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  1. 1

    Cost of AIDS care in Mexico: What are its main predictors? Working paper. Draft. [Costo de la atención del SIDA en México: ¿Cuáles son sus principales factores de predicción? Documento de trabajo. Versión preliminar]

    Aracena B; Gutierrez JP

    [Unpublished] 2002. Prepared for the IAEN Economics of HIV / AIDS in Developing Countries Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, July 6-7, 2002. 17 p.

    Though Mexico has a relatively low HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate (estimated by UNAIDS at 0.29% at the end of 1999), AIDS has become an important issue for the health care system because of the high costs associated with treatment. Since the beginning of the epidemic and through the end of 2001, a total of 51,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in Mexico (CENSIDA 2001), USAID. but because delay in report and sub-notification the number estimate of cases are around 64,000. Mexico’s 100 million inhabitants (INEGI) receive their health care from a health system composed of three principal subsystems: (a) a number of social security institutes that provide health insurance for the formally employed and their families (almost 50 million beneficiaries) and is financed by earmarked employer and employees payroll taxes plus legally mandated government contributions; (b) governmental services headed by the Ministry of Health (MoH) and limited NGO services for the uninsured population (estimated at around 48 million), and (c) a large private sector that is almost entirely financed out-of-pocket as the private insurance market comprises less than 2 million enrollees. The Mexican Institute for Social Security, the main social security institution, offers AIDS treatment, including antiretrovirals (ARVs), for all of its affiliates who need it. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Global population and water: access and sustainability.

    Leete R; Donnay F; Kersemaekers S; Schoch M; Shah M

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003 Mar. xiii, 57 p. (Population and Development Strategies No. 6; E/1000/2003)

    UNFPA fully supports multi-sectoral policies and population and development programmes designed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Such policies and programmes need to take into account the linkages that exist between the different goals and the critical intervening role of population factors and reproductive health. Progressing towards the MDG targets, eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development is dependent on making progress towards the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) goal of achieving universal access to reproductive health services. Population growth and dynamics are often associated with environmental degradation in terms of encroachment of fragile ecosystems, rapid and unplanned urbanization, as well as water and food insecurity. Population pressures tend to be highest in countries least able to absorb large increments of people, threatening sustainable development and resulting in deterioration in the quality of life. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Workshop report on human population dynamics and resource demand, 30 November - 1 December 1990. IUCN -- the World Conservation Union, 18th General Assembly, Perth, Australia.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]. Social Sciences Division. Population and Natural Resources Programme

    Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1991. viii, 53 p.

    A report on a human population dynamics and resource demand workshop includes a discussion of 1) the ambiguities of sustainable development 2) implementing the principals of caring for the earth, 3) families, communities and sustainable use of natural resources with examples from Australia, Korea, Nepal, Colombia, and Burkina Faso, and priorities and followup action on population and natural resources. The Appendices contain brief accounts of the preassembly meetings, the workshop agenda, a list of participants, a concept paper on population and environment links, a resolution on human population dynamics and resource demand, a resolution on women and natural resource management, a report on the meeting on future orientations of The World Conservation Union's "women and the natural resource management program," and a list of papers available on request. Ambiguities pointed out, for example, by Dr. van den Oever were that population growth, which is a demographic phenomena, needs to be considered separately from resource consumption at high levels. Another distinction was made between decreasing the rate of population growth and stopping population growth entirely. Stable populations continue to grow until they become stationary. Another distinction was made between the demographic data available and the lack of similar data on natural resources such as trees, plants, or animals. Another, discussant, Professor Malin Falkenmark, noted the lack of attention paid to the single most important resource to sustain life, water. In order to implement principles of caring for the earth, universities and students must become more involved in advocacy and in the real world. Policy decisions are difficult to make in Pakistan. Americans think that their own over-consumption needs to be checked before they can interfere in developing countries. The priorities are population growth, dealing with the inequities between rich and poor, resource consumption, and not ignoring the southern developing countries while eastern Europe currently receives attention.
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  4. 4

    Caracas statement on environment and development.

