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Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004 Sep; 25(3):239-247.An agricultural project in Highland Ecuador provided a model context to better understand the nutrition of rural women. The adequacy of women's nutrition and the strength of associations with age and socioeconomic status were studied in 104 rural households over four rounds (two seasons) during the 1995-1996 agricultural year using a cross-sectional with repeated-measures design. Women were at high risk for micronutrient deficiencies (calcium, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B12) due to low intakes of animal products. Two distinct constructs representing socioeconomic status were identified: modern lifestyle and farming wealth. In multivariate models, farming wealth was associated with quality of women's diet (animal protein adjusted for energy, p = 0.01). Diet quality, in turn, was positively associated with anthropometric status (p = 0.02). Women over the age of 50 weighed approximately 3.7 kg less than younger women and consumed less energy (300 kcal) and micronutrients (p < 0.05). Age was positively associated with respiratory morbidity (p = 0.01). These findings, while directly relevant to a specific context, suggest the need for cross-cultural studies to identify the extent of, and factors contributing to, the risk of nutritional inadequacy in postreproductive women in developing countries. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. ix, 39 p. (LSMS: Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper No. 89)Cote d'Ivoire suffered low economic growth rates in the 1980s which were accompanied by an economic adjustment program including substantial cuts in public spending together with increases in the relative price of foods. Controlling for household resources, the authors analyze indicators of child and adult health status to learn of the impact effected by this policy and related macroeconomic changes. Specifically, they examine height for age and weight for height of children as well as body mass index of adults as determined from survey data. The indicators suggest that the adjustment policy and related measures directly affect the health of Ivorians, especially children. While increasing food prices domestically to be in line with world prices may lead to a more efficient allocation of resources, higher prices in the short run will likely adversely affect Ivorian health as measured by weight for height among children and body mass index among adults. Very large increases in income are needed to offset the negative effects of higher food prices at least in the case of child health.