Your search found 789 Results

  1. 1
    393089

    A demographic dividend of the FP2020 Initiative and the SDG reproductive health target: Case studies of India and Nigeria.

    Li Q; Rimon JG

    Gates Open Research. 2018 Feb 22; 2:11.

    Background: The demographic dividend, defined as the economic growth potential resulting from favorable shifts in population age structure following rapid fertility decline, has been widely employed to advocate improving access to family planning. The current framework focuses on the long-term potential, while the short-term benefits may also help persuade policy makers to invest in family planning. Methods: We estimate the short- and medium-term economic benefits from two major family planning goals: the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020)'s goal of adding 120 million modern contraceptive users by 2020; Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3.7 of ensuring universal access to family planning by 2030. We apply the cohort component method to World Population Prospects and National Transfer Accounts data. India and Nigeria, respectively the most populous Asian and African country under the FP2020 initiative, are used as case studies. Results: Meeting the FP2020 target implies that on average, the number of children that need to be supported by every 100 working-age people would decrease by 8 persons in India and 11 persons in Nigeria in 2020; the associated reduction remains at 8 persons in India, but increases to 14 persons in Nigeria by 2030 under the SDG 3.7. In India meeting the FP2020 target would yield a saving of US$18.2 billion (PPP) in consumption expenditures for children and youth in the year 2020 alone, and that increased to US$89.7 billion by 2030. In Nigeria the consumption saved would be US$2.5 billion in 2020 and $12.9 billion by 2030. Conclusions: The tremendous economic benefits from meeting the FP2020 and SDG family planning targets demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of investment in promoting access to contraceptive methods. The gap already apparent between the observed and targeted trajectories indicates tremendous missing opportunities. Accelerated progress is needed to achieve the FP2020 and SDG goals and so reap the demographic dividend.
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  2. 2
    368803

    The Macroeconomic Loss due to Violence Against Women: The Case of Vietnam.

    Raghavendra S; Duvvury N; Ashe S

    Feminist Economics. 2017 Oct 2; 23(4):62-89.

    Violence against women (VAW) is now acknowledged as a global problem with substantial economic costs. However, the current estimates of costs in the literature provide the aggregate loss of income, but not the macroeconomic loss in terms of output and demand insofar as they fail to consider the structural interlinkages of the economy. Focusing on Vietnam, this study proposes an approach based on the social accounting matrix (SAM) to estimate the macroeconomic loss due to violence. Using Vietnam’s 2011 SAM, the study estimates the income and multiplier loss due to VAW. From a policy point of view, the study argues that the macroeconomic loss due to VAW renders a permanent invisible leakage to the circular flow that can potentially destabilize, weaken, or neutralize the positive gains from government expenditure on welfare programs.
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  3. 3
    368081
    Peer Reviewed

    The inter-relationship among economic activities, environmental degradation, material consumption and population health in low-income countries: a longitudinal ecological study.

    Chuang YC; Huang YL; Hu CY; Chen SC; Tseng KC

    BMJ Open. 2015; 5(7):e006183.

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of ecological unequal exchange explains how trade and various forms of economic activity create the problem of environmental degradation, and lead to the deterioration of population health. Based on this theory, our study examined the inter-relationship among economic characteristics, ecological footprints, CO2 emissions, infant mortality rates and under-5 mortality rates in low-income countries. DESIGN: A longitudinal ecological study design. SETTING: Sixty-six low-income countries from 1980 to 2010 were included in the analyses. Data for each country represented an average of 23 years (N=1497). DATA SOURCES: Data were from the World Development Indicators, UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database, Global Footprint Network and Polity IV Project. ANALYSES: Linear mixed models with a spatial power covariance structure and a correlation that decreased over time were constructed to accommodate the repeated measures. Statistical analyses were conducted separately by sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and other regions. RESULTS: After controlling for country-level sociodemographic characteristics, debt and manufacturing, economic activities were positively associated with infant mortality rates and under-5 mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, export intensity and foreign investment were beneficial for reducing infant and under-5 mortality rates in Latin America and other regions. Although the ecological footprints and CO2 emissions did not mediate the relationship between economic characteristics and health outcomes, export intensity increased CO2 emissions, but reduced the ecological footprints in sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, although export intensity was positively associated with the ecological footprints and also CO2 emissions, the percentage of exports to high-income countries was negatively associated with the ecological footprints. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that environmental protection and economic development are important for reducing infant and under-5 mortality rates in low-income countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
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  4. 4
    365936
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender accounting of consumption and life-cycle deficit for India.