    Inter-Parliamentary Meeting on Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Protection (1991: Caracas)


    By the close of an international meeting on socioeconomic development and environmental protection, a statement was prepared by the participants, and is presented as the body of this paper. Parliamentarians and environmental experts were in attendance from Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, the United States, Venezuela, and other governmental and private agencies. Participants acknowledged global threats to the environment and overall quality of life caused by some forms of agrarian development, population growth, poor land use, excessive consumption, energy waste, and inequitably distributed resources. Responding to these threats, strategies and policies for sustainable development while meeting the needs of future generations were developed. Heightened awareness of the importance of environmental protection and resource management among parliamentarians, business leaders, communications professionals, and the general community is a priority. Effective international cooperation is also stressed in facing these global-scale challenges. Moreover, developing countries should be accorded favored treatment by developed countries due to incurred ecological debt, while local populations should be actively involved as participants in any development process. Sustainable economic growth of poverty-stricken nations is deeply interrelated with equitable wealth distribution, adequate land use, education, conservation, health, employment opportunities, the advancement of women, and population policy. Successful strategies must consider such interrelationships, and include policy elements accordingly.
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  5. 5

    The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.

    New Internationalist Publications

    [Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.

    This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
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  6. 6

    [Opinions on population development. The recent past and future of the Hungarian population] Korkerdes a nepesedesrol. A Magyar nepesedes kozelmultja es jovoje.

    Szabo K

    DEMOGRAFIA. 1999; 42(3-4):306-11.

    Two world wars, the great depression between the wars, dictatorships, the crushing of the revolution in 1956, and subsequent decades all account for the fact that frustrated and disintegrated generations make up Hungarian society, which is starting to reorganize itself very slowly. Nevertheless, the low fertility rate in Hungary is paralleled by developed European countries. The common link in this phenomenon is consumerism. In Mediterranean countries traditional values have lost ground and fertility dropped, while in post-communist countries rising expectations caused by the free flow of information have contributed to the development of a crisis of values. In the majority of the countries of the European Union further reduction in fertility did not take place; in fact, there has been improvement in some cases. In Hungary the economic recession after 1990 was unavoidable, but the continuing declining fertility rate was also attributable to current consumerism and the fiscal austerity policy introduced in 1995. In recent years a slight improvement of mortality can be observed, possibly owing to healthier living and somewhat improved health care. The biggest challenge is the support of an aging population which could be enhanced either by the boosting of fertility or receiving masses of immigrants from high fertility regions. In general, in Europe and in developed countries, narcissistic societies have emerged and in Hungary even the establishment of a civil society is missing.
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  7. 7

    Economic crisis and population.

    Kim SG; Ravi V

    In: The Fifteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 18-19, 1999, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association [APDA], 1999. 105-9.

    Vayalar Ravi, a delegate from India discusses the impact of growing population on the global economy and environment during the 15th Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development held in Seoul, Korea, on April 18-19, 1999. Specifically, he focuses on issues concerning 1) trends in population in the world, 2) the asymmetry of world population distribution, 3) the glaring imbalances between the low-income and middle-income countries’ populations and land areas. He explained the impact of ever expanding consumption on the environment and on poor countries, and ironically poor people and poor countries bear the costs of unequal consumption. Lastly, he suggested several measures for the efficacy of the Asian Confederation.
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  8. 8

    Rio + 5: picking up the pieces.

    Hinrichsen D

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(4):4-5.

    The UN General Assembly Special Session held during June 1997 has failed to take forward the objectives set out at the Earth Summit in Rio, casting doubt on the global effort to create a sustainable future. This article presents a balance sheet set out by Don Hinrichsen in the wake of Rio+5. It outlines the progress made by the UN as well as the prevailing issues, which need to be acted upon immediately. It is noted that little progress has been made since the Summit; only the issues of population, forests, and oceans have been given attention, subsequently achieving a significant progress. However, the UN has failed in addressing the issues of poverty, high consumption, management of freshwater, and the continued loss and impoverishment of biological diversity. Little or lack of progress has been made since Rio in implementing recommendations tackling such problems. In the context of the issues regarding land degradation and climate change, assessing progress would be too early for these aspects.
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  9. 9

    Panel discussion: To seek the new and rational standard on population and sustainable development for the coming century (special focus on food security). Discussion.

