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Journal of International Development. 2003 Nov; 15(8):939-955.This paper presents a comprehensive picture of inequality in China on the basis of provincial data. It decomposes overall inequalities into intra and inter components. Rural-urban inequality dominated overall inequality in the past and will continue to do so in the future. Meanwhile, in recent years inter-regional inequality has grown rapidly and become an important component of inequality. We find that the pattern of inequality is quite different in the pre-reform and reform periods. Our results show that overall inequality in China is large by international standards and that it has grown worse during the past half century. (author's)
Secondary data analyses of dietary surveys undertaken in South Africa to determine usual food consumption of the population.
Public Health Nutrition. 2003 Oct; 6(7):631-644.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to generate a reference table of food items and average amounts of these items consumed by South Africans, for the Department of Health. The reference table was required to be representative of foods and beverages eaten frequently by children and adults from all age and ethnic groups in order for the Department of Health to test for contaminants in these foods. Design: The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) served as a framework for compiling data on children since this was a national representative survey of 1–9-year-old children undertaken in South Africa in 1999. However, there has never been a national dietary survey on adults in South Africa. Consequently the data had to be extrapolated from existing isolated surveys on adults. Secondary data analysis was conducted on existing dietary databases (raw data) obtained from surveys undertaken on adults in South Africa between 1983 and 2000. Available datasets were regional and independent, and were not individually representative of the South African diet. It was therefore necessary to use different statistical methods, including factor analyses, weighting and correlations, to generate ethnic and geographic representative data for adults. Two methods were used: Method 1, which corresponded with results of the NFCS (over-sampled for low socio-economic status), and Method 2, which was based on ethnic proportions of the population. Results: The secondary data analyses generated food items most commonly consumed by the South African adult population (Method 1) in descending frequency of usage and average (mean) amount per day: maize porridge (78%/848 g), white sugar (77%/27 g), tea (68%/456 g), brown bread (55%/165 g), white bread (28%/163 g), non-dairy creamer (25%/6 g), brick margarine (21%/19 g), chicken meat (19%/111 g), full-cream milk (19%/204 g) and green leaves (17%/182 g). In 6–9-yearolds, maize porridge (72%/426 g), sugar (76%/23 g), tea (51%/258 g), full-cream milk (35%/171 g) and white bread (33%/119 g) were eaten most frequently. Similarly, in 1–5-year-olds, the foods consumed most frequently were maize porridge (80%/426 g), sugar (76%/21 g), tea (44%/224 g), full-cream milk (39%/186 g) and white bread (24%/83 g). In order to evaluate the validity of the adult data generated, kilojoule values of the individual food items (per capita) were compared with food balance sheets (FBSs). The comparison was favourable except that the FBSs had a higher overall energy intake per capita of between 22 and 28%. Conclusion: Reference tables of commonly consumed foods and beverages were generated at minimal cost based on secondary data analyses of past dietary surveys in different South African populations. (author's)
New Zealand Geographer. 1998; 54(2):4-11.Sustainability has become a primary goal for much of the legislation which governs resource management in New Zealand. A major difficulty associated with sustainable development objectives, however, is the absence of reliable indicators to measure progress towards the goal of sustainability. The 'ecological footprint' provides an estimate of the amount of ecologically productive land required on a continuous basis to sustain current levels of resource consumption and waste assimilation for a given population. By comparing the ecological footprint of a community with the amount of land available, we can more clearly determine whether our current consumption patterns are likely to be sustainable. This paper explores the use of ecological footprint analysis within a New Zealand context. Modifications to the existing procedure for calculating an ecological footprint are proposed, and estimates based on the modified procedures are presented for New Zealand. (author's)
Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1995 Jan. 20,  p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 95-1)This paper examines the relationship between consumption smoothing and excess female mortality, by asking if favorable rainfall shocks in childhood increase the survival probabilities of girls to a greater extent than they increase boys' survival probabilities for a sample of rural Indian children....The impacts of households' landholdings, parents' education and the availability of health and educational institutions are also assessed. (EXCERPT)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1993. 132 p. (Order No. 9410654)Dramatically increased oil prices significantly and rapidly increased the income of most middle eastern countries after 1973. The author reports on the effect of the income growth on food and nutrition status. He looks at per capita income, food consumption, population per physician, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality rate, child death rate, and life expectancy over 1960-85 for the oil exporting countries Algeria, Libya, and Saudi Arabia, the labor exporting countries Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen, and the agriculture producing countries Jordan, Sudan, Syria, and Turkey. The analysis found the income elasticities of wheat, rice, and corn consumption to be less than one for all countries. The income elasticities for egg, beef, and poultry were more than one for most of the countries. Crude birth and death rates, and child and infant mortality rates decreased with increasing income, while population per physician and life expectancy increased. Only Morocco showed insignificant results for most of the analysis.
