Your search found 257 Results

  1. 1

    Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) in The WHO African Region.

    Messeret ES; Masresha B; Yakubu A; Daniel F; Mihigo R; Nshimirimana D; Okeibunor J; Akanmori B

    Journal of Immunological Sciences. 2018 Aug 2; Suppl(15):103-107.

    Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease of significant public health importance especially in developing countries. The WHO strategy for the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus recommends the promotion of clean delivery practices, systematic immunization of pregnant women and those in the reproductive age (15-49 years) and surveillance for neonatal tetanus. Implementation of the recommended strategy with the support of WHO, UNICEF and other partners has led to significant decline in number of cases and deaths due to NT over the last decades. The coverage with the second or more dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines (TT2+) a proxy for Protection at Birth (PAB) for the WHO African region has risen from 62% in 2000 to 77% by 2015 Reported cases of NT declined from 5175 in 2000 to 1289 in 2015. The goal of eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2015 was missed, but some progress has been made. By the end of 2016, 37 out of 47 (79%) of the WHO AFR member states achieved elimination. The 10 member states remaining need additional support by all partners to achieve and maintain the goal of MNTE. Innovative ways of implementing the recommendations need to be urgently considered.
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  2. 2

    Delivery of Multiple Child and Maternal Health Interventions during Supplementary Immunization Campaign in Rwanda, 2013: Lessons Learnt.

    Sibomana H; Jered M; Rugambawa C; Chakauya JM; Shibeshi ME; Okeibunor J; Mihigo R; Bhaskar R

    Journal of Immunological Sciences. 2018 Aug 2; Suppl(9):63-67.

    Objective: This paper assesses and describes the estimated coverage of the Measles Rubella (MR) campaign in each district; the national estimate of coverage for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination campaign and Vitamin A supplementation simultaneously implemented in 2013. Methods: We applied descriptive statistics and epidemiological tools to the outcomes of the campaigns to assess the coverage achieved on the different child and maternal health interventions. We also assessed the Adverse Events following Immunization (AEFI) where the evaluation was used at the same time to assess the routine immunization performance coverage for children 12-24 months for all childhood antigens, Tetanus Toxoid coverage among mothers of infants, combined with routine immunization performance evaluation, skilled delivery and bed nets use in Rwanda. Results: Results indicated that among the eligible targets, 97.5% received MR vaccine, 91% received HPV doses, and 83% got Vitamin A. The integrated vaccination of MR with HPV did not result in any serious AEFI. Coverage for antigens and doses given early in life was above 95% with card retention of 80%. BCG to measles dropout by card was 8.5%. Main reasons for non-vaccination indicated need for more specific immunization education. About 96.8% of mothers delivered in health institutions and 95% of the mothers slept under bed nets the night before the survey. Conclusion: Rwanda successfully implemented an integrated coverage evaluation survey of the integrated vaccination campaign and routine immunization with statistically valid estimates. We drew lessons that information on routine immunization can be collected during post campaign survey evaluations. The district estimates should guide the programme performance improvement.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Intimate Partner Violence among Women with Disabilities in Uganda.

    Valentine A; Akobirshoev I; Mitra M

    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019 Mar 16; 16(6)

    Violence against women with disabilities is pervasive, yet a paucity of research examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study is to document the prevalence and consequences of IPV exposure among Ugandan women with disabilities. Cross sectional data from the 2011 and 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (UDHS) were used to study married and/or partnered women aged 15(-)49 who answered specific questions about lifetime intimate partner violence (N = 8592). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between disability, IPV, and indicators of maternal and child health. Compared to women without disabilities, women with disabilities were more likely to experience lifetime physical violence (odds ratio (OR) 1.4, p < 0.01), sexual violence (OR = 1.7, p < 0.01), and emotional abuse (1.4, p < 0.01) after controlling for sociodemographic and household characteristics. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities in Uganda may experience increased risk for IPV compared to women without disabilities, with concomitant risks to their health and the survival of their infants. Further research examining the prevalence and correlates of IPV in low- and middle-income countries is needed to address the needs and rights of women with disabilities.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Who is sexually active? Using a multi-component sexual activity profile (MSAP) to explore, identify and describe sexually-active high-school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Humphries H; Osman F; Knight L; Abdool Karim Q

    BMC Public Health. 2019 Mar 18; 19(1):317.

    BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual activity is necessary to prevent sexually transmitted infections. Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa suggests that 10-20% of youth aged 15-24 are sexually active before reaching 15 years, yet estimating sexual activity remains challenging. This study explored the use of multiple sexual health outcomes to identify sexually-active young women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Using a multi-component sexual activity profile (MSAP), we aimed to identify sexually active students. Based on data from 2675 grade 9 and 10 students attending 14 high schools) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, we constructed a descriptive diagram identifying students who were sexually active by self-report vs MSAP profile. T-tests for two independent samples was performed to compare by sex and ecological variables that characterise students newly-identified as sexually active. RESULTS: Using self-report only, 40.3% self-reported as sexually active, whilst the MSAP identified 48.7% (223 additional students). More females were identified than males. Younger adolescents were more likely to underreport sexual activity but were identified using MSAP. Newly-identified as sexually active were more likely to be female (p = < 0.000), 15 years old or younger (p = 0.008), less likely to perceive being at risk (p = 0.037) or have ever used alcohol (p = < 0.000). At a relational level, they were less likely to report having ever had a boyfriend/girlfriend (p = 0.000) or to have felt pressured to have sex by their peers (p = < 0.000) or partners (p = 0.008). At a familial level they more likely to be of medium socioeconomic (SES) status (p = 0.037) whilst at a school and community level they were less likely to have repeated a grade (p = 0.024) and were more likely to be engaged in social activities (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The MSAP profile identified more potentially sexually active students, and gave insight into the characteristics of students who may be unwilling to self-report sexual activity Future work should investigate how this approach could enhance and describe sexually-active adolescents for research and healthcare provision.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal health outcomes among HIV-infected breastfeeding women with high CD4 counts: results of a treatment strategy trial.

    Hoffman RM; Angelidou KN; Brummel SS; Saidi F; Violari A; Dula D; Mave V; Fairlie L; Theron G; Kamateeka M; Chipato T; Chi BH; Stranix-Chibanda L; Nematadzira T; Moodley D; Bhattacharya D; Gupta A; Coletti A; McIntyre JA; Klingman KL; Chakhtoura N; Shapiro DE; Fowler MG; Currier JS

    HIV Clinical Trials. 2018 Dec; 19(6):209-224.

    BACKGROUND: IMPAACT PROMISE 1077BF/FF was a randomized study of antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategies for pregnant and postpartum women with high CD4+ T-cell counts. We describe postpartum outcomes for women in the study who were randomized to continue or discontinue ART after delivery. METHODS: Women with pre-ART CD4+ cell counts >/=350 cells/mm(3) who started ART during pregnancy were randomized postpartum to continue or discontinue treatment. Women were enrolled from India, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The primary outcome was a composite of progression to AIDS-defining illness or death. Log-rank tests and Cox regression models assessed treatment effects. Incidence rates were calculated per 100 person-years. A post hoc analysis evaluated WHO Stage 2/3 events. All analyses were intent-to-treat. FINDINGS: 1611 women were enrolled (June 2011-October 2014) and 95% were breastfeeding. Median age at entry was 27 years, CD4+ count 728 cells/mm(3) and the majority of women were Black African (97%). After a median follow-up of 1.6 years, progression to AIDS-defining illness or death was rare and there was no significant difference between arms (HR: 0.55; 95%CI 0.14, 2.08, p = 0.37). WHO Stage 2/3 events were reduced with continued ART (HR: 0.60; 95%CI 0.39, 0.90, p = 0.01). The arms did not differ with respect to the rate of grade 2, 3, or 4 safety events (p = 0.61). INTERPRETATION: Serious clinical events were rare among predominately breastfeeding women with high CD4+ cell counts over 18 months after delivery. ART had significant benefit in reducing WHO 2/3 events in this population.
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Feeling Under Pressure: Perspectives of the Meaning of Love and Sexual Relationships Amongst Young Men in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    Manyaapelo T; Sifunda S; Ruiter RAC; Nyembezi A; van den Borne B; Reddy P

    American Journal of Men's Health. 2019 Mar-Apr; 13(2):1557988319836632.

    This study aimed to explore perspectives on the meaning of love and sexual relations amongst young men in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Gaining insights into these perspectives will help to understand the sexual behaviors of these young men better and to eventually develop more effective HIV prevention interventions. Focus group discussions were conducted in two study areas using a predetermined semistructured discussion guide. The findings indicate that the phenomenon of romantic relationship try-outs together with the idea of "feeling under pressure" to propose love to more than one woman seem to be accepted practices that often lead to multiple concurrent sexual partners and therefore potentially risky sexual behaviors. The fear of impregnating a woman is seen to be of a more significant concern than acquiring a sexually transmitted infection due to the stigma and embarrassment associated with pregnancy outside marriage. Given these findings, it is recommended that future studies investigate perspectives on sexuality and reproductive health in male populations in great detail prior to the development of behavioral change interventions because failure to do so may hamper well-intended but poorly targeted health interventions.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Non-obstetric causes of severe maternal complications: a secondary analysis of the Nigeria Near-miss and Maternal Death Survey.

    Adeniran AS; Ocheke AN; Nwachukwu D; Adewole N; Ageda B; Onile T; Umezulike AC; Aboyeji AP; Oladapo OT

    BJOG. 2019 Mar 21;