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 137-42.

    This paper is a transcript of a panel discussion which focused on seeking new and rational standard on population and sustainable development for the coming century among Asian countries. Although concentrated mainly on food security and production, the paper also elaborates on population growth and how education affects its dynamics. For example, according to the delegate from China, the miraculous downward trend of population growth in her country was brought about by implementing a family planning policy while promoting education for all the people, especially those in rural areas. The practicability of the World Food Bank (proposed by the delegate from India) as a means for maintaining a stable food supply, is debated. Issues involving anti-poverty measures, the purchasing power of the poor and food distribution systems are also discussed. One participant proposes controlling food prices and making sure that the food supply is distributed evenly to prevent hunger. Another participant states that, apart from tremendous leakage in the distribution system, there are also problems such as weak infrastructure, road network, storage capacity, and delivery system that constitute barriers to adequate food distribution, so that, in spite of subsidies, the poor are not able to benefit from the situation.
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  10. 10

    Food security in China.

    Hao Y

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 135-6.

    Food insecurity is experienced as population continues to grow at an alarming rate. China, taking agriculture as a fundamental problem now successfully feeds 22% of the world's population on about 7% of the world's cultivated land. Although it is facing problems such as reduction of cultivated land, fragile agriculture infrastructure, and weak ability to overcome the damages of the natural disasters, China is certain that its food will be reliably secured in the next century and that such theories as "Who Will Feed China in the Next Century" by certain Western scholars are completely groundless. Now, China is tapping all potentialities by enhancing scientific production and management and will take full advantage of its resources to develop its production of non-grain foods through fruit-bearing crops, husbandry, and fishing. Food security is no longer an issue of an individual country but the region and the globe. Together with all other countries, China is willing to make its contribution to ensure food security both in China and Asia as a whole.
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  11. 11

    Food security and free trade system.

    Vashishtha PS

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 131-4.

    Food security problems worsen as population rapidly increases. Investing heavily in rural sectors to alleviate a food security problem poses a threat to the environment. This is made evident by the fact that wherever intensification of agriculture has taken place, there has been a very serious chemicalization of agriculture involving heavy doses of fertilizers and pesticides. For example, in India and many other developing countries, it is apparent that intensification of agriculture is leading to soil degradation and water pollution, such that fresh water availability (a critical element to agriculture) is going to be endangered, and there is also a danger to certain fragile parts of ecology such as the mountains. Recovery is going to be a costly affair. It is not just providing food for the large population of the poor that is a concern--making sure that the poor have enough purchasing power is another. Indeed, the poor need to earn enough, to be employed, and to be able to participate in the developing process to a degree that they will be able to influence policy decisions. Even if a country is able to grow enough food or has enough foreign trade to buy imported food, it is still not a sufficient condition for effective delivery of food to the poor. The key to sustainable development is investment in human capital--in education and improvement of skills. Without this investment, delivery of food is just not enough.
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  12. 12

    Seeking new and rational standards for population and sustainable development.

    Sakurai S; Bhalla GS

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 127-30.

    This paper discusses the seeking of new and rational standards for population and sustainable development. Food security, defined as the availability of food to everybody in the community throughout the year at reasonable prices, has been linked to the purchasing power of people, which emerges out of working in productive occupations. There are two basic determinants of food demand: population growth and per capita income. If income growth and income levels are both high, there is a diversification of the food basket. In such a case people do not eat so much grain; instead, they diversify their food habits and go for those with more nutrients or for those that taste better. Consequently, there is a movement towards a diet dependent on milk, meat, eggs, fish, poultry, pork, and beef. Therefore, the demand for food grains declines as income increases. However, demand for meat, eggs, fish, and poultry also leads to a very big indirect demand for food grains. For example in China, the feed requirement may emerge to be as much as 30% of the total food demand. Although the direct food demand declines with rise in income, the total direct and indirect food demand increases at a very rapid rate. To overcome supply constraints in food grains, investment should be allotted to agricultural infrastructure--in irrigation, in scientific research, in extensions, and in upgrading of technology. Otherwise, developing countries, especially in Asia, will be increasingly dependent on borrowing and importing food from developed countries.
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  13. 13

    World Food Bank for food security.