In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 4, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 33-54.Global warming is a relatively new issue for demographers, although many theories link population growth to environmental impact. There are different ways to quantify the responsibilities for global warming, and, by presenting a set of scenarios, it is possible to assess the roles of various factors. The topic of population and climate has been avoided since publication of a 1915 claim that certain climates are conducive to high levels of civilization. The link between population and the food supply has been of continual concern, however, since the time of Confucius. Recent studies of the connection between family planning and environmental degradation conclude that simply slowing growth will not provide a short-term solution. Some attempts to quantify the links between population and climate change have been relatively simple, such as comparisons between less developed (LDC) and more developed (MDC) countries' fossil fuel-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or CO2 emissions from deforestation, or per capita CO2 emission. Others have been more complex, including developing an index of various greenhouse gases called the "Greenhouse Warming Potential." This index has been criticized by 2 Indian scientists who propose that natural sinks to absorb pollution should be assigned each country on the basis of population, with the share of pollution to be based on any excess. Another complex quantifier is the Ehrkich-Holden equation, I = PAT, where I is negative impact on the environment, P is population size, A is affluence, and T is environmental impact/quantity of consumption. The problem with the use of this equation lies in aggregation; it must be applied to a homogeneous region to yield useful indicators. The equation also ignores the impact of international trade. Tabulation of annual CO2/capita emissions for 9 regions of the world in 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 and, for the same time periods, tabulation of the role of population growth in past CO2/capita consumption in MDCs and LDCs are variously assigned 1950 values which are compared to real annual data, lead to following conclusion. Population increase in LDCs contributed much less to CO2 emissions than did consumption and population increases in MDCs. This would argue for an emphasis on changing consumption habits in MDCs to reduce CO2 emissions and allow population growth to be checked to achieve sustainable development. As demographers become familiar with the debate on global warming, they can apply their techniques to place the role of population in its proper perspective.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. ix, 39 p. (LSMS: Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper No. 89)Cote d'Ivoire suffered low economic growth rates in the 1980s which were accompanied by an economic adjustment program including substantial cuts in public spending together with increases in the relative price of foods. Controlling for household resources, the authors analyze indicators of child and adult health status to learn of the impact effected by this policy and related macroeconomic changes. Specifically, they examine height for age and weight for height of children as well as body mass index of adults as determined from survey data. The indicators suggest that the adjustment policy and related measures directly affect the health of Ivorians, especially children. While increasing food prices domestically to be in line with world prices may lead to a more efficient allocation of resources, higher prices in the short run will likely adversely affect Ivorian health as measured by weight for height among children and body mass index among adults. Very large increases in income are needed to offset the negative effects of higher food prices at least in the case of child health.