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the burden, causes and outcomes of severe non-obstetric maternal complications in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary health facilities. POPULATION: Women admitted with complications during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium. METHODS: All cases of severe maternal outcome (SMO: maternal near-miss or maternal death) due to non-obstetric causes were prospectively identified over a 1-year period. Maternal near-miss was defined using organ-system dysfunction (WHO), clinical, or management-based criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Causes and contributions of non-obstetric complications to SMO; fetal and neonatal outcomes; health service events associated with non-obstetric complications; and mortality index (% of maternal death/SMO). RESULTS: Of 100 107 women admitted with complications, 9401 (9.4%) were for non-obstetric causes; and 4.0% (375/9401) suffered severe non-obstetric complications. Of the 375 cases of severe non-obstetric complications, 48.8% (183/375) were near-misses and 51.2% (192/375) were maternal deaths. Severe anaemia unrelated to haemorrhage contributed 61.2% of near-misses and 32.8% of maternal deaths. The highest mortality indices were observed for cancer (91.7%), hepatic diseases (81.8%) and HIV/AIDS/HIV wasting syndrome (80.4%). Fatality was significantly high with extremes of age and no formal education. Regarding organ dysfunctions, neurological (77.1%) and cardiovascular (75.0%) dysfunctions had the highest mortality indices. Perinatal mortality was 65.9%. Time from diagnosis of severe non-obstetric complications to review by senior medical personnel, and to definitive intervention was <30 minutes in 30.2% and 29.8% of women with SMO, respectively. However, over 240 minutes elapsed between diagnosis and definitive intervention in more than one-third of women with SMO. CONCLUSION: Non-obstetric complications are associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes and deserve attention similar to that accorded obstetric complications. FUNDING: The original research that generated the data for this secondary analysis and the publication of this secondary analysis were funded by the UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), a co-sponsored programme executed by the World Health Organization (WHO). TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Non-obstetric causes are important contributors to maternal deaths and life-threatening morbidities in Nigerian hospitals. (c) 2019 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal near-miss and death among women with postpartum haemorrhage: a secondary analysis of the Nigeria Near-miss and Maternal Death Survey.

    Sotunsa JO; Adeniyi AA; Imaralu JO; Fawole B; Adegbola O; Aimakhu CO; Adeyemi AS; Hunyinbo K; Dada OA; Adetoro OO; Oladapo OT

    BJOG. 2019 Mar 21;

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the burden and health service events surrounding severe maternal outcomes (SMO) related to life-threatening postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary hospitals. POPULATION: Women admitted for pregnancy, childbirth or puerperal complications. METHODS: All cases of SMO [maternal near miss (MNM) or maternal death (MD)] due to PPH were prospectively identified using WHO criteria over a 1-year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of SMO, health service events, case fatality rate (CFR) and mortality index (MI: % of death/SMO). RESULTS: Postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 2087 (2.2%) of the 94 835 deliveries recorded during the study period. A total of 354 (0.3%) women had an SMO (103 MD; 251 MNM). It was the most frequent obstetric haemorrhagic complication across hospitals. PPH had the highest maternal mortality ratio (112/100 000 live births) and the recorded MI (29.1%) and CFR (4.9%) were second only to that of ruptured uterus. About 83% of women with SMO were admitted in a critical condition with over 50% being referred. MD was more likely when PPH led to neurological (80.8%), renal (73.5%) or respiratory (58.7%) organ dysfunction. Although the timing of life-saving interventions was not statistically different between the cases of MD and MNM, close to one-quarter of women who died received critical intervention at least 4 hours after diagnosis of life-threatening PPH. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum haemorrhage was a significant contributor to obstetric haemorrhage and SMO in Nigerian hospitals. Emergency obstetric services should be enhanced at the lower levels of healthcare delivery to reduce avoidable deaths from PPH. FUNDING: The original research that generated the data for this secondary analysis, and the publication of this secondary analysis, was funded by the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), a cosponsored programme executed by the World Health Organization. We have no other funding issue to declare for our study. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: One hundred and three maternal deaths and 251 near-misses resulted from PPH in 42 Nigerian tertiary facilities in 1 year. (c) 2019 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Bobbi Be Best: the development and evaluation of an audio program and discussion guide to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Reinsma K; Bolima N; Fonteh F; Okwen P; Siapco G; Yota D; Montgomery S

    Global Health Promotion. 2016 Sep; 23(3):14-26.

    One risk factor for infant and childhood morbidity is not exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life. Entertainment Education (EE) is a communication strategy consisting of placing educational information into television, movies, and radio programs. In developing countries this form of behavioral change communication has proven effective in addressing health-related issues; however, no research has determined if EE is effective in promoting EBF. The objective of this research was to develop an EE audio program and discussion guide and to determine if a series of four 15-minute episodes and post-listening discussion improved knowledge, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and intention and decreased misconceptions and perceived barriers toward EBF in the Kumbo West Health District, Cameroon. Pregnant women and their partners were assigned to either the control group (N = 116; 74 women, 42 partners) or intervention group (N = 148; 99 women, 49 partners) based on expected date of delivery. All control and intervention group participants completed a questionnaire prior to listening to the first and after the last episode. Pre- and post-listening questionnaires were used to determine changes in the EBF knowledge, misconceptions, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and intention variables as a result of exposure to the audio program. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed significant improvement in all of the variables, except perceived barriers, within the intervention group (p < 0.05) and the Mann-Whitney test indicated significant differences between the control and intervention group in all of the variables (p < 0.05), indicating that using an audio program and discussion guide based on the EE model is an effective tool for promoting EBF in this setting. The strength of this approach is that it goes beyond simply telling women about what constitutes EBF, but addresses misconceptions and perceived barriers that may prevent women from practicing EBF for six months. (c) The Author(s) 2015.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Rosenberg MS; Gomez-Olive FX; Rohr JK; Houle BC; Kabudula CW; Wagner RG; Salomon JA; Kahn K; Berkman LF; Tollman SM; Barnighausen T

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2017 Jan 1; 74(1):e9-e17.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. CONCLUSIONS: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Microfinance for women at high risk for HIV in Kazakhstan: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    McCrimmon T; Witte S; Mergenova G; Terlikbayeva A; Primbetova S; Kuskulov A; Bellamy SL; El-Bassel N

    Trials. 2018 Mar 20; 19(1):187.