    Patel U

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 121-2.

    This paper discusses the proposed role of the "World Food Bank" in maintaining food security. The issue of food security implies three dimensions: availability of food, access to food, and stability of availability and access. Along with water and shelter, food is a basic amenity of life. Without it man cannot live. Mahatma Gandhi has given the world the concept of Trusteeship which states that the haves are the trustees and they have to take care of the have-nots. It is this principle that the concept of the World Food Bank is based upon. The objective of the World Food Bank is to provide timely, adequate food to nations that are temporarily or chronically in deficit with respect to food requirements. The World Food Bank will be an international food cooperative society. Nations will be encouraged to be self-reliant as far as possible, and the Bank will function on a decentralized basis. Distribution and storage will be handled by the national government in complete coordination with their indigenous systems. Such a concept as the World Food Bank, however, has to be carefully considered by all the nations of the world, and making it a reality will be a complex job.
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  14. 14

    Characteristics of the international rice market and the new equitable and sustainable rule for international trade of rice and food.

    Ali DH; Tsujii H

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 107-20.

    This paper proposes a new equitable and sustainable international trade rule and agricultural policy on rice and agricultural products for Asian countries. A new trade rule is the necessary modification of the free trade that has strongly influenced the recent international trade negotiations on agricultural products from Asia's viewpoint. The presentation involves these topics: 1) concentration of rice production and consumption in Asia and self-sufficiency; 2) the thin, unstable, and unreliable international rice trade market; 3) self-sufficiency as an important market principle and policy goal; 4) the important national policy objective of domestic rice price and supply stabilization; 5) the mutually enforcing relationship between rice self-sufficiency policy and thin international rice trade market; 6) the rule of the benefit of free trade; 7) the nonexistence of a reliable and relatively stable international rice trade market; 8) the oligopolistic international rice trade market; 9) the crisis for Asia's poor and hungry caused by the liberalization of rice trade; and 10) the reduction in the value of externalities to the Asian people caused by rice trade liberalization. Rice is a necessity, the wage goods, the grain of life and the political goods in the developing Asian countries. About 90% of the world production and consumption of rice is concentrated in Asia. In order to maintain stabilization of domestic price and supply of rice, most Asian countries have pursued a rice self-sufficiency and stabilization policy.
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  15. 15

    Population and social development. World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 6-12 March 1995.

    United Nations

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 1994 Aug. 5 p. (Backgrounder 4)

    The 1994 Human Development Report states that world peace hinges on whether people have security in their daily lives. This articles discusses some implications of unbalanced population growth for limiting human development. This background paper refers to reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. The proposed people-centered approach would emphasize reducing poverty, building solidarity, and creating more jobs in developing countries in the context of sustainable development. Recent world conferences served as an interim impetus for securing the commitment of all countries to a human development agenda. The underlying assumption was that human development would fuel economic growth in sustainable ways. Demographic factors have exacerbated the problems of poverty, social conflict, and gender inequity. The UN's Plan of Action called for integrating population issues into all aspects of development planning. A concern is whether humans can adjust to the projected massive numbers of people without increasing scarcity, conflict, and social disintegration. The key to human progress has been recognized by some as the empowerment of women. It is proposed that population growth will be stabilized and poverty will be alleviated by provision of family planning services for women with an unmet need. The threat to human survival is recognized as threats to sufficient resources and inequitable access to resources at all levels. Structural adjustment development policies are recognized as remedies for serious economic imbalances at the expense of human needs. Natural resource depletion and environmental pollution are recognized as emanating from unsustainable production and consumption patterns in industrialized countries. Developing countries need jobs. The world's age distribution of population is demographically lopsided.
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  16. 16

    Humankind, culture and the earth.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1993 Feb; (224):1.

