ecosystems whose workings evade us. The ultimate goal of this water ethic should be protection of water ecosystems. Adoption of this integrated, holistic ethic would call for the use of less water when possible and to share what we have. This ethic would be part of a sustainable development code which blends economic goals with ecological criteria. The water ethic would have indicators monitoring the breakdown of ecosystems, therefore allowing us to make corrections to restore ecosystems to health. We see some of this now as Florida tries to restore the Everglades damaged by unsustainable development. We should watch to see whether Botswana will continue to keep economic development from the Okavango Delta. Governments, the World Bank, and other lending institutions should make investment decisions based on ecological sustainability. The water ethic must include a social and political commitment to meet the basic needs of the poor. International relations must also consider equity and fairness when it comes to developing water-sharing terms and treaties. Individuals need to reduce their water consumption and consumption of goods whose manufacture requires water use resulting in water pollution. Population growth needs to slow down considerably to secure out water future.
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  11. 11
    237999

    Education, externalities, fertility, and economic growth.

    Weale M

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992 Nov. 51 p. (Policy Research Working Paper: Population, Health, and Nutrition No. WPS 1039)

    The author "develops a simulation model...[that] links fertility decisions with consumption/saving decisions....The model is extended to reflect education as an endogenous decision and then further to look at the effects of an external effect of education on economic growth." (EXCERPT)
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  12. 12
    076642

    Third World development: perspectives.

    Venkataramanan LS

    In: Strategies for Third World development, edited by John S. Augustine. New Delhi, India, Sage Publications, 1989. 16-33.

    In spite of the many differences in developing countries, all promote policies aimed at improving resource allocations, increasing the value of public and private corporations, preparing domestic savings, locating access for market exports, and supporting investment activities. Poverty and unemployment are indigenous to rural areas in developing countries. Planners' and policymakers' objectives are to promote policies for growth, arrange exports and imports, deal with the interdependence and economic dependence in trade relations, to develop agricultural policies, alleviate poverty and unemployment, and to provide food security. Each task is discussed, e.g., growth policies must balance an appropriate mix of stabilization and structural adjustment. Growth can be accomplished through increased domestic savings, an appropriate rate of monetary growth, a stable exchange rate, and reduced budget deficits. Efficiency of investment can be increased with encouraging private domestic and foreign investment and reducing administrative controls and tax system distortions. Military spending reductions and increased investment in irrigation, drainage, and extension of public services and agricultural support make better use of public savings. Optimizing use of scarce resources of capital and foreign exchange contribute to social and economic improvement. Insulation from the fluctuations in growth trends in other countries reduces vulnerability. Self-reliance is promoted. In coping with inequalities in income distribution, poverty, and unemployment, developing counties have focused on growth in gross national product (GNP). Production and investment need to be reorganized in order to have a wider effect on income distribution and achieve social justice. Employment must be increased for neutral personal tax-subsidy schemes to work. Production planning targeted to the rural poor and geared to consumption planning can help to alleviate hunger and poverty. In balancing production, consumption, and employment, it is important to consider that increasing the level of employment beyond free market equilibrium requires a certain level of subsidy, and increasing the level of distributive consumption may led to lower investment for future growth and employment.
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  13. 13
    075865

    Land use and management in PR China: problems and strategies.

    Cai Y

    LAND USE POLICY. 1990 Oct; 7(4):337-50.

    The conflict between population and land in China results from high population density, declining availability of arable land, decrease in cropland, overgrazing, inability to afford imported grain, and expansion of land use for urbanization. Unwise decisions have been made. These decisions have resulted in land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, degradation of grasslands, waste of land for freight storage or waste disposal due to low grain prices, and nonagricultural constructions on croplands. Ineffective land management problems are identified as: 1) the lack of an economic means of guiding land use and land is not valued; the lack of any mechanism to ensure economic land use including public lands which are not accounted for with rent; 2) the lack of integration of departments into the decision making structure and too many departments making decisions about the same land; 3) the lack of choice in land use which results in higher government departments being unaware of local conditions, and the lack of appropriate investment which results in short-term exploitation; and 4) surveys are inadequate for decision making. The strategies suggested for improvement in land use management include low resources expenditure in production and appropriate goods consumption. The goal is to sustain subsistence with gradual improvement through development. Land resources must be conserved and the environment protected. The solutions to depend on food imports or reduce the nutritional level deny the equally plausible solution to generate a higher level of input. The profit motive and scientific agricultural practices could accomplish this end. Reclamation for cropland is possible for 8 million hectares of wasteland in wide areas in Sanjiang Plain and 3.4 million hectares in small pockets in Eastern Monsoon China. Traditional agriculture must be transformed and an optimum scale of land operation established. Land tenure reform is necessary. Regional conditions must prevail as the guiding principles. Several implementation strategies are suggested: controlling population growth and establishing a balance between expenditure and land productivity, expanding and conserving forest areas, increasing agricultural investment, reforming land tenure, adjusting land product prices, strengthening land administration, developing other industries, and reforming economic and political systems.
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  14. 14
    070818

    Healthy people -- in numbers the world can support.