DEMOGRAPHY INDIA. 1990 Jan-Jun; 19(1):79-91.Poorer sections of urban centers are disproportionately ill-affected by resource constraints limiting the provision of basic water and sanitation services. These areas are more vulnerable to economic degradation and environmental pollution. Planners and policymakers, however, often place greater importance upon rapid macroeconomic development at the expense of protecting the environment. By definition, therefore, such action is more likely to harm those most in need of infrastructural and economic development. Environmental degradation poses both macro and micro problems for cities and their populations. Public sector efforts generally focus upon improving at the macro level, while private sector action tends to dominate at the micro level. This paper studies the nature and magnitude of disparity in access to water and sewage/sanitation facilities among different consumption levels in urban areas. It finds that despite heavy government subsidization in the provision of the public water supply and sewage/sanitation systems, no favorable bias exists to meet the needs of underserved, poor areas. In fact, a substantial proportion of subsidized water is wastefully consumed by higher income groups, often in nonpriority use. Among the bottom 40% of population groups, 52% of households are without latrines. This paper points to the failure of macro-level governmental support to meet the basic needs of the urban poor, and the importance of private, informal solutions to secure basic amenities.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1989. , iii, 139 p. (Order No. 8923677)A population of low-income urban squatter households in Amman, Jordan, many of whom are migrants, is used to investigate the degree to which fertility has been affected by exposure to the influence of an urban environment. The data are provided by 2 surveys, carried out in 1981 and 1985, before and after a substantial upgrading program was carried out. The program included the provision of physical and social infrastructure (paved roads, piped water and sewerage, electricity, community centers, and women's training centers, etc.). Since the program also provided the opportunity for households to purchase the land on which they had settled, it represented altogether a substantial change in living conditions and choices for the study population. The surveys thus allowed the investigation of the effects of land ownership on fertility; the factors involved were those such as ethnic background, presence of extended family members in the household, as well as urban exposure. The aspects of fertility which were investigated were: cumulative fertility--analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on cross-sectoral data; contraceptive use--examined using logit and probit analysis as well as OLS, on a subsample of the study population; and current fertility--investigated using Poisson regression to analyze the number of children born between the 2 surveys and the open interval at the time of the 2nd survey to analyze OLS regression. The various analyses do not support a hypothesis of urban exposure per se as being negatively associated with fertility. Apart from the expected findings regarding the biological variables included (age, marital status), and the pervasive negative effect of women's education, the variables tested tend to influence fertility in a direction contrary to expectation. "Higher status" variables such as land ownership, skilled occupation of household head, and income, tend to operate in the direction of allowing larger numbers of children. Contraceptive use levels are higher than would be expected on the basis of observed fertility levels, but are much lower than the potential need for birth spacing, given the relatively large proportion of the women surveyed who did not desire a pregnancy. What emerges, essentially, is that those households studied still either have a large desired family size, due possibly to cultural factors not seen in the analysis (those that would affect the entire population) or that their altered perceptions concerning number of children have not yet been translated into lower fertility. The main policy implications for this population are: changes in dwelling ownership, household head's job status, and household income are unlikely to, on their own, have a strong negative impact on fertility in the shortterm. There is considerable scope, however, for reducing fertility among the older age groups. In view of the likelihood of a decline in breastfeeding popularity, the potential demand for birth spacing, and the positive correlation between contraceptive use and income in the study population, reductions in cost and increased availability of contraceptive methods as part of a healthcare program would likely be beneficial. (author's modified)
Household demand for health care in El Salvador. Volume II: determinants of household demand for curative ambulatory medical care.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1990 Feb. viii, 70 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)The results of a study designed to explain consumer behavior with regard to the consumption of curative ambulatory health services provided by doctors in El Salvador, paying close attention to behavioral differences among urban and rural populations, are reported. The study relied on data collected through a survey of 13, 896 people in 2885 households in San Salvador, other urban areas, and rural areas. In order to identify demand determinants, the effect on health care demand of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, education, and income), and as well as provider characteristics (e.g., price, travel time, and waiting time) were measured. Health providers were categorized into 3 groups: 1) those associated with the Ministry of Health (MOH); 2) those associated with the El Salvador Social Security Institute (ISSS); and 3) private health care providers, whether for-profit or nonprofit. Following a summary and introduction, section III describes the study goals and methodology. Section IV reports the findings on health care utilization patterns, while section V contains the findings on the determinants of health care demand. Section VI discusses the policy implication of the study. 53% of those interviewed reported a self-perceived health problem during the survey's 2-week recall period, but only 14.9% sought curative ambulatory care. Of those who sought care, 81% saw a doctor. Demand for ambulatory care was highest in San Salvador and lowest in rural areas. Differences between the 2 groups were attributed to factors such as education, income, and traveling distances. The study also revealed that the population perceives MOH services as being of very poor quality, while private for-profit providers are viewed as rendering the highest quality services.
WORLD WATCH. 1991 Sep-Oct; 4(5):22-30.This article examines the struggle between developed and developing countries when it comes to reducing energy consumption and limit carbon emissions, necessary steps for averting global warming. Negotiators from across the world have begun discussing the issue, hoping to come to an agreement by next June, when the UN Conference on Environment and Development will meet in Brazil. Disagreement centers around the question of who is responsible for the greenhouse effect and who will pay to fix the problem. The report discusses energy consumption and its effects, the cost of producing energy, and possible ways of eliminating energy waste -- especially as it relates to the 3rd world. Currently, the industrialized world (along with the USSR and Eastern Europe) account for 70% of all carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption. Experts predict, however, that by the year 2025, the 3rd World will surpass the industrialized world in fossil fuel consumption. The author emphasizes the difference in energy use between the 2 regions: while people in developing countries burn wood and biomass to take care of basic necessities, much of the consumption in the developed world to goes towards luxuries and amenities. Inefficient power plants waste much of the energy consumed in the 3rd World. Although hundreds of billions of dollars could be saved annually by introducing energy-saving devices, skewed international lending, underpriced electricity, and the vested interests of the 3rd World industries work against such measures. The author explains that the technology necessary to significantly reduced carbon emissions already exists. Furthermore, 3rd World countries and most industrialized nations (with the exception of the US and the USSR) have agreed on the need to reduce carbon emissions.