    Ladusingh L

    Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2013 Dec; 28(2):27-49.

    Life-cycle deficits for women and men in India at different stages of the life cycle are examined in the present paper. Disaggregating lifecycle deficits according to sex, which is termed gender accounting, is important for gender-based budgeting, as it helps Governments allocate funds according to gender needs. A Life-cycle deficit is the difference between income and consumption at different stages of the life cycle. The significance of the paper lies in its contribution to understanding the male-female differential in public and private expenditure on health care, education, and other goods and services in monetary terms and life-cycle deficit. The author finds that, overall, women have a lifecycle deficit, largely due to their lower rates of participation in the paid workforce. However, women perform a large amount of unpaid labour; thus, their life-cycle deficit could turn into a surplus if a monetary value were placed on unpaid labour. However, it is also shown in the present paper that consumption on health-care needs is higher for males in childhood as well as in old age, which can be partly attributed to the discriminatory sociocultural practices that are prevalent in India. As regards education, households tend to spend more on male education than on female education after the age of 15, which is the age at which free-of-charge public education ends. The author concludes that gender accounting needs to be strengthened so as to allow Governments to allocate funds in order to promote gender equality and empower women. The author also recommends that, in order to achieve gender equality, public funding of health care is not enough. More needs to be done to remove the sociocultural barriers to the use of public services, such as health services.
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  5. 5
    338755
    Peer Reviewed

    The role of material deprivation and consumerism in the decisions to engage in transactional sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi.

    Kamndaya M; Vearey J; Thomas L; Kabiru CW; Kazembe LN

    Global Public Health. 2016 Mar; 11(3):295-308.

    Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18-23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analyzed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums.
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  6. 6
    371033

    A study on gender equality as a prerequisite for sustainable development.

    Johnsson-Latham G

    Stockholm, Sweden, Environment Advisory Council, 2007. 89 p.

    The purpose of the study is to bring out often-neglected facts concerning dissimilarities in the lifestyles and consumption patterns of women and men, and thus in their environmental impact, by describing how men, primarily through their greater mobility and more extensive travel, account for more carbon dioxide (COB2B) emissions than women, in both rich and poor countries. The study points to how a changed behavior among men – notably rich men who are decision-makers – can be crucial in addressing climate change and in enhancing the opportunities of all human beings to enjoy sustainable development.
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  7. 7
    335389
    Peer Reviewed

    The effects of population on the depletion of fresh water.

    Wyman RJ

    Population and Development Review. 2013 Dec; 39(4):687-704.

    The most immediate environmental problem in major regions of the world is probably the scarcity of fresh water for agriculture. Insufficiency and irregularity of rainfall require the use of stored water. Both major compartments for fresh water storage -- glaciers and groundwater -- are being depleted rapidly and at similar rates. Drawdown of groundwater is primarily the result of irrigation required to supply the food needs of large populations. Glacier melt is an effect of global warming chiefly caused by high levels of industrial production and transport. However, an important fraction of glacier melt is caused by food chain emissions (agricultural greenhouse gases and black carbon or cooking soot). In toto, the loss of water resulting from food and agriculture may be significantly greater than that resulting from industrial production and transport, the factors more commonly cited. This suggests that the role of population, closely linked to food and agriculture, is central to the depletion of fresh water.
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  8. 8
    339439
    Peer Reviewed

    Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development.

    van Braeckel D; Temmerman M; Roelens K; Degomme O

    Lancet. 2012 Jul 14-20; 380(9837):84-85.

