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DEMOGRAPHY INDIA. 1990 Jan-Jun; 19(1):79-91.Poorer sections of urban centers are disproportionately ill-affected by resource constraints limiting the provision of basic water and sanitation services. These areas are more vulnerable to economic degradation and environmental pollution. Planners and policymakers, however, often place greater importance upon rapid macroeconomic development at the expense of protecting the environment. By definition, therefore, such action is more likely to harm those most in need of infrastructural and economic development. Environmental degradation poses both macro and micro problems for cities and their populations. Public sector efforts generally focus upon improving at the macro level, while private sector action tends to dominate at the micro level. This paper studies the nature and magnitude of disparity in access to water and sewage/sanitation facilities among different consumption levels in urban areas. It finds that despite heavy government subsidization in the provision of the public water supply and sewage/sanitation systems, no favorable bias exists to meet the needs of underserved, poor areas. In fact, a substantial proportion of subsidized water is wastefully consumed by higher income groups, often in nonpriority use. Among the bottom 40% of population groups, 52% of households are without latrines. This paper points to the failure of macro-level governmental support to meet the basic needs of the urban poor, and the importance of private, informal solutions to secure basic amenities.
New York, New York, Cosmopolitan, 1987. xv, 316 p.Volume III of the COSMOPOLITAN REPORT first reviews the major conclusions of volume I (demographic change) and II (changes in attitudes, values, and lifestyles) and then discusses the likely implications of those conclusions for consumer behavior. The economic context within which the changing role of women as consumers has taken place includes changes in 1) the characteristics of working women, 2) their occupational distribution, and 3) women's earnings relative to men's. Chapter 1 introduces the volume, and chapter 2 outlines the economic context. Chapter 3 presents the methods used to describe changes in consumer behavior and the application of the life-cycle-stage distribution to the projection of women's demand for products and services. Chapter 4 reviews changes in women's consumption of media--magazines read and television half-hours viewed. Chapter 5 examines the segmentation of the automotive market and includes projections of the number of female principal drivers of domestic and imported cars bought new in the past 4 years. Chapter 6 looks at changes in the cosmetics market--consumption of hair coloring, facial moisturizer, make up, and fragrance. Chapter 7 considers women and the travel industry--changes in the use of air travel. Chapter 8 reviews the participation of women in active sports and the purchase of active sportswear. Chapter 9 examines changing patterns of food purchasing--major and fill-in food shopping and dining out in low-cost restaurants. Chapter 10 surveys participation in public activities and membership in organizations. Chapter 11 summarizes the primary woman as consumer, the aging of the US consumer, and individual characteristics as predictors of consumption.
Santa, Monica, California, Rand Corporation, 1984 Sep. 28 p. (Rand Paper P-7070)This study used data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey to test the hypothesis that traditional income measures that exclude household production activities underestimate the well-being of the poor and overstate inequality. Mean levels of 9 components of income were considered. When net transfer payments, the value of services provided by living in a home one owns, in-kind income, and the imputed value of cottage industry production were added to the 3 standard components of household income (wage income, business income, and capital and interest income), average annual household income was increased by 17%. Another 17% increase occurred when the value of housework was added to total observable income. Finally, inclusion of the value of cooking and child care yielded a composite measure of actual income whose mean exceeded the mean of the 3 standard measures of household income by 56%. As the definition of income is broadened, inequality unambiguously falls. The income share of the poorest quintile of the sample increased by more than 40% when the various in-kind forms of income were added. Although a failure to consider nonmarket sources of income leads to a serious understatement of the well-being of the poorest 20% of the population, a failure to adjust for variation in leisure consumption leads to an overstatement. Malaysian poor appear to compensate for their low market income by producing many goods and services for their own consumption, a practice that implies above average working hours and a sacrifice in the area of leisure consumption. When incomes are standardized to eliminate variation in hours of leisure, measures of income inequality are sensitive to the number of hours chosen for standardization: generally, the larger the average number of work hours on which one standardizes, the lower the estimate of inequality. This finding suggests that much of what has been described as increasing equality due to economic growth may be spurious.
Bethesda, Md, United States. National Institutes of Health [NIH], 1984. x, 146 p.This monograph describes the initial version of the longterm macroeconomic demographic model of the US economy which was developed for the National Institute of Aging (NIA) to investigate the effects of demographic aging on the income level of the elderly as well as on productivity, consumption, savings, and investment. Important features of the model design included the use of large amounts of demographic information, explicit representation of the process of economic growth, the use of a general equilibrium framework, representation of the structural features of the major pension systems, and a comprehensive, integrated approach. The macroeconomic demographic model is composed of a core macroeconomic and demographic modelling system and 5 peripheral models that depict the operation and behavior of the major components of the retirement income system. The core model has 3 major parts: a population projection system, a macroeconmic growth model, and a labor market model. The population model replicates US Census Bureau population projection methodology to project total US population by age and sex for each year from 1970 through 2055. The longterm econometric forecasting model which depicts formulation of working, spending, and savings plans by households and production, investment, and employment plans by businesses, as well as projecting demand for and supply of goods and services. The labor market model depicts the demand for labor, the supply of labor measured in total annual manhours worked for each of 22 age-sex groups, and the simultaneous determination of labor and capital services input along with compensation, output, and employment. The 5 major elements of the retirement income system that are modelled are the Social Security system, the private pension system, the public employee retirement system, the Supplemental Security Income system, and the Medicare system. At the start of each simulation year, the population model forecasts the new size and composition of the population. The macroeconomic growth model and labor market model use the figures to project levels of aggregate economic activity and labor market outputs for the 22 different age-sex cohorts. These projections are inputs into the simulation of each of the 3 pension system models and 2 transfer income models. 1 chapter of the report describes in nontechnical terms each of the 3 core and 5 peripheral models while the final chapter presents the base case simulation and validation of the model from 1970 to 1979. A series of appendices present the equations of each of the 5 principal models and also discuss new analyses completed in the course of model development.