    BACKGROUND: Among women at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), gender and economic issues limit the impact of behavioral prevention strategies. Women in Kazakhstan with dual risks of sex trading and drug use face elevated risk for HIV and STIs and may benefit from an economic empowerment intervention which combines HIV-risk reduction (HIVRR) education with financial skills-building and asset-building to promote reduced reliance on sex trading for income. METHODS/DESIGN: The study employs a two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) design. We will use cluster randomization to assign 350 women in approximately 50 cohorts to a traditional four-session HIV-risk-reduction intervention combined with a six-session financial literacy intervention, enrollment in a 24-session vocational training program and receipt of matched savings (HIVRR+MF); or to the four-session HIV-risk-reduction intervention alone (HIVRR). Repeated behavioral and biological assessments will be conducted at baseline, then at 6, 9, and 15 months post randomization/session 1. DISCUSSION: This study responds to an identified need in the academic literature for rigorous testing of structural interventions, including combination microfinance and HIV-prevention interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, ID: NCT02406482 . Registered on 30 March 2015.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Associations with Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among HIV-Infected Drinkers in Western Kenya.

    Papas RK; Gakinya BN; Mwaniki MM; Wu XK; Lee H; Martino S; Klein DA; Sidle JE; Loxley MP; Keter AK; Baliddawa JB; Maisto SA

    AIDS and Behavior. 2018 Sep; 22(9):2840-2850.

    Approximately 71% of HIV-infected individuals live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use increases unprotected sex, which can lead to HIV transmission. Little research examines risky sex among HIV-infected individuals in East Africa who are not sex workers. The study purpose was to examine associations with unprotected sex in a high-risk sample of 507 HIV-infected sexually active drinkers in western Kenya. They were enrolled in a trial to reduce alcohol use. Past-month baseline alcohol use and sexual behavior were assessed using the Timeline Followback. A zero-inflated negative binomial model examined associations with occurrence and frequency of unprotected sex. Results showed heavy drinking days were significantly associated with unprotected sex occurrence across gender, and with unprotected sex frequency among women. Among women, transactional sex, alcohol-related sexual expectations, condom use self-efficacy, drinking-and-protected-sex days and age were associated with unprotected sex occurrence while alcohol-related sexual expectations, depressive symptoms and condom use self-efficacy were associated with unprotected sex frequency. Among men, alcohol-related sexual expectations, condom use self-efficacy, and age were associated with unprotected sex occurrence, while drinking-and-protected-sex days were associated with unprotected sex occurrence and frequency. Findings suggest robust relationships between heavy drinking and unprotected sex. Further research is needed elucidating the temporal relationships between drinking and unprotected sex in this population.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Pathways from Resilient Coping to Safer Sex Communication Among African, Caribbean, and Black Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey.

    Logie CH; Okumu M; Ryan S; Yehdego M

    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2018 Aug; 25(4):479-485.

    PURPOSE: African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Although there is reported suboptimal consistent condom use with ACB women, limited research has explored safer sex communication among this population. Coping frameworks highlight the role that resilient coping and condom use self-efficacy may play in facilitating safer sex communication. Structural perspectives stress the need to explore associations between HIV vulnerabilities and food insecurity. We examined pathways from resilient coping to safer sex communication through the mediator of condom use self-efficacy among ACB women in Toronto. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a purposive sample of ACB women aged 16 and older across Toronto, Canada. We conducted path analysis to test the direct effects of resilient coping on safer sex communication, and indirect pathways through the mediator (condom use self-efficacy) while controlling for food insecurity. RESULTS: Participant (n = 80; mean age 27, SD 7.93) ethnicities included African (58.8%, n = 47), Caribbean (30%, n = 24), and others (11.3%, n = 9). Participants with food security reported significantly higher safer sex communication. We found no direct effect of resilient coping on safer sex communication. Findings support the hypothesized mediation process; resilient coping was associated with condom use self-efficacy, which in turn was associated with safer sex communication. CONCLUSION: Findings that condom use self-efficacy mediated the association between resilient coping and safer sex communication align with theoretical assertions of the protective role of adaptive coping strategies. Findings can inform tailored HIV and STI preventive interventions with ACB women.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention on early childhood development in paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Chingono R; Mebrahtu H; Mupambireyi Z; Simms V; Weiss HA; Ndlovu P; Charasika F; Tomlinson M; Cluver LD; Cowan FM; Sherr L

    BMC Pediatrics. 2018 Jul 9; 18(1):222.

