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  1. 1

    Spread of smoking to the developing countries.

    Tominaga S

    In: Tobacco: a major international health hazard. Proceedings of an international meeting organized by the IARC and co-sponsored by the All-Union Cancer Research Centre of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR, held in Moscow, 4-6 June 1985, [edited by] D.G. Zaridze, R. Peto. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1986. 125-33. (IARC Scientific Publications No. 74)

    In most developing countries, tobacco consumption has been relatively low in the past. It has been increasing in recent years as developed countries have exported more cigarettes to developing countries, and as developing countries have cultivated more tobacco themselves to produce cheaper tobacco, at the sacrifice of food production. Tobacco sales are an important source of revenue for governments in the developing countries as in the developed countries. The spread of smoking to developing countries and the increase in tobacco consumption have had several adverse effects: an increase in lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases; an increase in economic burdens resulting from imports of cigarettes from developed countries and increased medical costs for smoking-related diseases; and decreases in production and import of foods. There are many obstacles and constraints to smoking control in the developing countries, but smoking control is badly needed to prevent lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases, to alleviate economic burdens, and to increase the production and import of foods. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Rising death rates among Polish men

    Cooper R; Schatzkin A; Sempos C

    International Journal of Health Services. 1984; 14(2):289-302.

    All-causes mortality rates turned sharply upward for Polish men around 1972. Increases of 25 percent or greater were recorded for all five-year age groups between 40 and 59 years. Other indices, including infant mortality and death rates for women, either continued to improve or did not change. The primary causes accounting for this upturn appear to be cardiovascular diseases and cancer of the lung. It is found that "the epidemiological pattern in Poland reflects in part the long-term trend for consumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco to approximate that found in Western industrialized countries....Although it is still too early to see the effect of the social crisis of the last two years, economic disruption and shortages are not the main factors accounting for the upturn in Polish mortality through 1980. In fact, the success of the Polish economic strategy appears to be the underlying social cause." (EXCERPT)
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