    A growing number of findings from different disciplines show that human wellbeing is increasingly threatened by unsustainable population growth. These threats occur at different levels. At the global level, population size is a crucial factor in consumption of resources... Important as it is to decrease the environmental footprint of high-income countries for sustainability reasons, it is also necessary to boost economic development in low-income countries for humanitarian and ethical reasons... Provision of universal access to modern family planning methods is absolutely necessary and urgent - also from a women’s rights perspective - and it will certainly have an inhibiting effect on population growth, but additional efforts will be needed to push back global fertility to replacement level or below. (excerpts)
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  9. 9
    339434
    Peer Reviewed

    Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.

    O'Neill BC; Liddle B; Jiang L; Smith KR; Pachauri S

    Lancet. 2012 Jul 14; 380(9837):157-64.

    Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) have been studied from diff erent perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanization, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO2 emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanization have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO2 several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanization can have important eff ects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits.
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  10. 10
    333917

    Food security for a planet under pressure. Transition to sustainability: interconnected challenges and solutions.

    Ingram J; Aggarwal P; Ericksen P; Gregory P; Horn-Phathanothai L; Misselhorn A; Wiebe K

    [Durban, South Africa, University of KwaZula-Natal, Health Economics and HIV / AIDS Research Division], 2012. [8] p. (Rio + 20 Policy Brief)

    The challenge of feeding the world efficiently and equitably is considerable, but not insurmountable. Achieving food security for all, both now and in the future, depends on putting in place a strong foundation of multi-lateral and cooperative mechanisms that work across disciplines, sectors and national boundaries. Institutions operating effectively at multiple levels will be at the centre of sustainable food systems; these will need to be flexible, promote appropriate use of innovative technologies and policies, and recognize the increasingly important role of non-state actors in enhancing food systems. Above all, there is need for a strong focus on resilience, equity and sustainability. This brief sets out broad guidelines to help policy and decision makers work towards adopting a more coordinated and integrated approach to food security issues.
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  11. 11
    353976
    Peer Reviewed

    [From a method for family planning to a differentiating lifestyle drug: images of the pill and its consumer in gynaecological advertising since the 1960s in West Germany and France] Vom Mittel der Familienplanung zum differenzierenden Lifestyle-Praparat : Bilder der Pille und ihrer Konsumentin in gynakologischen Werbeanzeigen seit den 1960er Jahren in der BRD und Frankreich.

    Malich L

    NTM. 2012 Feb; 20(1):1-30.

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  12. 12
    333720

    People and the planet.

    Royal Society

    London, United Kingdom, Royal Society, 2012 Apr. [134] p. (Royal Society Science Policy Centre Report 01/12)

    Demographic changes and their associated environmental impacts will vary across the globe, meaning that regional and national policy makers will need to adopt their own range of solutions to deal with their specific issues. At an international level, this year’s Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, the discussions at the UN General Assembly revisiting the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD+20) scheduled for 2014/2015 and the review of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015 present opportunities to reframe the relationship between people and the planet. Successfully reframing this relationship will open up a prosperous and flourishing future, for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
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  13. 13
    350446
    Peer Reviewed

    Why do people choose what they choose? And, do they use what they choose? E&T's Top Policy Paper 2010.

    Booth B

    Environmental Science and Technology. 2011 Apr 1; 45(7):2522.

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  14. 14
    332924

    The (indispensable) middle class in developing countries; or, the rich and the rest, not the poor and and the rest.

    Birdsall N

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2010 Mar. [38] p. (CGD Working Paper 207)

    Inclusive growth is widely embraced as the central economic goal for developing countries, but the concept is not well defined in the development economics literature. Since the early 1990s, the focus has been primarily on pro-poor growth, with the “poor” being people living on less than $1 day, or in some regions $2 day. The idea of pro-poor growth emerged in the early 1990s as a counterpoint to a concern with growth alone (measured in per-capita income) and is generally defined as growth which benefits the poor as much or more han the rest of the population. Examples include conditional cash transfers, which target the poor while minimizing the fiscal burden on the public sector, and donors’ emphasizing primary over higher education as an assured way to benefit the poor while investing in long-term growth through increases in human capital. Yet these pro-poor, inclusive policies are not necessarily without tradeoffs in fostering long-run growth. In this paper I argue that the concept of inclusive growth should go beyond the traditional emphasis on the poor (and the rest) and take into account changes in the size and economic command of the group conventionally defined as neither poor nor rich, i.e., the middle class.
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  15. 15
    332700

    Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions.