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection in a family may affect optimum child development. Our hypothesis is that child development outcomes among HIV-exposed infants will be improved through a complex early childhood stimulation (ECS) programme, and income and loans saving programme for HIV positive parents. METHODS: The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 30 clinic sites in two districts in Zimbabwe. Clinics were randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio to the Child Health Intervention for Development Outcomes (CHIDO) intervention or Ministry of Health standard care. The CHIDO intervention comprises three elements: a group ECS parenting programme, an internal savings and lending scheme (ISALS) and case-management home visits by village health workers. The intervention was aimed at caregiver-child dyads (child aged 0-24 months) where the infant was HIV exposed or infected. The primary outcomes were cognitive development (assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning) and retention of the child in HIV care, at 12 months after enrolment. A comprehensive process evaluation was conducted. DISCUSSION: The results of this cluster-randomised trial will provide important information regarding the effects of multi-component interventions in mitigating developmental delays in HIV-exposed infants living in resource-limited environments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry ( ), registration number PACTR201701001387209; the trial was registered on 16th January 2017 (retrospectively registered).
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Community-based HIV prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: results of a cross-sectional household survey.

    Kharsany ABM; Cawood C; Khanyile D; Lewis L; Grobler A; Puren A; Govender K; George G; Beckett S; Samsunder N; Madurai S; Toledo C; Chipeta Z; Glenshaw M; Hersey S; Abdool Karim Q

    Lancet. HIV. 2018 Aug; 5(8):e427-e437.

    BACKGROUND: In high HIV burden settings, maximising the coverage of prevention strategies is crucial to achieving epidemic control. However, little is known about the reach and effect of these strategies in some communities. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional community survey in the adjacent Greater Edendale and Vulindlela areas in the uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, we randomly selected enumeration areas, households, and individuals. One household member (aged 15-49 years) selected at random was invited for survey participation. After obtaining consent, questionnaires were administered to obtain sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioural information, and exposure to HIV prevention and treatment programmes. Clinical samples were collected for laboratory measurements. Statistical analyses were done accounting for multilevel sampling and weighted to represent the population. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed factors associated with HIV infection. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2014, and June 22, 2015, we enrolled 9812 individuals. The population-weighted HIV prevalence was 36.3% (95% CI 34.8-37.8, 3969 of 9812); 44.1% (42.3-45.9, 2955 of 6265) in women and 28.0% (25.9-30.1, 1014 of 3547) in men (p<0.0001). HIV prevalence in women aged 15-24 years was 22.3% (20.2-24.4, 567 of 2224) compared with 7.6% (6.0-9.3, 124 of 1472; p<0.0001) in men of the same age. Prevalence peaked at 66.4% (61.7-71.2, 517 of 760) in women aged 35-39 years and 59.6% (53.0-66.3, 183 of 320) in men aged 40-44 years. Consistent condom use in the last 12 months was 26.5% (24.1-28.8, 593 of 2356) in men and 22.7% (20.9-24.4, 994 of 4350) in women (p=0.0033); 35.7% (33.4-37.9, 1695 of 5447) of women's male partners and 31.9% (29.5-34.3, 1102 of 3547) of men were medically circumcised (p<0.0001), and 45.6% (42.9-48.2, 1251 of 2955) of women and 36.7% (32.3-41.2, 341 of 1014) of men reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (p=0.0003). HIV viral suppression was achieved in 54.8% (52.0-57.5, 1574 of 2955) of women and 41.9% (37.1-46.7, 401 of 1014) of men (p<0.0001), and 87.2% (84.6-89.8, 1086 of 1251) of women and 83.9% (78.5-89.3, 284 of 341; p=0.3670) of men on ART. Age, incomplete secondary schooling, being single, having more than one lifetime sex partner (women), sexually transmitted infections, and not being medically circumcised were associated with HIV-positive status. INTERPRETATION: The HIV burden in specific age groups, the suboptimal differential coverage, and uptake of HIV prevention strategies justifies a location-based approach to surveillance with finer disaggregation by age and sex. Intensified and customised approaches to seek, identify, and link individuals to HIV services are crucial to achieving epidemic control in this community. FUNDING: The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Project Nova: A Combination HIV Prevention and Microfinance Intervention for Women Who Engage in Sex Work and Use Drugs in Kazakhstan.

    Mergenova G; El-Bassel N; McCrimmon T; Terlikbayeva A; Primbetova S; Riedel M; Kuskulov A; Velez-Grau C; Witte SS

    AIDS and Behavior. 2019 Jan; 23(1):1-14.

    Innovative combination HIV-prevention and microfinance interventions are needed to address the high incidence of HIV and other STIs among women who use drugs. Project Nova is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial for drug-using female sex workers in two cities in Kazakhstan. The intervention was adapted from prior interventions for women at high risk for HIV and tailored to meet the needs of female sex workers who use injection or noninjection drugs. We describe the development and implementation of the Nova intervention and detail its components: HIV-risk reduction, financial-literacy training, vocational training, and a matched-savings program. We discuss session-attendance rates, barriers to engagement, challenges that arose during the sessions, and the solutions implemented. Our findings show that it is feasible to implement a combination HIV-prevention and microfinance intervention with highly vulnerable women such as these, and to address implementation challenges successfully.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence of HIV infection and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among fisherfolk in landing Islands of Lake Victoria, north western Tanzania.