New York, New York, Cosmopolitan, 1987. xv, 316 p.Volume III of the COSMOPOLITAN REPORT first reviews the major conclusions of volume I (demographic change) and II (changes in attitudes, values, and lifestyles) and then discusses the likely implications of those conclusions for consumer behavior. The economic context within which the changing role of women as consumers has taken place includes changes in 1) the characteristics of working women, 2) their occupational distribution, and 3) women's earnings relative to men's. Chapter 1 introduces the volume, and chapter 2 outlines the economic context. Chapter 3 presents the methods used to describe changes in consumer behavior and the application of the life-cycle-stage distribution to the projection of women's demand for products and services. Chapter 4 reviews changes in women's consumption of media--magazines read and television half-hours viewed. Chapter 5 examines the segmentation of the automotive market and includes projections of the number of female principal drivers of domestic and imported cars bought new in the past 4 years. Chapter 6 looks at changes in the cosmetics market--consumption of hair coloring, facial moisturizer, make up, and fragrance. Chapter 7 considers women and the travel industry--changes in the use of air travel. Chapter 8 reviews the participation of women in active sports and the purchase of active sportswear. Chapter 9 examines changing patterns of food purchasing--major and fill-in food shopping and dining out in low-cost restaurants. Chapter 10 surveys participation in public activities and membership in organizations. Chapter 11 summarizes the primary woman as consumer, the aging of the US consumer, and individual characteristics as predictors of consumption.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University, Migration and Development Program, 1987 Sep. 27 p. (Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper No. 32)The marital arrangements among households in rural India were examined to explain mobility patterns. It was hypothesized that the marrying out of daughters to locationally distant, dispersed yet kinship-related households is a manifestation of implicit interhousehold contractual arrangements aimed at mitigating income risks and facilitating consumption smoothing in an environment characterized by information costs and spatially covariant risks. The study's data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of households in 3 farm villages in Southern India. Of the 115 marriages included in this sample, only 14 (12%) involved partners who were not also relatives. In 82% of the marriages involving heads of households, the head and his wife had parents with either the same dry or irrigated landholdings or with the same parental schooling levels. The close matching of marital partners with respect to origin household characteristics and the diversity and distance characterizing the marriages were consistent with the hypothesis that marital arrangements influence a household's ability to smooth its consumption when confronted with highly variable income streams. The marital status of adult women in the household, and the interhousehold bonds created by marriage, is the decisive factor contributing to income risk mitigation. Marriage with migration contributed to a reduction in variability in consumption. Households exposed to higher income risks were more likely to invest in longer distance migration-marriage arrangements. The hypothesized and observed marriage-migration patterns contradict standard models of marriage or migration that are concerned primarily with search costs and static income gains.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE. 1988 Jan; 36(2):315-40.Data is used to analyze the food acquisition behavior of households from a 1980/81 survey designed to be nationally, sectorally, and regionally representative of Sri Lanka. The poor are shown to be much more responsive to price and income changes than other income groups. The urban population generally exhibits lower income elasticities of demand for food commodities. The poor appear to efficient substitutors, thereby mitigating the effects of a price change on caloric intake. The important exception is rice, whose elasticity of calorie consumption with respect to price was about 4 times higher than for any other commodity. The reluctance of households to substitute for rice, even when faced with rising prices, coupled with its large budget share, show rice to be the most important consumption good. Higher rice prices are an important determinant of poverty for landless and urban workers. Moderating food prices, preferably through technological change, is a key ingredient to raising consumption among the poor. Simulations show that, even if there are rapid and proportional increases in expenditures of all income groups, this will not dramatically increase caloric intake among the poor. However, if the absolute value of the increase in real expenditures were distributed equally to all households, there would be a marked increase in the % of households consuming an adequate diet.