    O'Neill BC; Dalton M; Fuchs R; Jiang L; Pachauri S; Zigova K

    PNAS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Early Edition.. 2010; [6] p.

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.
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  16. 16
    332694

    Quantification of health commodities: HIV test kit companion guide. Forecasting consumption of HIV test kits.

    John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2009 Jun. [53] p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-06-00007-00)

    Successful implementation and expansion of HIV counseling and testing services is dependent on the continuous supply and availability of high-quality HIV test kits and the additional consumable supplies required at HIV testing sites. The variability in HIV testing procedures, the multiple purposes of testing, and the different types of HIV test kits available pose particular challenges in managing HIV test kit supply chains. The primary focus and purpose of this companion guide is to supplement the general guide on Quantification of Health Commodities: A Guide to Forecasting and Supply Planning for Procurement by describing in detail the specific methodology for forecasting consumption of HIV test kits as a critical step in the overall quantification process.
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  17. 17
    332011

    Climate change predicted to affect mortality in rural India more than the United States.

    Zuehlke E

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2009 Nov. [1] p.

    Michael Greenstone, 3M professor of environmental economics at MIT, shared his research findings on the mortality impact of rising temperatures in the U.S. and India at a PRB Policy Seminar. One extra day of 36 degree Celsius temperature in India is associated with a 1 percent annual mortality rate rise. In India's rural areas, there are few opportunities for adaptation. Hot days are associated with a sharp decline in rural agricultural wages and reduced access to credit.
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  18. 18
    329218
    Peer Reviewed

    Recurrent costs of HIV/AIDS-related health services in Rwanda: implications for financing.

    Quentin W; Konig HH; Schmidt JO; Kalk A

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Oct; 13(10):1245-56.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate recurrent costs per patient and costs for a national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model in Rwanda. METHODS: A national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model was developed. Unit costs were estimated so as to reflect necessary service consumption of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Two scenarios were calculated: (1) for patients/clients in the year 2006 and (2) for potential increases of patients/clients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of results. RESULTS: Average yearly treatment costs were estimated to amount to 504 US$ per patient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to 91 US$ for non-ART patients. Costs for the Rwandan HIV/AIDS treatment programme were estimated to lie between 20.9 and 27.1 million US$ depending on the scenario. ART required 9.6 to 11.1 million US$ or 41-46% of national programme costs. Treatment for opportunistic infections and other pathologies consumed 7.1 to 9.3 million US$ or 34% of total costs. CONCLUSION: Health Care in general and ART more specifically is unaffordable for the vast majority of Rwandan PLWHA. Adequate resources need to be provided not only for ART but also to assure treatment of opportunistic infections and other pathologies. While risk-pooling may play a limited role in the national response to HIV/AIDS, considering the general level of poverty of the Rwandan population, no appreciable alternative to continued donor funding exists for the foreseeable future.
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  19. 19
    327695

    Population and the food supply.

    Population Council

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2008. [2] p.

    This fact sheet contains a bulleted list of the information presented in the Bongaarts' essay "Food and population: The return of Malthus?". Some of the issues commented on are: 1) The connection between population and food supply; 2) Reducing unnecessary consumption could improve worldwide access to food; and 3) Practical solutions for the poorest countries.
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  20. 20
    327694

    Food and population: The return of Malthus? Commentary.

    Bongaarts J

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2008 Jul 11. [2] p.

    This commentary sparked by the recent sharp rise in global food prices touches on 1) The connection between population and food supply; 2) Reducing unnecessary consumption could improve worldwide access to food; and 3) Practical solutions for the poorest countries.
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  21. 21
    325963
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of proxy measures in estimating socioeconomic inequalities in malaria prevalence.

    Somi MF; Butler JR; Vahid F; Njau JD; Kachur SP

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Mar; 13(3):354-364.