    The Population Forum 21 and the Interdependent World Institute organized the Population Forum 21 symposium held in Tokyo, Japan, on December 22, 1993. Its theme was Humankind, Culture, and the Earth. The UNFPA Executive Director used the Japanese tea ceremony, which represents spiritual tranquility and simplicity of taste, thereby teaching us about naturalness, simplicity, and self knowledge, to stress that the unbalanced world lacks these qualities. She emphasized that both developed and developing countries are jeopardizing the earth's life support systems. She indicated that developed nations, whose population growth has either slowed or stopped, consume the world's resources foolhardily, even though most people in the world do not have access to these resources. This consumption pattern and current wasteful production techniques greatly damage the environment. 80% of the world's population live in developing countries where high population growth rates worsen the already existing, widespread poverty. These high rates cause extensive environmental upheaval and worsen or destroy economic development. The keynote address speaker provided suggestions to improve the quality of life also using the Japanese tea ceremony, specifically its 4 parts (peace, mutual respect, purity, and silence), to make his point. Peace and mutual respect address the need for humans to learn how to live together with each other and with nature. Japanese Prince Takamadonomiya stressed the need for all people on the planet to communicate and to share responsibility for environmental issues.
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  17. 17

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  18. 18

    Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)

    The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
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  19. 19

    Counting the cost to world's wildlife.

    Kim OK

    EARTHWATCH. 1991; (41):13-4.

    Research on the impact of human population growth on the use of wildlife in 9 countries, Borneo, Brazil, Greenland, India, Nigeria, Yemen and Zambia, among others, was reported at the 1990 Perth conference of the IUCN (World Conservation Union). While indigenous cultures exhibit specific preferences for use of particular wildlife species for decoration and clothing, the impact of the affluent is greater on survival and sustainability of species. Wildlife habitat has been lost in 68% of Southeast Asia, 65% of sub-Saharan Africa, 1% of Greenland and 80% of India. Human population growth is more adverse to wild species and habitat in areas of low economic development, especially in Zambia and India. In India productivity is low, soil erosion and deforestation are serious problems. There threatened species include 29 mammals, 5 birds, 12 reptiles and 2 butterflies. Zambia had lost 29% of its original wildlife habitat by 1986, but had set aside 6.4 million ha of its 740,7000 sq km as protected areas. Because of poor economic conditions, people are using the forests for income, increasing deforestation, soil erosion and the effects of droughts.
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  20. 20

    Report of the Regional Information, Education and Communication Conference, Coconut Grove, Florida, December 6-10, 1987.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 1988. [2], 36 p.

    The purpose of the Regional Information, Education, and Communications Conference, held in Florida in December 1987, was to examine new ideas in information, education, and communication (IEC) with regard to reaching 3 general audiences -- adolescents, the family planning consumer, and the public-at-large -- and to explore the application of these ideas at the family planning association level. An abridged version of the discussions is included in these proceedings. In the session devoted to using the life planning methodology to reach adolescents, several countries gave presentations on their adolescent programs. Grenada, Mexico, Guatemala, Suriname, Chile, and Panama all have special programs for adolescents. The programs include a wide range of medical, educational, and recreational activities. The objective of the session addressing consumer marketing techniques in the family planning field was to encourage family planning organizations to use the consumer marketing approach of matching and promoting their services in relation to consumer needs and preferences. Conference participants were divided into 4 working groups to discuss consumer marketing of clinics. Each group focused on 4 questions: Why are clinics underutilized; what can be done to improve clinic services to that they lend themselves to better marketing; what ideas can be suggested for more effective marketing and promotion of clinic services; and what assistance, if any, should the regional office provide in helping family planning associations embark on clinic marketing programs. The working groups concluded that the principal reasons clinics are underutilized are poor geographical location, inadequate scheduling of visiting hours, and insufficient public information on clinics and the services they provide. The working groups suggested several measures that family planning associations could take to increase utilization of clinic services: offer a diversity of services at low prices; commercialize promotional materials; attend to the comfort of patients and provide incentive to "spread the word;" and determine the problems of each clinic and design a plan on how to offer quality services in an organized manner. The last session of the conference dealt with the importance of public information programs for the family planning associations in creating a positive public image and improving relations with governments.
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  21. 21

    Economics of changing age distributions in developed countries.