    Sadik N

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1991; 12(3):347-55.

    The issues of health, development and population are all interrelated. There large, rapidly growing population can adversely affect both health and development. currently 95% of the population growth is occurring in the development world. Progress in development creates opportunities to improve health and reduce population through education and contraception. The general health of the population affects development because people need to be healthy in order to work and contribute to socioeconomic progress. By the year 2000 40% of the developing world's projected population of 5 billion will be under 25. It is now recognized that reducing the population is in everyone's best interest as the size it has reached is already having a negative effect on the world economy and health. In order to be successful the developed nations need to increase development assistance for international family planning to US$9 billion by 2000. In addition the role of women in development must be expanded, for without their inclusion in sustainable development planning, success will not come. Critical areas include education, employment and health care. Also, family planning and maternal/child health should be integrated into the general health care system in order to improve cost effectiveness and efficiency.
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  15. 15
    070817

    Ethics and the environment.

    Shrader-Frechette K

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1991; 12(3):311-21.

    Today the effect upon the environment have moral implications. In order to establish a list of priorities for human conduct, it is necessary to understand the value of our own human lives and the value of our ecosystem. Different schools of thought have different priorities that they each try to support. The technocratic individualist (TI) believes that the end of progress and economic expansion, justifies any means. This attitude leads to the exploitation of the earth and violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It leaves the planet bare and lifeless. Current methods employed by the TIs are based on consumptive methods that extract what is needed without any concern for the future. the TIs' methods result in the tragedy of the commons, in which the common people are exploited for the benefit of an elite few. The environmental holist (EH) claims that we must abandon the anthropocentric ethics of the TIs; however, the EHs suffer from both scientific and ethical problems. If we do as the EHS say and respect all life, we can not eat, fight disease, or build shelter. Further, if we value ourselves equally with the rest of the ecosystem, then we could easily justify violating human rights and decent conduct in an effort of avoid doing harm in the ecosystem. The best compromise between these 2 extremes lies in contract ethics. Because we benefited from the people of the past, we have an obligation, through a social contract, to the people of the future. The last element of an acceptable list of priorities of conduct lies in the distinction between strong and weak rights. Strong rights are those necessary for our survival, weak rights are those that give our lives meaning. Thus our ethical priorities should be: (1) duty to recognize strong human rights: (2) duty to protect environmental interests; (3) duty to recognize weak human rights.
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  16. 16
    066489

    Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Shaw RP

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION. 1989 Autumn; 16(3):199-208.

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on educating and empowering women in these enclaves. Women are in charge of birth spacing and all aspects of management of energy, food, water and the local environment, more so than men, in most countries.
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  17. 17
    201927

    A flexible programming model to study problems of population economics.

    van Praag BM; Pradhan MP

    In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, Springer-Verlag, 1989. 306-24. (Studies in Contemporary Economics)

    In this paper, a normative model is constructed in order to calculate optimal growth patterns for economies with arbitrary population development, social welfare functions, production functions, and social security systems. It turns out that in almost all cases an optimal growth pattern is not synonymous with full employment, except in the classic case of exponential population growth. (author's)
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  18. 18
    201926

    Consumption, savings and demography.

    Alessie RJ; Kapteyn A

    In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, Springer-Verlag, 1989. 272-305. (Studies in Contemporary Economics)

    This paper estimates and tests an expected (multi-period) utility maximization model of the joint determination of savings and of expenditures on different goods using panel data. The emphasis is on appropriate modeling of demographic effects (as taste shifters) and on the estimation of within period preferences that are consistent with the intertemporal 2-stage budgeting under uncertainty. The parameters of the intratemporal utility function depend on demographic factors in a flexible way. Certain implications of the rational expectations-life cycle hypothesis are tested along the lines of Hall (1978). The empirical results indicate rejection of the hypothesis and suggest the existence of liquidity constraints. However, for some forms of liquidity constraints, the functional form of the within period demand functions is not affected. Therefore, the authors have estimated a within period demand system, based on the Almost Ideal Demand System cost function. Both the allocation of consumption across the life cycle and the allocation of expenditures within a given period depend heavily on demographics. (author's)
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  19. 19
    201934

    Equilibrium and efficiency in intergenerational transfers.

    Ben-Zion U; Gradstein M

    In: Demographic change and economic development, edited by Alois Wenig and Klaus F. Zimmermann. Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, Springer-Verlag, 1989. 152-65. (Studies in Contemporary Economics)

    The focus of this study concerns a family consisting of 2 altruistic agents, the parent and the child. The model is cast within a 2-period framework where, in the 1st period, the parent decides on the allocation of his resources between consumption and investment in the human capital of his child, and, in the 2nd period, the child has to decide how much of his (acquired through the parent's transfer) wealth to give away for the support of his parent. The 1st result establishes that the outcome of the game of transfer is inefficient; the possible means of attaining efficiency are investigated. Finally, the impact of uncertainty regarding a child's preferences on the game equilibrium are analyzed.
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  20. 20
    063570

    Macroeconomic consequences of the 'new home economics'.