    The objectives were to present and compare socioeconomic status (SES) rankings of households using consumption and an asset-based index as two alternative measures of SES; and to compare and evaluate the performance of these two measures in multivariate analyses of the socioeconomic gradient in malaria prevalence. Data for the study come from a survey of 557 households in 25 study villages in Tanzania in 2004. Household SES was determined using consumption and an asset-based index calculated using Principal Components Analysis on a set of household variables. In multivariate analyses of malaria prevalence, we also used two other measures of disease prevalence: parasitaemia and self-report of malaria or fever in the 2 weeks before interview. Household rankings based on the two measures of SES differ substantially. In multivariate analyses, there was a statistically significant negative association between both measures of SES and parasitaemia but not between either measure of SES and self-reported malaria. Age of individual, use of a mosquito net, and wall construction were negatively and significantly associated with parasitaemia, whilst roof construction was positively associated with parasitaemia. Only age remained significant when malaria self-report was used as the measure of disease prevalence. An asset index is an effective alternative to consumption in measuring the socioeconomic gradient in malaria parasitaemia, but self-report may be an unreliable measure of malaria prevalence for this purpose. (author's)
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  22. 22
    325662

    Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources. Summary.

    Boberg J

    In: Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources, [by] Jill Boberg. Santa Monica, California, RAND, 2005. xiii-xxiii.

    Demographic factors play an important role in environmental change, along with biophysical, economic, sociopolitical, technological, and cultural factors, all of which are interrelated. Recent demographic trends have sparked concern about the impact of the human population on a critical element of the natural environment - fresh water. In the last 70 years, the world's population has tripled in size while going from overwhelmingly rural to a near balance of urban and rural - a change that affects both how humans use water and the amount they consume. In the late 1980s, concern over a potential water crisis began to grow. Much of the resulting literature has taken an alarmist view. Numerous reports sensationalized the so-called water crisis without talking into account the local or regional nature of water resources and the relationship between supply and demand. A number of factors are cited to support the position that the earth is headed toward a water crisis. They include the following: the human population continues to grow; water withdrawals are outpacing population growth; per-capita water availability is declining; clean, potable water is less available worldwide. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    325661

    Liquid assets: How demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources.

    Boberg J

    Santa Monica, California, RAND, 2005. [150] p.

    Demographic factors play an important role in environmental change, along with biophysical, economic, sociopolitical, technological, and cultural factors, all of which are interrelated. Recent demographic trends have sparked concern about the impact of the human population on a critical element of the natural environment - fresh water. In the last 70 years, the world's population has tripled in size while going from overwhelmingly rural to a near balance of urban and rural - a change that affects both how humans use water and the amount they consume. In the late 1980s, concern over a potential water crisis began to grow. Much of the resulting literature has taken an alarmist view. Numerous reports sensationalized the so-called water crisis without talking into account the local or regional nature of water resources and the relationship between supply and demand. A number of factors are cited to support the position that the earth is headed toward a water crisis. They include the following: the human population continues to grow; water withdrawals are outpacing population growth; per-capita water availability is declining; clean, potable water is less available worldwide. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    323512

    Are environmental refugees refused?

    Boon EK; Le Tra T

    Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 2007 Dec; 5(2):85-95.

    The term "environmental refugees" describes a new kind of mass human casualty caused by negative ecological impacts during the last decades. It has been estimated that 25 million environmental refugees are on the move worldwide due to environmental problems, 50 million are left homeless by cyclones, floods and earthquakes, 90 millions are displaced by infrastructural projects. These figures are expected to increase sharply in the next few decades due to the impacts of global warming and the consequence of sea level rise by 2050. Yet, the unfortunate environmental victims are refused refugee status and are not granted assistance and protection by the international community. Why is the number of environmental victims on the increase? Why are they left unassisted? Who should be responsible for what they have been suffered from? What should be done to limit the hardship being suffered by environmentally displaced people? This paper will attempt to answer these questions. (author's)
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  25. 25
    318107
    Peer Reviewed

    Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study.

    Unuvar E; Ahmadov H; Kiziler AR; Aydemir B; Toprak S

    Science of the Total Environment. 2007 Mar; 374(1):60-70.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, µg/L). Mercury levels were 0.38±0.5 µg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50±0.64 µg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45±13.8 µg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 µg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level. (author's)
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