    Lee RD; Arthur WB; Rodgers G

    Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1988. ix, 221 p.

    Most of this book's nine chapters, which are by various authors, were originally prepared for a seminar on the economic consequences of changing population composition in developed countries, organized by an IUSSP committee and held in Laxenburg, Austria, in December 1983. The focus of the book is on the impact that age distribution irregularities have had on the United Kingdom, Israel, Japan, and the United States, where unusually large generations experience educational disadvantages, reduced wages, and increased levels of unemployment. Also considered are the effects of fluctuations in demographic aging on providing for the elderly, questions of intergenerational equity, and the long-term implications of demographic aging on the lifetime welfare of the populations of developed countries. Other topics covered include the impact of changing household living arrangements on the demand for housing and of changing age distribution on consumption demand.
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  22. 22

    Another development in pharmaceuticals: an introduction.

    Streky G

    DEVELOPMENT DIALOGUE. 1985; (2):5-13.

    The provision of appropriate medicines of the right kind, quality and quantity, and at reasonable prices is a central concern for any government. Simultaneously, there is increasing recognition of the serious problems inherent in the existing systems of pharmaceutical development, promotion, marketing, distribution and use in all countries and particularly in the 3rd World. The vast majority of people in most 3rd World countries have little or no access to effective and safe medicines. The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation organized a consultation on Another Development in Pharmaceuticals in June 1985. It was based on some papers commissioned for that occasion with a view to developing new approaches to fundamental problems in this field and involving both national and international actors and institutions. The basic concern of these papers was to place the debate on pharmaceuticals in its proper historical, contemporary and future context. The 5 major areas discussed were: 1) man and medicines: a historical perspective; 2) towards a healthy use of pharmaceuticals; 3) towards a healthy pharmaceutical industry by the year 2000; 4) 1st principles for the prescription, promotion and use of pharmaceuticals: towards a code of conduct; and 5) monitoring Another Development in Pharmaceuticals. 90% of the world's production of pharmaceuticals originates in the industrialized countries, which also accounts for 80% of the consumption. 3rd World countries have been supplied with a very inappropriate assortment of products by the pharmaceutical industry. There is a growing demand for improved practices that are conducive to health development. An international harmonization of regulatory standards is needed.
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  23. 23

    [Migrations in Africa: comments on the article by Professor Adepoju] Les migrations en Afrique: commentaires de l'article du Prof. Adepoju.

    Paraiso MJ

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 10 p.