Santa, Monica, California, Rand Corporation, 1984 Sep. 28 p. (Rand Paper P-7070)This study used data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey to test the hypothesis that traditional income measures that exclude household production activities underestimate the well-being of the poor and overstate inequality. Mean levels of 9 components of income were considered. When net transfer payments, the value of services provided by living in a home one owns, in-kind income, and the imputed value of cottage industry production were added to the 3 standard components of household income (wage income, business income, and capital and interest income), average annual household income was increased by 17%. Another 17% increase occurred when the value of housework was added to total observable income. Finally, inclusion of the value of cooking and child care yielded a composite measure of actual income whose mean exceeded the mean of the 3 standard measures of household income by 56%. As the definition of income is broadened, inequality unambiguously falls. The income share of the poorest quintile of the sample increased by more than 40% when the various in-kind forms of income were added. Although a failure to consider nonmarket sources of income leads to a serious understatement of the well-being of the poorest 20% of the population, a failure to adjust for variation in leisure consumption leads to an overstatement. Malaysian poor appear to compensate for their low market income by producing many goods and services for their own consumption, a practice that implies above average working hours and a sacrifice in the area of leisure consumption. When incomes are standardized to eliminate variation in hours of leisure, measures of income inequality are sensitive to the number of hours chosen for standardization: generally, the larger the average number of work hours on which one standardizes, the lower the estimate of inequality. This finding suggests that much of what has been described as increasing equality due to economic growth may be spurious.
[Unpublished] 1985. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, Massachusetts, March 28-30, 1985. Also published in: Economic Development and Cultural Change 34(4):755-82. 1986 Jul. 26,  p.Mortality is assumed to be strongly reduced by medical care, however, the effects of medical services on health are often underestimated because some of the same factors which lead to an increased demand for primary health care (PHC) services are also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Consequently, understanding the determinants of the demand for medical services is important for evaluating health outcomes. This paper estimates the parameters of a simple model of the demand for health services using data from the Bicol Multipurpose Survey data from the Philippines. The parameters of the demand for key components of PHC--outpatient, prenatal, delivery, well-child, and infant immunizations--are estimated. Findings suggest that the quality of the care may be very important, but that economic factors as deterrents to using medical care--inaccessibility, cash costs, and lack of income--may not be of paramount importance. Finally, it is shown that the provision of free services in rural areas may not insure that the services reach the poorest people. (author's modified)
Bethesda, Md, United States. National Institutes of Health [NIH], 1984. x, 146 p.This monograph describes the initial version of the longterm macroeconomic demographic model of the US economy which was developed for the National Institute of Aging (NIA) to investigate the effects of demographic aging on the income level of the elderly as well as on productivity, consumption, savings, and investment. Important features of the model design included the use of large amounts of demographic information, explicit representation of the process of economic growth, the use of a general equilibrium framework, representation of the structural features of the major pension systems, and a comprehensive, integrated approach. The macroeconomic demographic model is composed of a core macroeconomic and demographic modelling system and 5 peripheral models that depict the operation and behavior of the major components of the retirement income system. The core model has 3 major parts: a population projection system, a macroeconmic growth model, and a labor market model. The population model replicates US Census Bureau population projection methodology to project total US population by age and sex for each year from 1970 through 2055. The longterm econometric forecasting model which depicts formulation of working, spending, and savings plans by households and production, investment, and employment plans by businesses, as well as projecting demand for and supply of goods and services. The labor market model depicts the demand for labor, the supply of labor measured in total annual manhours worked for each of 22 age-sex groups, and the simultaneous determination of labor and capital services input along with compensation, output, and employment. The 5 major elements of the retirement income system that are modelled are the Social Security system, the private pension system, the public employee retirement system, the Supplemental Security Income system, and the Medicare system. At the start of each simulation year, the population model forecasts the new size and composition of the population. The macroeconomic growth model and labor market model use the figures to project levels of aggregate economic activity and labor market outputs for the 22 different age-sex cohorts. These projections are inputs into the simulation of each of the 3 pension system models and 2 transfer income models. 1 chapter of the report describes in nontechnical terms each of the 3 core and 5 peripheral models while the final chapter presents the base case simulation and validation of the model from 1970 to 1979. A series of appendices present the equations of each of the 5 principal models and also discuss new analyses completed in the course of model development.
American Demographics. 1980 Sep; 2(8):32-37.Add to my documents.