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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Report of Working Group 1: Promoting the fortification of appropriate foods.

    Matji J

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):466-.

    Fortification of appropriate foods is an important component of a comprehensive food-based approach toward sustainable control of micronutrient malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency disorders. There are several aspects to be considered and issues to be resolved before investing in food fortification. Key issues discussed by participants included the following: Need for food-consumption survey data to identify micronutrient problems, target groups for interventions, and appropriate food vehicle(s) that could be fortified, including staple foods, complementary foods, and post-weaning foods; Importance of evaluating risks of fortification versus doing nothing and communicating information to policy makers and the scientific community. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Enhancing vitamin A intake in young children in western Kenya: Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes and women farmers can serve as key entry points.

    Hagenimana V; Low J; Anyango M; Kurz K; Gichuki ST

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2001; 22(4):376-387.

    In western Kenya, where vitamin A deficiency is common and the white sweet potato is an important secondary staple, orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were introduced and their consumption was promoted, along with other vitamin A-rich foods. Ten women's groups grew a number of varieties of sweet potato on group plots in on-farm trials. Five of the groups also received an intervention consisting of nutritional education, individual counseling, and participatory rapid appraisal techniques to promote vitamin A consumption, while the other five formed the control group that received no additional promotion. Changes in consumption of children under five years of age were assessed before and after a one-year intervention period using the Helen Keller International food-frequency method. Varieties were tested for yield, agronomic performance, taste and appearance, and dry matter content. They were also assessed for ß-carotene content in the forms of boiled and mashed puree, sweet potato flour, and processed products. Children in the intervention group consumed vitamin A-rich foods almost twice as frequently as control children (93% more), especially orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, mangoes, dark-green leafy vegetables, butter, and eggs. The yields of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes were at least twice those of white sweet potatoes, as were the taste and appearance ratings. The dry matter content of the varieties exceeded 25%, except for one that was preferred as a weaning food. ß-Carotene values were high enough that one cup of boiled and mashed sweet potato fed daily to children of weaning age would alone meet their requirement of vitamin A, even using the higher 12:1 ß-carotene:retinol conversion. Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes produced and prepared by women farmers can serve as a key food-based entry point for reducing vitamin A deficiency. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Breastfeeding practices and nutritional status of children at high altitude in Ladakh [letter]

    Cvejic E; Ades S; Flexer W; Gray-Donald K

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1997 Dec; 43(6):376.

    In collaboration with the Children Fund's Leh nutrition project, a nutritional survey of 12 villages of the Wanla area in Ladakh, India, was undertaken. Height, mid-arm circumference (MAC), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were measured and the presence of edema was noted. Measurements were obtained for 152/198 children aged less than 8 years. Information on length of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of other foods, and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables was obtained from their mothers. The percentage of children classified as stunted (height-for- age z-score < 2 SD NCHS) was 53 per cent at less than 1 year but greater than 80 per cent after this age. The mean height-for-age z-score was --3.2. Mid-arm muscle area was below the 15th percentile for 30 per cent of those under 2 years, but approximately 80 per cent of the older children fell below this cut-off. A very similar pattern was seen with skin-fold thickness. Both height and muscle area were below the 5th percentile for 25 per cent of male children and 14 per cent of female children, indicating that these children were likely to be chronically malnourished. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Snack consumption in normal and undernourished preschool children in northeastern Thailand.

    Klunklin S; Channoonmuang K

    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2006; 89(5):706-713.

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of the Northeastern region in Thailand. The study aimed to investigate factors influencing nutritional status and to explore the pattern of snack consumption. Subjects were 85 normal and 85 undernourished pre-school children with ages ranging from 2-6 years old. The authors collected demographic data including socio-economic status and family background by using an interview administered questionnaire. A 5-day food record was used to evaluate nutritional intake. The results indicated that children in both groups preferred crispy snacks between breakfast and lunch. Energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium and sodium intake derived from snacks and overall intake were significantly lower in undernourished children than those in normal children (p-value < 0.01). The results indicated that energy intake in pre-school malnourished children (2-3 years) as percentage of recommended daily allowance was lower than the recommended level. High sodium intake was observed in the presented study children and the results supported the observation that snack foods contribute to excessive sodium intake. The present results have highlighted the impact of snack consumption. Programmes aimed at increasing nutritional knowledge and information for parents and guardians are important. Furthermore, promotion of nutritious snack consumption among children is important. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Antibiotic use profile at paediatric clinics in two transitional countries.

    Palcevski G; Ahel V; Vlahovic-Palcevski V; Ratchina S; Rosovic-Bazijanac V

    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2004 Mar; 13(3):181-185.

    In this study, we evaluated antibiotic utilisation pattern at two paediatric clinics in different European (transitional) countries: Croatia (Rijeka) and Russia (Smolensk). Antibiotic utilisation during the year 2000 was observed using the ATC/defined daily doses (DDD) methodology (ATC code-J01). Drug-usage data was expressed in numbers of DDD/100 bed-days and the DU 90% profile. In Rijeka, 35 different systemic antibiotics were used and in Smolensk 22. The overall consumption of antibiotic drugs in Rijeka was more than three times higher than in Smolensk (28.96 vs 8.3 DDD/100 bed-days). The top five antibiotic drugs used in Smolensk were amoxicillin, mydecamicin, ampicilin, doxycylin, gentamicin; and in Rijeka cefuroxime axetil, ceftriaxone, azytromycin, ceftibuten and amoxicillin. Differences in antibiotic prescribing patterns are greater than expected. The pattern of antibiotic utilisation in both countries implies that regional control measures and guidelines for antibiotic use in children should be urgently established. (author's)
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  6. 6

    The demand for non-relative child care among preschoolers: a double-hurdle approach.

    Joesch JM; Hiedemann BG

    Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1997 Dec. [49] p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 98-4)

    Survey data indicate that many parents do not use non-parental care for their young children, even when both parents work. Previous studies of the demand for child care assumed that all parents respond to financial incentives. Since non-consumption may be the result of social, psychological or ethical considerations and unconnected with price and income levels, this assumption may not be appropriate. To assess the sensitivity of child care demand estimates to assumptions about reasons for non-consumption, we estimate the demand for non-relative care for preschoolers with double-hurdle, tobit and dominance models. The results suggest that both financial and non-financial considerations lead to zero child care consumption, that the decision to use any care differs from the decision of how many hours of care to use and that estimates vary by the child's age. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Gender-bias in India: the importance of household fixed-effects.

    Subramaniam R

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1995 Sep. 31 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 732)

    This paper presents an analysis of gender patterns in intra-household allocation of resources based on household level consumption data. Invoking the assumption that households seek to equalize the marginal utility of wealth when they allocate resources over the life-cycle, the paper provides a rationale for parental behaviour pertaining to the intertemporal allocation of goods among children. Estimation results based on panel data from India show that controlling for the unobserved marginal utility (household fixed) effect is crucial. Once allowance is made for fixed effects, the results indicate that there is no longer any gender-differential in the allocation of resources. (author's)
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