    This paper contains comments on the paper delivered by A. Adepoju to the 1986 PanAfrican Conference of Parlementarians on Population and Development in Harare, Zimbabwe. Scarcely 20 years ago, economists saw migration as a sign of economic progress in which rural populations were slowly transferred to the urban industrial centers where thousands of jobs awaited them. It is now known that the speed and intensity of migration pose serious economic, social, and political problems for African countries. No country has an optimal spatial distribution of population. Natural resources, soil quality, and poles of economic growth are unevenly distributed. Migration is principally a process of adjusting settlement patterns to resources and economic conditions. What is now astounding in Africa is the huge gap between the quality of life in rural and urban areas. The rural exodus of the past 2 decades in most African countries has been due not so much to drought or other natural disasters as to insufficiency of resources in the countryside. A policy to distribute resources between rural and urban zones would constitute a true policy of population distribution. During the decade from 1980-90, the pace of urbanization in Africa is expected to decline. Current projections do not anticipate continuing economic crisis or natural disasters. Creation of urban jobs to combat unemployment in the cities has had the effect of intensifying the rural exodus, transforming the problem of urban unemployment into a permanent structural problem. Rural resettlement programs and sedentarization programs for nomads are limited solutions to problems of spatial distribution which frequently lack true political support for the extended periods necessary to ensure their success. Their greatest challenge is to provide the means of retaining the children of the original settlers so that new migratory flows do not arise from them. Policies to encourage the growth of medium sized cities in order to reduce migration to the capital are even harder to implement than rural resettlement programs, and appear to hold limited promise in Africa. Given the low degree of industrialization in Africa, few countries are capable of creating new urban growth poles offering sufficiently diversified employment to divert migrants from the capital. The observation over the past several decades in Africa has been that the larger the city, the more migrants it attracts. International migration within Africa has probably lessened in intensity since the 1970s due to economic problems in the countryside. Free circulation of population is however required if Africa is to be an economic community. The "brain drain" is a source of worry to many governments despite the shortterm benefits derived from remittances. Overall, few African governments have coherent migration policies. Only by giving migration policy priority in development plans can African countries hope to influence the distribution of their populations.
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  24. 24

    [Questions with regard to the balance among population resources, environment and development before the International Population Conference] Algunas cuestiones en torno al balance entre poblacion, recursos, medio ambiente y desarrollo, ante la Conferencia Internacional de Poblacion.

    Ham Chande R

    In: Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, Recursos, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Tijuana, Baja California, June 15, 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-33.

    The interconnections between population, resources, the environment, and development are complex and difficult to analyze. Deleterious consequences of population pressure and development on resources and the environment are recognized, but advocates of extreme conservation may not be willing to acknowledge that some resource use is necessary for survival. On the other hand, those who wish to provide each of the earth's several billion inhabitants with a modern, materially advantaged lifestyle may not acknowledge that resources are too limited to support such a standard. The belief that slowing population growth by itself will free the world of resource constraints is simplistic. The rapid fall in fertility rates in Mexico and Latin America will not solve any economic problems. In absolute terms, Mexican and Latin American population growth will continue to be immense. Almost all countries are aware of the need to slow demographic growth. It is necessary, however, for developing countries to take the position in the impending World Population Conference that slower population growth will not by itself solve the development problem. Focusing exclusively on population pressure ignores the inequities in distribution of income and wealth found between nations and within even the poorest nations. Environmental impact and resource use are determined by consumption in developed countries and among elite classes in developing countries more than by population size.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    The pharmaceutical industry and health in the third world.

    Taylor D

    Social Science and Medicine. 1986; 22(11):1141-9.

    This paper considers the impac of the pharmaceutical industry of Third World health care, indicating the broad outlines of current debate in the field. It examines the structure and characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry and the markets for its products. It then discusses the nature of the health problems particular to the poorer, nonindustrialized communities and the relevance of drugs and their makers. Possible ways towards and more productive pattern of relationships are explored. A major impetus for the development of the pharmaceutical industry was an econmic crisis which drove the industry to attempts at diversification. Other important factors were also at work: migration from rural to urban areas; development of technology; and disconery of the causes of disease. The developing countries account for only 15-20% of global drug consumption as measured in manufacturers' price terms. Overall, most countries in the world spend on average 0.7-0.8% of their GNPs on medicaines. A number of elements are likely to prove common to any successful process of helth and wealth development. These include: increases in literacy rates; the establishment of accepted systems of social and political organization; the creation of effective transport and communication systems; the provision of clean water supplies and sanitation provisions; and the build-up of effective primary and 2ndary health care. The role of medicines and vaccines in deprived communites is 3-fold: they can help prevent illnesses, e.g. as with immunization; pharamaceuticals may be directly curative; they may alleviate pain and other sumptoms. As far as improvement of the access of poor world rural and peri-urban populations to essential drugs is concerned, 3 of the most vital necessary conditions are: the establishment of universally available primary health care facilities; an efficient, secure system of transporting medicines from factories, airports, and docks to health facilities; and proper purchasing agreements.
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