    Cigno A

    In: Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries, edited by Ronald D. Lee, W. Brian Arthur and Gerry Rodgers. Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1988. 139-50. (International Studies in Demography)

    This chapter examines the consequences of grafting an economic theory of fertility on to a simple model of economic growth. Our 1st discovery was that the existence of a sustainable equilibrium with growing per capita income imposes certain local restrictions on the form of the utility function. By exploiting those restrictions, the author was able to derive conclusions about the effects of government intervention on the long-term behavior of the model economy. The most striking of those conclusions was that a policy of taxing income and redistributing the proceeds to families in proportion to the number of children would increase income, consumption, and the number of children per adult, but would permanently reduce the amount spent on each child. By contrast, income taxation would have no macroeconomic effects, no matter how the proceeds were spent, if population were exogenous. Strong results obtained with a highly stylized model must be taken with the proverbial pinch of salt, particularly so when they concern complex phenomena like fertility. But the approach followed in this discussion, namely inferring the properties of the utility function from the conditions for a sustainable equilibrium and then seeing how these properties affect the comparative statics and dynamics of the system, appears to be promising. It might even be that some of the steady-state results would carry over to models with a variable saving rate and a more detailed age structure.
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  21. 21
    229930

    Optimum population, overlapping generations and social security in a model maximizing u(c1, c2, X).

    Constantinides MA

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS/ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATIONALOKONOMIE. 1987; 47(1):69-75.

    The author expands on a previous publication in which she "considered the social welfare function u(c, L) which incorporates the size of population as an argument, in addition to per capita consumption, and investigated its implications for optimal population policy within a conventional growth setting....In overlapping generations models, as in dynamic growth models, lifetime utility has been maximized using the per capita approach...and more recently using the total utility approach....Our model, incorporating population externalities, represents an intermediate approach, both in the way it is formulated and in its results. It should be noted that our utility function contains as special cases the model with summing over individual utilities or various models with weighted summation, and models with X absent from the utility function." (EXCERPT)
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  22. 22
    055780

    A subjective equilibrium approach to the value of children in the agricultural household.

    Yotopoulos PA; Kuroda Y

    PAKISTAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1988 Autumn; 27(3):229-76.

    A subjective equilibrium model was constructed, integrating economic and demographic behavior of agricultural households, using data from a special Philippine survey. The data were collected in 1978-1979 from 590 households in Misamis Oriental, northern Mindanao Island, sponsored by FAO/UNFPA. Households were categorized into large and small farms, and owner and tenant-operated farms. The utility maximization hypothesis was tested and could not be rejected for any socioeconomic groups. The major difference was the input of child labor. The utility maximization model also revealed demands for leisure and commodities consistent with higher valuation of children in tenant and small households compared to owner and large households. The analysis of household equilibrium with demographic characteristics suggests important policy implications: that improved endowments at the bottom could trickle up to result in higher production and lower population growth.
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  23. 23
    203658

    Fertility choice in a model of economic growth.

    Barro RJ; Becker GS

    Chicago, Illinois, National Opinion Research Center, Economics Research Center, 1988. 30, [2] p. (Discussion Paper No. 88-8.)

    Altruistic parents make choices of family size along with decisions about consumption and intergenerational transfers. The authors apply this framework to a closed economy, where the determination of interest rates and wage rates is simultaneous with the determination of population growth and the accumulation of capital. Thus, the literature on optimal economic growth to allow for optimizing choices of fertility and intergenerational transfers is extended. The authors use the model to assess the effects of child-rearing costs, the tax system, the conditions of technology and preferences, and shocks to the initial levels of population and the capital stock. (author's)
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  24. 24
    227964

    [Effects of demographic factors on household consumption patterns in Taiwan].

    Wang C

    Taipei, Taiwan, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, 1987 Dec. viii, 125 p. (Studies of Modern Economy Series No. 10)

    Household consumption patterns in Taiwan during the period 1964-1981 are analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of demographic variables on household consumption choices. An economic model is used to show that "demographic factors play a key role in the household decision making of consumption and saving and that household demographic variables have great effects on the magnitudes and structures of commodities consumed. The estimated values of demographic scaling parameters indicate that there exists [an] economy of scale of family size in consumer expenditure....The scale effects of commodities in 1981 in general were lower than these in 1964." Comparisons are made with trends in the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Korea. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
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  25. 25
    046608

    Remittances, exchange rates and the labor supply of Mexican migrants in the U.S..

    Fox M; Stark O

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Center for Population Studies, 1987. 16 p. (Discussion Paper Series No. 33.)

    This paper assumes that migrants derive utility from their own consumption, their own leisure and remittances to their family. It hypothesizes that the labor supply and remittances of Mexican migrants in the US are jointly determined. Shifts in real exchange rates affect the cost of sending a given real volume of remittances back to the family in the sending country. This in turn induces income and substitution effects on both remittances and labor supply. It is argued that the substitution effect would dominate. Therefore, under reasonable conditions, a real depreciation of the peso should lead to an increase in both remittances and labor supply. Empirical work using US Census data and a data set containing information on Mexican migrants in the US lends support to the theoretical predictions. (author's)
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