    Kapesa A; Basinda N; Nyanza EC; Mushi MF; Jahanpour O; Ngallaba SE

    BMC Health Services Research. 2018 Dec 18; 18(1):980.

    BACKGROUND: New HIV infections in Tanzania have been decreasing, however some populations remain at higher risk. Despite of that, evidence on the magnitude of HIV infection and the associated factors and HIV/AIDS services uptake among fisherfolk in Tanzania are inadequately explored. This study therefore aimed at determining prevalence of HIV infection and utilization of HIV/AIDS services among fishfolk in selected Islands of Lake Victoria for evidence-based interventions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study determining status of HIV infection among fisherfolk (n = 456) and retrospective review of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) registry (n = 1744) were done in Buchosa and Muleba districts. Structured questionnaire and HIV rapid test kits with the standard testing protocol were used as research tools. RESULTS: A total of 269 (58.9%) male and 187 (41.1%) female fisherfolk were recruited during the community survey. Prevalence of HIV infection was 14% in all surveyed landing sites with a site variation from as low as 7.2% to as high as 23.8%. Participants employed in fishing related employment had higher odds of being HIV infected (5.4 times) than those who practiced fishing and partly farming [OR = 5.40; 95%CI 1.88-15.61; p < 0.001]. Participants employed in fishing related employment had higher odds of being HIV infected (5.4 times) than those practiced fishing and farming [OR = 5.40; 95%CI 1.88-15.61; P < 0.001]. Lack of formal education [aOR = 3.37; 95%CI 1.64-6.92; p < 0.001], being older [aOR = 1.06; 95%CI 1.03-1.09] and using alcohol [aOR = 2.26; 95%CI 1.23-4.15] predicted the likelihood of contracting HIV infection. Approximately three quarters (76%) of respondents had ever tested for HIV infection within past 1 year. Moreover, about half of the study participants had used condom inconsistently and 5 out of 14 (37.5%) of participants who knew their status had never started treatment. Despite the low uptake of most HIV preventive services, majority (88%) of male fisherfolk were circumcised. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of HIV infection among fisherfolk was up to 3 times higher than that of the general populations in Muleba and Buchosa districts. Higher age, using alcohol and lack of formal education predicted increased likelihood of HIV infection. The uptake of key HIV/AIDS curative and preventive services was generally low.
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  18. 18

    Knowledge and misconceptions of Saudi women about sexually transmitted infections.

    Balbeesi A; Mohizea S

    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2017 Dec 1; 92(4):235-239.

    BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are increasingly becoming one of the most important health challenges , especially among women, as they bear long-term consequences such as infertility and cervical cancer owing to STIs. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and misconceptions of Saudi women about STIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among adult women attending the dermatology clinic at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for reasons other than STIs. They were randomly approached and asked to complete an anonymous prevalidated questionnaire. Uneducated females were guided by an interviewer during the filling up of the survey questionnaire. Of 1150 women approached, 843 adult Saudi women responded to the survey (response rate: 73.3%). RESULTS: The mean age was 30.6+/-10.9 years. Knowledge of STIs was highest for HIV (85.9%) and lowest for genital warts (17.0%). Respondents believed that genital pruritus, foul discharge, and painful micturition are symptoms of STIs (71.1, 69.1, and 56.4%, respectively). A considerable percentage believed that STIs are transmitted by masturbation (54.8%), sleeping on contaminated beds (39.3%), and by eating and drinking from contaminated utensils (26.3%) whereas 8% believed that STIs are transmitted by shaking hands. Nearly two-thirds of women thought that condoms protect against STIs. Knowledge on the modes of transmission and symptoms of STIs was significantly correlated with younger age, higher level of education, and higher monthly income. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite the huge campaigns and information about STIs seen on the internet and television by these women, there is still scarcity of knowledge on the more important aspects of STIs, especially the recognition of clinical features and modes of transmission/spread of STIs. There is still a need for health authorities to intensify information-dissemination campaigns about STIs to the grassroots level, particularly among women in Saudi Arabia.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Mother-to-child transmission and gestational syphilis: Spatial-temporal epidemiology and demographics in a Brazilian region.

    Marinho de Souza J; Giuffrida R; Ramos APM; Morceli G; Coelho CH; Pimenta Rodrigues MV

    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2019 Feb; 13(2):e0007122.

    Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Infection (IST) with significant importance to public health, due to its impact during pregnancy (Gestational Syphilis-GS); especially because syphilis can affect fetus and neonates' development (mother-to-child transmission-MTCT of syphilis), by increasing susceptibility to abortion, premature birth, skeletal malformations, meningitis and pneumonia. Measures to control and eliminate MTCT of syphilis have failed on the last few years in Brazil and this research aimed to identify the seasonality of notified cases of syphilis in a region of Sao Paulo state. The studied region, Pontal do Paranapanema, comprises 32 cities located in the West of Sao Paulo state, in Brazil. Data collected from the National System of Aggravations and Notification (SINAN) website was used to calculate the incidence rate of GS and MTCT. The incidence rate of GS was acquired dividing number of cases by number of women in each municipality and MTCT using number of live births in each year (from 2007 to 2013) in each municipality. This result was then, standardized multiplying incidence rate by 10,000 and expressed as incidence/10,000 women or live births, for GS and MTCT, respectively. To identify possible endemic/epidemic periods, a control diagram was performed using the standard deviation (SD) of incidence rate. Thematic maps representing the spatial distribution of incidence rates were constructed using a Geographic Information System software (GIS, based on cartographic vector available on the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) website. Eighty cases of GS and 61 cases of MTCT were notified in the studied region. An increase of GS notification was detected in the Pontal do Paranapanema in 2011 followed by an increase in number of MTCT cases in the subsequent year, suggesting inefficacy in the treatment during gestational period. Most of those cases were reported on February and November which suggested seasonality for this IST in the region. The control diagram, based on the inputs collected from SINAN, showed no endemic period; however, the most susceptible month to happen an endemic event of GS and MTCT was February. Our study provided a new methodology to understand the syphilis dynamics as a potential tool to improve the success of future measures to control and possibly eliminate MTCT of syphilis.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    High pregnancy incidence and low contraceptive use among a prospective cohort of female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Duff P; Evans JL; Stein ES; Page K; Maher L

    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 May 3; 18(1):128.

    BACKGROUND: While HIV and unintended pregnancies are both occupational risks faced by female sex workers, the epidemiology of pregnancy and its drivers in this population remains understudied. This includes Cambodia, where the drivers of pregnancy among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remain unknown. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with incident pregnancy, as well as describe contraceptive use among FESW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. METHODS: This analysis drew from the Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)-2, a 12-month observational cohort of 220 FESW aged 15-29 years, conducted between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted at baseline and quarterly thereafter, alongside HIV and pregnancy testing. Bivariate and multivariable extended Cox regression analysis was used to examine correlates of incident pregnancy. RESULTS: At baseline, 6.8% of participants were pregnant, and only 10.8% reported using hormonal contraceptives, with 11.3% reporting an abortion in the past 3 months. Pregnancy incidence was high, at 22/100 person-years (95% CI: 16.3-30.1). In multivariable analysis, younger age (19-24 years versus 25-29 years) (Adjusted Hazards Ratio (AHR): 2.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.22-4.27), lower income (400,000-600,000 Riel ( 600,000 Riel (> 150$USD)) (AHR 2.63; 95% CI 1.02-6.77) positively predicted pregnancy, while higher self-reported condom self-efficacy were associated with reduced pregnancy incidence (AHR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Results document high incidence of pregnancy and unmet reproductive health needs among FESWs in Cambodia. Findings point to an urgent need for multi-level interventions, including venue-based HIV/STI and violence prevention interventions, in the context of legal and policy reform. High pregnancy incidence in this population may also undermine recruitment and retention into HIV prevention intervention trials. The exploration of innovative and comprehensive sex worker-tailored sexual and reproductive health service models, also as part of HIV prevention intervention trials, is warranted.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Barriers for low acceptance of no scalpel vasectomy among slum dwellers of Lucknow City.

    Shafi S; Mohan U; Singh SK

    Indian Journal of Public Health. 2019 Jan-Mar; 63(1):10-14.

    Background: Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state of the country having population of 199.581 million and total fertility rate of 3.3 (annual health survey [AHS] 2012-2013) with high fertile trajectory. Currently, female sterilization accounts for about 18.4% and male sterilization for 0.3% of all sterilizations in Uttar Pradesh (AHS 2012-2013). A strategy to promote men's involvement in effective birth control is needed to reduce the population growth. Since no scalpel vasectomy (NSV) is an easy method but still not being utilized; hence, the purpose of this research is to ascertain various factors of nonutilization of NSV. Objectives: The objective of the study is (i) to determine the barriers among married males for adopting NSV as a method of family planning, (ii) to determine the awareness about NSV, (iii) to suggest measures to increase uptake of NSV by the people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. A two-staged multistage random sampling technique was used. Lucknow is divided into eight Nagar Nigam zones. In the first stage, two urban slums from each geographical zone were selected randomly. In the second stage, from each selected slum a sample of 24 eligible households was selected at random to achieve the desired sample size. Results: It was observed that among the study participants maximum 89.2% perceived Sociocultural barriers, while 0.6% of the participants perceived service delivery barriers. However, 14% of the participants also perceived procedure-related barriers as the most important cause for not accepting NSV. Conclusion: Measures should be taken to remove these barriers, and increase uptake of NSV.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Swiss gynecologists' opinions and perceptions concerning the use of intrauterine devices by nulliparous and multiparous women: an online survey study.

