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Your search found 4 Results

  1. 1

    U.S. money demand: surprising cross-sectional estimates.

    Sala-i-Martin X; Mulligan CB

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1992 Sep. 60 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 671)

    We estimate money demand functions using cross-sections of U.S. states over the period 1929-1990. We arrive at a number of interesting conclusions: First, our estimates of the income elasticity lie between 1.3 and 1.5, significantly above one. Second, money demand is a stable function over an impressive sample period, 1929-1990. Third, income per capita is a better scale variable than consumption. And finally, after having been fairly constant between 1950 and 1980, the rate of technological progress (which determines the amount of money demanded for given incomes, price levels and interest rates) accelerated substantially over the 1980s. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Nutritional status of women in Orissa. A rural urban differential from NFHS II.

    Rout NR

    Mumbai, India, International Institute for Population Sciences, 2003. [27] p.

    Since 1947, India has made substantial progress in human development. In 50 years, life expectancy has doubled; mortality level has fallen more than one half, and fertility has declined by more than two fifth. Poverty levels have been reduced from over 50 percent in 1950s to 35 percent in the 1990s. Nutritional status has also improved. Thanks to the green revolution, which provided a breathing spell for achieving a balance between human numbers and food output. Famines no longer stalks the land as frequently as before, the country has become self sufficient in food -one of the world’s greatest achievement in development and the extreme ravages of malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor and marasmus, are now relatively rare. Yet more than half of Indian children under five years of age are moderately or severely malnourished, 30 percent of newborns are significantly underweight and 60 percent of Indian women are anemic. These manifestations of malnutrition are unacceptable. They reflect the neglect of children and women and their high risk of illness and death. They end in failure to achieve full physical and mental potential, lower productivity and blighted lives. Thus it can be well said that improvements in nutritional status have not kept pace with progress in other areas of human development, at least when homogenous distribution is taken into consideration. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Demographic consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's provinces.

    Peng X

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1987 Dec; 13(4):639-70, 763-4, 766.

    This article examines the demographic consequences of China's Great Leap Forward--the massive and ultimately unsuccessful drive during 1958-62 to leap ahead in production by mobilizing society and reorganizing the peasantry into large-scale communes. Severe excess mortality and massive fertility shortfalls are documented, but with wide variations among provinces and between rural and urban areas. The demographic crisis was caused, in the first instance, by nationwide food shortages. However, these are attributable to declines in grain production, entitlement failure, and changes in consumption patterns, all of which are ultimately traceable to political and economic policies connected with the Great Leap. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  4. 4

    Catering to one billion: consumer demand in China's provinces.

    Hardee KA

    [Unpublished] 1987. 54 p.

    This paper looks at provincial patterns of consumer demand and expenditure in China between 1978 and 1985, and analyzes peasant household survey data using Lluch's Extended Linear Expenditure System (ELES). Income are rising, and as they do, Chinese consumers are allocating less for food and more for other consumer goods and housing. Interprovincial disparities still exist, but income and consumption are rising in all provinces. The doubling of peasant income between 1978 and 1985 was accompanied by increasing consumption of both non-durables such as food and durable goods such as bicycles, watches, and television sets. The ELES yielded estimates of subsistence, marginal propensities to consume commodities, income elasticities, and savings. The marginal propensity to consume food, as expected, was higher than that for other goods. Income elasticity of demand for food and clothing was less than 1 for all provinces while that for housing was greater than 1 in 15 provinces. This analysis has not been extended to predict consumption patterns by province into the future. When price data and consumption levels by income group within provinces, as well as data on supply of commodities by income group within the provinces becomes available, such provincial projections of consumer demand will be possible. A few more years of data should provide more realistic trends in consumer demand in the provinces. Since provincial data on urban consumption patterns have not been made available, little can be said about this growing segment of Chinese consumers, except that price shifts should have a considerable influence on consumption patterns in urban areas. (author's modified)
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