    Zimmermann Y; Viviano M; Yaron M

    International Journal of Women's Health. 2019; 11:153-159.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the Swiss physicians' attitudes and beliefs on intrauterine device (IUD) use in multiparous and nulliparous women and 2) determine whether the woman's parity was a factor influencing the gynecologists' IUD practice. Material and methods: The Global Survey questionnaire investigating IUD use was modified and adapted to the Swiss guidelines. A link to the online questionnaire was sent to gynecologists practicing in the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland. We defined IUD use as frequent whenever it was prescribed by gynecologists for 25% or more out of all women consulting for contraception. Results: A total of 299/1,696 gynecologists completed the online questionnaire (17.6%). Frequent IUD prescription was found in 72.9% of multiparous and in 11.8% of nulliparous women. The most frequently reported barriers to IUD use in nulliparous women were as follows: concern over a painful insertion, difficulty of insertion, higher risk of perforation, pelvic inflammatory disease, changes in bleeding pattern, high cost, and risk of extrauterine pregnancy. The presence of such perceived obstacles was associated with less frequent IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a valuable insight into the attitudes and opinions of Switzerland's gynecologists on the use of IUDs in nulliparous and multiparous women, showing that the women's parity is a factor influencing the physicians' attitudes and opinions. Further health education might help minimize the physicians' attitude discrepancies in IUD prescription to nulliparous and multiparous women.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Maternal reproductive history: trends and inequalities in four population-based birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil, 1982-2015.

    Matijasevich A; Victora CG; Silveira MF; Wehrmeister FC; Horta BL; Barros FC

    International Journal of Epidemiology. 2019 Apr 1; 48(Supplement_1):i16-i25.

    BACKGROUND: Brazil experienced important progress in maternal and child health in recent decades. We aimed at describing secular trends as well as socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in reproductive history indicators (birth spacing, previous adverse perinatal outcome, parity and multiple births) over a 33-year span. METHODS: Four population-based birth cohort studies included all hospital births in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on reproductive history was collected through interviews. Indicators were stratified by family income quintiles and skin colour. Absolute and relative measures of inequality were calculated. RESULTS: From 1982 to 2015, the proportion of primiparae increased from 39.2% to 49.6%, and median birth interval increased by 23.2 months. Poor women were more likely to report short intervals and higher parity, although reductions were observed in all income and ethnic groups. History of previous low birthweight was inversely related to income and increased by 7.7% points (pp) over time-more rapidly in the richest (12.1 pp) than in the poorest quintile (0.4 pp). Multiple births increased from 1.7% to 2.7%, with the highest increase observed among the richest quintile and for white women (220% and 70% increase, respectively). Absolute and relative income and ethnic-related inequalities for short birth intervals increased, whereas inequalities for previous low birthweight decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: In this 33-year period there were increases in birth intervals, multiple births and reports of previous low-birthweight infants. These trends may be explained by increased family planning coverage, assisted reproduction and a rise in preterm births, respectively. Our results show that socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in health are dynamic and vary over time, within the same location. (c) The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Ultrasound-Guided Extraction of Intrauterine Devices With Nonvisible Threads: 254 Consecutive Cases: An Effective, Noninvasive Technique.

    Kottmann C; Troncoso M; Valenzuela I; Ugarte C; Diaz P; Monckeberg M; Illanes SE

    Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2019 Mar 18;

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are among the most efficient and widely used contraceptive methods available. Removal is recommended after a certain time or in some cases when adverse effects are observed. A considerable number of patients have nonvisible guides or "lost threads" on speculum examinations, hindering the extraction. In this article, we report a consecutive series of 254 nonpregnant patients referred to our center after 1 or more failed attempts at IUD removal. We describe a novel ultrasound-guided approach, using a laparoscopic forceps to safely and effectively remove IUDs in nonpregnant patients. (c) 2019 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Factors Affecting Continued Use of Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA-SC): A Secondary Analysis of a 1-Year Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    Burke HM; Chen M; Buluzi M; Fuchs R; Wevill S; Venkatasubramanian L; Santo LD; Ngwira B

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2019 Mar 20;

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the supply- and demand-side factors influencing continued use of the injectable contraceptive subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC). METHODS: We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Malawi to measure DMPA-SC continuation rates. A total of 731 women presenting to clinic-based providers (CBPs) at 6 Ministry of Health clinics or to community health workers (CHWs) in rural communities were randomized to receive DMPA-SC administered by a provider or be trained to self-inject DMPA-SC. Data collectors contacted women after the reinjection window at 3, 6, and 9 months to collect data on discontinuation and women's experiences. Twelve months after enrollment or at early discontinuation, women had their final interview, including pregnancy testing. We compared continuation, pregnancy, and safety by whether DMPA-SC or self-injection training was provided by CHWs versus CBPs. We also conducted an exploratory analysis assessing the association between women's sociodemographic factors and the risk for discontinuation using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: The type of provider did not seem to influence continuation, pregnancy, or safety. As reported previously, women in the self-injection group were significantly less likely to discontinue the method compared with women in the provider-administered group (hazard ratio, 0.43; P<.001). The risk for discontinuation was also different among health facility catchment sites (P<.001). No other assessed sociodemographic factors were found to significantly influence the risk for discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Public-sector CHWs can safely and effectively provide DMPA-SC and train women to self-inject DMPA-SC in low-resource settings. DMPA-SC continuation did not seem to be influenced by the type of provider, whether CBP or CHW, or women's sociodemographic characteristics. (c) Burke et al.
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